Proceedings of Machine Learning ResearchProceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning
Held in Virtual on 13-18 July 2020
Published as Volume 119 by the Proceedings of Machine Learning Research on 21 November 2020.
Volume Edited by:
Hal Daumé III
Aarti Singh
Series Editors:
Neil D. Lawrence
Mark Reid
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/
Fri, 19 Mar 2021 17:32:13 +0000Fri, 19 Mar 2021 17:32:13 +0000Jekyll v3.9.0Transformer Hawkes ProcessModern data acquisition routinely produce massive amounts of event sequence data in various domains, such as social media, healthcare, and financial markets. These data often exhibit complicated short-term and long-term temporal dependencies. However, most of the existing recurrent neural network based point process models fail to capture such dependencies, and yield unreliable prediction performance. To address this issue, we propose a Transformer Hawkes Process (THP) model, which leverages the self-attention mechanism to capture long-term dependencies and meanwhile enjoys computational efficiency. Numerical experiments on various datasets show that THP outperforms existing models in terms of both likelihood and event prediction accuracy by a notable margin. Moreover, THP is quite general and can incorporate additional structural knowledge. We provide a concrete example, where THP achieves improved prediction performance for learning multiple point processes when incorporating their relational information.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zuo20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zuo20a.htmlA general recurrent state space framework for modeling neural dynamics during decision-makingAn open question in systems and computational neuroscience is how neural circuits accumulate evidence towards a decision. Fitting models of decision-making theory to neural activity helps answer this question, but current approaches limit the number of these models that we can fit to neural data. Here we propose a general framework for modeling neural activity during decision-making. The framework includes the canonical drift-diffusion model and enables extensions such as multi-dimensional accumulators, variable and collapsing boundaries, and discrete jumps. Our framework is based on constraining the parameters of recurrent state space models, for which we introduce a scalable variational Laplace EM inference algorithm. We applied the modeling approach to spiking responses recorded from monkey parietal cortex during two decision-making tasks. We found that a two-dimensional accumulator better captured the responses of a set of parietal neurons than a single accumulator model, and we identified a variable lower boundary in the responses of a parietal neuron during a random dot motion task. We expect this framework will be useful for modeling neural dynamics in a variety of decision-making settings.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zoltowski20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zoltowski20a.htmlInfluenza Forecasting Framework based on Gaussian ProcessesThe seasonal epidemic of influenza costs thousands of lives each year in the US. While influenza epidemics occur every year, timing and size of the epidemic vary strongly from season to season. This complicates the public health efforts to adequately respond to such epidemics. Forecasting techniques to predict the development of seasonal epidemics such as influenza, are of great help to public health decision making. Therefore, the US Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has initiated a yearly challenge to forecast influenza-like illness. Here, we propose a new framework based on Gaussian process (GP) for seasonal epidemics forecasting and demonstrate its capability on the CDC reference data on influenza like illness: our framework leads to accurate forecasts with small but reliable uncertainty estimation. We compare our framework to several state of the art benchmarks and show competitive performance. We, therefore, believe that our GP based framework for seasonal epidemics forecasting will play a key role for future influenza forecasting and, lead to further research in the area.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zimmer20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zimmer20a.htmlLaplacian Regularized Few-Shot LearningWe propose a transductive Laplacian-regularized inference for few-shot tasks. Given any feature embedding learned from the base classes, we minimize a quadratic binary-assignment function containing two terms: (1) a unary term assigning query samples to the nearest class prototype, and (2) a pairwise Laplacian term encouraging nearby query samples to have consistent label assignments. Our transductive inference does not re-train the base model, and can be viewed as a graph clustering of the query set, subject to supervision constraints from the support set. We derive a computationally efficient bound optimizer of a relaxation of our function, which computes independent (parallel) updates for each query sample, while guaranteeing convergence. Following a simple cross-entropy training on the base classes, and without complex meta-learning strategies, we conducted comprehensive experiments over five few-shot learning benchmarks. Our LaplacianShot consistently outperforms state-of-the-art methods by significant margins across different models, settings, and data sets. Furthermore, our transductive inference is very fast, with computational times that are close to inductive inference, and can be used for large-scale few-shot tasks.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ziko20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ziko20a.htmlLearning Optimal Tree Models under Beam SearchRetrieving relevant targets from an extremely large target set under computational limits is a common challenge for information retrieval and recommendation systems. Tree models, which formulate targets as leaves of a tree with trainable node-wise scorers, have attracted a lot of interests in tackling this challenge due to their logarithmic computational complexity in both training and testing. Tree-based deep models (TDMs) and probabilistic label trees (PLTs) are two representative kinds of them. Though achieving many practical successes, existing tree models suffer from the training-testing discrepancy, where the retrieval performance deterioration caused by beam search in testing is not considered in training. This leads to an intrinsic gap between the most relevant targets and those retrieved by beam search with even the optimally trained node-wise scorers. We take a first step towards understanding and analyzing this problem theoretically, and develop the concept of Bayes optimality under beam search and calibration under beam search as general analyzing tools for this purpose. Moreover, to eliminate the discrepancy, we propose a novel algorithm for learning optimal tree models under beam search. Experiments on both synthetic and real data verify the rationality of our theoretical analysis and demonstrate the superiority of our algorithm compared to state-of-the-art methods.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhuo20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhuo20a.htmlAdaptive Checkpoint Adjoint Method for Gradient Estimation in Neural ODEThe empirical performance of neural ordinary differential equations (NODEs) is significantly inferior to discrete-layer models on benchmark tasks (e.g. image classification). We demonstrate an explanation is the inaccuracy of existing gradient estimation methods: the adjoint method has numerical errors in reverse-mode integration; the naive method suffers from a redundantly deep computation graph. We propose the Adaptive Checkpoint Adjoint (ACA) method: ACA applies a trajectory checkpoint strategy which records the forward- mode trajectory as the reverse-mode trajectory to guarantee accuracy; ACA deletes redundant components for shallow computation graphs; and ACA supports adaptive solvers. On image classification tasks, compared with the adjoint and naive method, ACA achieves half the error rate in half the training time; NODE trained with ACA outperforms ResNet in both accuracy and test-retest reliability. On time-series modeling, ACA outperforms competing methods. Furthermore, NODE with ACA can incorporate physical knowledge to achieve better accuracy.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhuang20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhuang20a.htmlWhen Demands Evolve Larger and Noisier: Learning and Earning in a Growing EnvironmentWe consider a single-product dynamic pricing problem under a specific non-stationary setting, where the underlying demand process grows over time in expectation and also possibly in the level of random fluctuation. The decision maker sequentially sets price in each time period and learns the unknown demand model, with the goal of maximizing expected cumulative revenue over a time horizon $T$. We prove matching upper and lower bounds on regret and provide near-optimal pricing policies, showing how the growth rate of random fluctuation over time affects the best achievable regret order and the near-optimal policy design. In the analysis, we show that whether the seller knows the length of time horizon $T$ in advance or not surprisingly render different optimal regret orders. We then extend the demand model such that the optimal price may vary with time and present a novel and near-optimal policy for the extended model. Finally, we consider an analogous non-stationary setting in the canonical multi-armed bandit problem, and points out that knowing or not knowing the length of time horizon $T$ render the same optimal regret order, in contrast to the non-stationary dynamic pricing problem.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhu20g.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhu20g.htmlLinear Convergence of Randomized Primal-Dual Coordinate Method for Large-scale Linear Constrained Convex ProgrammingLinear constrained convex programming has many practical applications, including support vector machine and machine learning portfolio problems. We propose the randomized primal-dual coordinate (RPDC) method, a randomized coordinate extension of the first-order primal-dual method by Cohen and Zhu, 1984 and Zhao and Zhu, 2019, to solve linear constrained convex programming. We randomly choose a block of variables based on a uniform distribution, linearize, and apply a Bregman-like function (core function) to the selected block to obtain simple parallel primal-dual decomposition. We then establish almost surely convergence and expected O(1/t) convergence rate, and expected linear convergence under global strong metric subregularity. Finally, we discuss implementation details for the randomized primal-dual coordinate approach and present numerical experiments on support vector machine and machine learning portfolio problems to verify the linear convergence.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhu20f.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhu20f.htmlLearning Adversarially Robust Representations via Worst-Case Mutual Information MaximizationTraining machine learning models that are robust against adversarial inputs poses seemingly insurmountable challenges. To better understand adversarial robustness, we consider the underlying problem of learning robust representations. We develop a notion of representation vulnerability that captures the maximum change of mutual information between the input and output distributions, under the worst-case input perturbation. Then, we prove a theorem that establishes a lower bound on the minimum adversarial risk that can be achieved for any downstream classifier based on its representation vulnerability. We propose an unsupervised learning method for obtaining intrinsically robust representations by maximizing the worst-case mutual information between the input and output distributions. Experiments on downstream classification tasks support the robustness of the representations found using unsupervised learning with our training principle.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhu20e.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhu20e.htmlThompson Sampling Algorithms for Mean-Variance BanditsThe multi-armed bandit (MAB) problem is a classical learning task that exemplifies the exploration-exploitation tradeoff. However, standard formulations do not take into account risk. In online decision making systems, risk is a primary concern. In this regard, the mean-variance risk measure is one of the most common objective functions. Existing algorithms for mean-variance optimization in the context of MAB problems have unrealistic assumptions on the reward distributions. We develop Thompson Sampling-style algorithms for mean-variance MAB and provide comprehensive regret analyses for Gaussian and Bernoulli bandits with fewer assumptions. Our algorithms achieve the best known regret bounds for mean-variance MABs and also attain the information-theoretic bounds in some parameter regimes. Empirical simulations show that our algorithms significantly outperform existing LCB-based algorithms for all risk tolerances.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhu20d.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhu20d.htmlCausal Effect Estimation and Optimal Dose Suggestions in Mobile HealthIn this article, we propose novel structural nested models to estimate causal effects of continuous treatments based on mobile health data. To find the treatment regime which optimizes the short-term outcomes for the patients, we define the weighted lag K advantage. The optimal treatment regime is then defined to be the one which maximizes this advantage. This method imposes minimal assumptions on the data generating process. Statistical inference can also be provided for the estimated parameters. Simulation studies and an application to the Ohio type 1 diabetes dataset show that our method could provide meaningful insights for dose suggestions with mobile health data.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhu20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhu20c.htmlVariance Reduction and Quasi-Newton for Particle-Based Variational InferenceParticle-based Variational Inference methods (ParVIs), like Stein Variational Gradient Descent, are nonparametric variational inference methods that optimize a set of particles to best approximate a target distribution. ParVIs have been proposed as efficient approximate inference algorithms and as potential alternatives to MCMC methods. However, to our knowledge, the quality of the posterior approximation of particles from ParVIs has not been examined before for large-scale Bayesian inference problems. We conduct this analysis and evaluate the sample quality of particles produced by ParVIs, and we find that existing ParVI approaches using stochastic gradients converge insufficiently fast under sample quality metrics. We propose a novel variance reduction and quasi-Newton preconditioning framework for ParVIs, by leveraging the Riemannian structure of the Wasserstein space and advanced Riemannian optimization algorithms. Experimental results demonstrate the accelerated convergence of variance reduction and quasi-Newton methods for ParVIs for accurate posterior inference in large-scale and ill-conditioned problems.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhu20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhu20b.htmlRobust Outlier Arm IdentificationWe study the problem of Robust Outlier Arm Identification (ROAI), where the goal is to identify arms whose expected rewards deviate substantially from the majority, by adaptively sampling from their reward distributions. We compute the outlier threshold using the median and median absolute deviation of the expected rewards. This is a robust choice for the threshold compared to using the mean and standard deviation, since it can identify outlier arms even in the presence of extreme outlier values. Our setting is different from existing pure exploration problems where the threshold is pre-specified as a given value or rank. This is useful in applications where the goal is to identify the set of promising items but the cardinality of this set is unknown, such as finding promising drugs for a new disease or identifying items favored by a population. We propose two $\delta$-PAC algorithms for ROAI, which includes the first UCB-style algorithm for outlier detection, and derive upper bounds on their sample complexity. We also prove a matching, up to logarithmic factors, worst case lower bound for the problem, indicating that our upper bounds are generally unimprovable. Experimental results show that our algorithms are both robust and about $5$x sample efficient compared to state-of-the-art.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhu20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhu20a.htmlHybrid Stochastic-Deterministic Minibatch Proximal Gradient: Less-Than-Single-Pass Optimization with Nearly Optimal GeneralizationStochastic variance-reduced gradient (SVRG) algorithms have been shown to work favorably in solving large-scale learning problems. Despite the remarkable success, the stochastic gradient complexity of SVRG-type algorithms usually scales linearly with data size and thus could still be expensive for huge data. To address this deficiency, we propose a hybrid stochastic-deterministic minibatch proximal gradient (\HSDAN) algorithm for strongly-convex problems that enjoys provably improved data-size-independent complexity guarantees. More precisely, for quadratic loss $F(\wm)$ of $n$ components, we prove that \HSDAN can attain an $\epsilon$-optimization-error $\EE[F(\wm)-F(\wms)] \leq \epsilon$ within $\mathcal{O}\Big(\frac{\kappa^{1.5}\epsilon^{0.75} \log^{1.5}(\frac{1}{\epsilon}) + 1}{\epsilon} \wedge \Big(\kappa \sqrt{n} \log^{1.5}\big(\frac{1}{\epsilon}\big) + n \log \big(\frac{1}{\epsilon}\big) \Big) \Big)$ stochastic gradient evaluations, where $\kappa$ is condition number. For generic strongly convex loss functions, we prove a nearly identical complexity bound though at the cost of slightly increased logarithmic factors. For large-scale learning problems, our complexity bounds are superior to those of the prior state-of-the-art SVRG algorithms with or without dependence on data size. Particularly, in the case of $\epsilon\!=\!\mathcal{O}\big(1/\sqrt{n}\big)$ which is at the order of intrinsic excess error bound of a learning model and thus sufficient for generalization, the stochastic gradient complexity bounds of \HSDAN for quadratic and generic loss functions are respectively $\mathcal{O} (n^{0.875}\log^{1.5}(n))$ and $\mathcal{O} (n^{0.875}\log^{2.25}(n))$, which to our best knowledge, for the first time achieve optimal generalization in less than a single pass over data. Extensive numerical results demonstrate the computational advantages of our algorithm over the prior ones.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhou20g.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhou20g.htmlGo Wide, Then Narrow: Efficient Training of Deep Thin NetworksFor deploying a deep learning model into production, it needs to be both accurate and compact to meet the latency and memory constraints. This usually results in a network that is deep (to ensure performance) and yet thin (to improve computational efficiency). In this paper, we propose an efficient method to train a deep thin network with a theoretic guarantee. Our method is motivated by model compression. It consists of three stages. First, we sufficiently widen the deep thin network and train it until convergence. Then, we use this well-trained deep wide network to warm up (or initialize) the original deep thin network. This is achieved by layerwise imitation, that is, forcing the thin network to mimic the intermediate outputs of the wide network from layer to layer. Finally, we further fine tune this already well-initialized deep thin network. The theoretical guarantee is established by using the neural mean field analysis. It demonstrates the advantage of our layerwise imitation approach over backpropagation. We also conduct large-scale empirical experiments to validate the proposed method. By training with our method, ResNet50 can outperform ResNet101, and BERT base can be comparable with BERT large, when ResNet101 and BERT large are trained under the standard training procedures as in the literature.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhou20f.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhou20f.htmlDivide, Conquer, and Combine: a New Inference Strategy for Probabilistic Programs with Stochastic SupportUniversal probabilistic programming systems (PPSs) provide a powerful framework for specifying rich probabilistic models. They further attempt to automate the process of drawing inferences from these models, but doing this successfully is severely hampered by the wide range of non–standard models they can express. As a result, although one can specify complex models in a universal PPS, the provided inference engines often fall far short of what is required. In particular, we show that they produce surprisingly unsatisfactory performance for models where the support varies between executions, often doing no better than importance sampling from the prior. To address this, we introduce a new inference framework: Divide, Conquer, and Combine, which remains efficient for such models, and show how it can be implemented as an automated and generic PPS inference engine. We empirically demonstrate substantial performance improvements over existing approaches on three examples.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhou20e.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhou20e.htmlTime-Consistent Self-Supervision for Semi-Supervised LearningSemi-supervised learning (SSL) leverages unlabeled data when training a model with insufficient labeled data. A common strategy for SSL is to enforce the consistency of model outputs between similar samples, e.g., neighbors or data augmentations of the same sample. However, model outputs can vary dramatically on unlabeled data over different training stages, e.g., when using large learning rates. This can introduce harmful noises and inconsistent objectives over time that may lead to concept drift and catastrophic forgetting. In this paper, we study the dynamics of neural net outputs in SSL and show that selecting and using first the unlabeled samples with more consistent outputs over the course of training (i.e., "time-consistency") can improve the final test accuracy and save computation. Under the time-consistent data selection, we design an SSL objective composed of two self-supervised losses, i.e., a consistency loss between a sample and its augmentation, and a contrastive loss encouraging different samples to have different outputs. Our approach achieves SOTA on several SSL benchmarks with much fewer computations.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhou20d.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhou20d.htmlNonparametric Score EstimatorsEstimating the score, i.e., the gradient of log density function, from a set of samples generated by an unknown distribution is a fundamental task in inference and learning of probabilistic models that involve flexible yet intractable densities. Kernel estimators based on Stein’s methods or score matching have shown promise, however their theoretical properties and relationships have not been fully-understood. We provide a unifying view of these estimators under the framework of regularized nonparametric regression. It allows us to analyse existing estimators and construct new ones with desirable properties by choosing different hypothesis spaces and regularizers. A unified convergence analysis is provided for such estimators. Finally, we propose score estimators based on iterative regularization that enjoy computational benefits from curl-free kernels and fast convergence.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhou20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhou20c.htmlMoNet3D: Towards Accurate Monocular 3D Object Localization in Real TimeMonocular multi-object detection and localization in 3D space has been proven to be a challenging task. The MoNet3D algorithm is a novel and effective framework that can predict the 3D position of each object in a monocular image, and draw a 3D bounding box on each object. The MoNet3D method incorporates the prior knowledge of spatial geometric correlation of neighboring objects into the deep neural network training process, in order to improve the accuracy of 3D object localization. Experiments over the KITTI data set show that the accuracy of predicting the depth and horizontal coordinate of the object in 3D space can reach 96.25% and 94.74%, respectively. Meanwhile, the method can realize the real-time image processing capability of 27.85 FPS. Our code is publicly available at https://github.com/CQUlearningsystemgroup/YicongPengSat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhou20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhou20b.htmlNeural Contextual Bandits with UCB-based ExplorationWe study the stochastic contextual bandit problem, where the reward is generated from an unknown function with additive noise. No assumption is made about the reward function other than boundedness. We propose a new algorithm, NeuralUCB, which leverages the representation power of deep neural networks and uses a neural network-based random feature mapping to construct an upper confidence bound (UCB) of reward for efficient exploration. We prove that, under standard assumptions, NeuralUCB achieves $\tilde O(\sqrt{T})$ regret, where $T$ is the number of rounds. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first neural network-based contextual bandit algorithm with a near-optimal regret guarantee. We also show the algorithm is empirically competitive against representative baselines in a number of benchmarks.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhou20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhou20a.htmlBest Arm Identification for Cascading Bandits in the Fixed Confidence SettingWe design and analyze CascadeBAI, an algorithm for finding the best set of K items, also called an arm, within the framework of cascading bandits. An upper bound on the time complexity of CascadeBAI is derived by overcoming a crucial analytical challenge, namely, that of probabilistically estimating the amount of available feedback at each step. To do so, we define a new class of random variables (r.v.’s) which we term as left-sided sub-Gaussian r.v.’s; this class is a relaxed version of the sub-Gaussian r.v.’s. This enables the application of a sufficiently tight Bernstein-type concentration inequality. We show, through the derivation of a lower bound on the time complexity, that the performance of CascadeBAI is optimal in some practical regimes. Finally, extensive numerical simulations corroborate the efficacy of CascadeBAI as well as the tightness of our upper bound on its time complexity.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhong20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhong20a.htmlBisection-Based Pricing for Repeated Contextual Auctions against Strategic BuyerWe are interested in learning algorithms that optimize revenue in repeated contextual posted-price auctions where a single seller faces a single strategic buyer. In our setting, the buyer maximizes his expected cumulative discounted surplus, and his valuation of a good is assumed to be a fixed function of a $d$-dimensional context (feature) vector. We introduce a novel deterministic learning algorithm that is based on ideas of the Bisection method and has strategic regret upper bound of $O(\log^2 T)$. Unlike previous works, our algorithm does not require any assumption on the distribution of context information, and the regret guarantee holds for any realization of feature vectors (adversarial upper bound). To construct our algorithm we non-trivially adopted techniques of integral geometry to act against buyer strategicness and improved the penalization trick to work in contextual auctions.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhiyanov20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhiyanov20a.htmlRobust Graph Representation Learning via Neural SparsificationGraph representation learning serves as the core of important prediction tasks, ranging from product recommendation to fraud detection. Real-life graphs usually have complex information in the local neighborhood, where each node is described by a rich set of features and connects to dozens or even hundreds of neighbors. Despite the success of neighborhood aggregation in graph neural networks, task-irrelevant information is mixed into nodes’ neighborhood, making learned models suffer from sub-optimal generalization performance. In this paper, we present NeuralSparse, a supervised graph sparsification technique that improves generalization power by learning to remove potentially task-irrelevant edges from input graphs. Our method takes both structural and non-structural information as input, utilizes deep neural networks to parameterize sparsification processes, and optimizes the parameters by feedback signals from downstream tasks. Under the NeuralSparse framework, supervised graph sparsification could seamlessly connect with existing graph neural networks for more robust performance. Experimental results on both benchmark and private datasets show that NeuralSparse can yield up to 7.2% improvement in testing accuracy when working with existing graph neural networks on node classification tasks.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zheng20d.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zheng20d.htmlError-Bounded Correction of Noisy LabelsTo collect large scale annotated data, it is inevitable to introduce label noise, i.e., incorrect class labels. To be robust against label noise, many successful methods rely on the noisy classifiers (i.e., models trained on the noisy training data) to determine whether a label is trustworthy. However, it remains unknown why this heuristic works well in practice. In this paper, we provide the first theoretical explanation for these methods. We prove that the prediction of a noisy classifier can indeed be a good indicator of whether the label of a training data is clean. Based on the theoretical result, we propose a novel algorithm that corrects the labels based on the noisy classifier prediction. The corrected labels are consistent with the true Bayesian optimal classifier with high probability. We incorporate our label correction algorithm into the training of deep neural networks and train models that achieve superior testing performance on multiple public datasets.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zheng20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zheng20c.htmlWhat Can Learned Intrinsic Rewards Capture?The objective of a reinforcement learning agent is to behave so as to maximise the sum of a suitable scalar function of state: the reward. These rewards are typically given and immutable. In this paper, we instead consider the proposition that the reward function itself can be a good locus of learned knowledge. To investigate this, we propose a scalable meta-gradient framework for learning useful intrinsic reward functions across multiple lifetimes of experience. Through several proof-of-concept experiments, we show that it is feasible to learn and capture knowledge about long-term exploration and exploitation into a reward function. Furthermore, we show that unlike policy transfer methods that capture “how” the agent should behave, the learned reward functions can generalise to other kinds of agents and to changes in the dynamics of the environment by capturing “what” the agent should strive to do.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zheng20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zheng20b.htmlSharp Composition Bounds for Gaussian Differential Privacy via Edgeworth ExpansionDatasets containing sensitive information are often sequentially analyzed by many algorithms and, accordingly, a fundamental question in differential privacy is concerned with how the overall privacy bound degrades under composition. To address this question, we introduce a family of analytical and sharp privacy bounds under composition using the Edgeworth expansion in the framework of the recently proposed $f$-differential privacy. In short, whereas the existing composition theorem, for example, relies on the central limit theorem, our new privacy bounds under composition gain improved tightness by leveraging the refined approximation accuracy of the Edgeworth expansion. Our approach is easy to implement and computationally efficient for any number of compositions. The superiority of these new bounds is confirmed by an asymptotic error analysis and an application to quantifying the overall privacy guarantees of noisy stochastic gradient descent used in training private deep neural networks.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zheng20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zheng20a.htmlLearning to Learn Kernels with Variational Random FeaturesWe introduce kernels with random Fourier features in the meta-learning framework for few-shot learning. We propose meta variational random features (MetaVRF) to learn adaptive kernels for the base-learner, which is developed in a latent variable model by treating the random feature basis as the latent variable. We formulate the optimization of MetaVRF as a variational inference problem by deriving an evidence lower bound under the meta-learning framework. To incorporate shared knowledge from related tasks, we propose a context inference of the posterior, which is established by an LSTM architecture. The LSTM-based inference network can effectively integrate the context information of previous tasks with task-specific information, generating informative and adaptive features. The learned MetaVRF can produce kernels of high representational power with a relatively low spectral sampling rate and also enables fast adaptation to new tasks. Experimental results on a variety of few-shot regression and classification tasks demonstrate that MetaVRF delivers much better, or at least competitive, performance compared to existing meta-learning alternatives.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhen20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhen20a.htmlSmaller, more accurate regression forests using tree alternating optimizationRegression forests, based on ensemble approaches such as bagging or boosting, have long been recognized as the leading off-the-shelf method for regression. However, forests rely on a greedy top-down procedure such as CART to learn each tree. We extend a recent algorithm for learning classification trees, Tree Alternating Optimization (TAO), to the regression case, and use it with bagging to construct regression forests of oblique trees, having hyperplane splits at the decision nodes. In a wide range of datasets, we show that the resulting forests exceed the accuracy of state-of-the-art algorithms such as random forests, AdaBoost or gradient boosting, often considerably, while yielding forests that have usually fewer and shallower trees and hence fewer parameters and faster inference overall. This result has an immense practical impact and advocates for the power of optimization in ensemble learning.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zharmagambetov20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zharmagambetov20a.htmlIndividual Calibration with Randomized ForecastingMachine learning applications often require calibrated predictions, e.g. a 90% credible interval should contain the true outcome 90% of the times. However, typical definitions of calibration only require this to hold on average, and offer no guarantees on predictions made on individual samples. Thus, predictions can be systematically over or under confident on certain subgroups, leading to issues of fairness and potential vulnerabilities. We show that calibration for individual samples is possible in the regression setup if and only if the predictions are randomized, i.e. outputting randomized credible intervals. Randomization removes systematic bias by trading off bias with variance. We design a training objective to enforce individual calibration and use it to train randomized regression functions. The resulting models are more calibrated for arbitrarily chosen subgroups of the data, and can achieve higher utility in decision making against adversaries that exploit miscalibrated predictions.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhao20e.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhao20e.htmlFeature Quantization Improves GAN TrainingThe instability in GANs’ training has been a long-standing problem despite remarkable research efforts. We identify that instability issues stem from difficulties of performing feature matching with mini-batch statistics, due to a fragile balance between the fixed target distribution and the progressively generated distribution. In this work, we propose feature quantizatoin (FQ) for the discriminator, to embed both true and fake data samples into a shared discrete space. The quantized values of FQ are constructed as an evolving dictionary, which is consistent with feature statistics of the recent distribution history. Hence, FQ implicitly enables robust feature matching in a compact space. Our method can be easily plugged into existing GAN models, with little computational overhead in training. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed FQ-GAN can improve the FID scores of baseline methods by a large margin on a variety of tasks, including three representative GAN models on 10 benchmarks, achieving new state-of-the-art performance.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhao20d.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhao20d.htmlDo RNN and LSTM have Long Memory?The LSTM network was proposed to overcome the difficulty in learning long-term dependence, and has made significant advancements in applications. With its success and drawbacks in mind, this paper raises the question - do RNN and LSTM have long memory? We answer it partially by proving that RNN and LSTM do not have long memory from a statistical perspective. A new definition for long memory networks is further introduced, and it requires the model weights to decay at a polynomial rate. To verify our theory, we convert RNN and LSTM into long memory networks by making a minimal modification, and their superiority is illustrated in modeling long-term dependence of various datasets.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhao20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhao20c.htmlOn Learning Language-Invariant Representations for Universal Machine TranslationThe goal of universal machine translation is to learn to translate between any pair of languages. Despite impressive empirical results and an increasing interest in massively multilingual models, theoretical analysis on translation errors made by such universal machine translation models is only nascent. In this paper, we formally prove certain impossibilities of this endeavour in general, as well as prove positive results in the presence of additional (but natural) structure of data. For the former, we derive a lower bound on the translation error in the many-to-many translation setting, which shows that any algorithm aiming to learn shared sentence representations among multiple language pairs has to make a large translation error on at least one of the translation tasks, if no assumption on the structure of the languages is made. For the latter, we show that if the paired documents in the corpus follow a natural \emph{encoder-decoder} generative process, we can expect a natural notion of “generalization”: a linear number of language pairs, rather than quadratic, suffices to learn a good representation. Our theory also explains what kinds of connection graphs between pairs of languages are better suited: ones with longer paths result in worse sample complexity. We believe our theoretical insights and implications contribute to the future algorithmic design of universal machine translation.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhao20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhao20b.htmlOn Leveraging Pretrained GANs for Generation with Limited DataRecent work has shown generative adversarial networks (GANs) can generate highly realistic images, that are often indistinguishable (by humans) from real images. Most images so generated are not contained in the training dataset, suggesting potential for augmenting training sets with GAN-generated data. While this scenario is of particular relevance when there are limited data available, there is still the issue of training the GAN itself based on that limited data. To facilitate this, we leverage existing GAN models pretrained on large-scale datasets (like ImageNet) to introduce additional knowledge (which may not exist within the limited data), following the concept of transfer learning. Demonstrated by natural-image generation, we reveal that low-level filters (those close to observations) of both the generator and discriminator of pretrained GANs can be transferred to facilitate generation in a perceptually-distinct target domain with limited training data. To further adapt the transferred filters to the target domain, we propose adaptive filter modulation (AdaFM). An extensive set of experiments is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques on generation with limited data.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhao20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhao20a.htmlAttacks Which Do Not Kill Training Make Adversarial Learning StrongerAdversarial training based on the minimax formulation is necessary for obtaining adversarial robustness of trained models. However, it is conservative or even pessimistic so that it sometimes hurts the natural generalization. In this paper, we raise a fundamental question{—}do we have to trade off natural generalization for adversarial robustness? We argue that adversarial training is to employ confident adversarial data for updating the current model. We propose a novel formulation of friendly adversarial training (FAT): rather than employing most adversarial data maximizing the loss, we search for least adversarial data (i.e., friendly adversarial data) minimizing the loss, among the adversarial data that are confidently misclassified. Our novel formulation is easy to implement by just stopping the most adversarial data searching algorithms such as PGD (projected gradient descent) early, which we call early-stopped PGD. Theoretically, FAT is justified by an upper bound of the adversarial risk. Empirically, early-stopped PGD allows us to answer the earlier question negatively{—}adversarial robustness can indeed be achieved without compromising the natural generalization.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20z.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20z.htmlFast Learning of Graph Neural Networks with Guaranteed Generalizability: One-hidden-layer CaseAlthough graph neural networks (GNNs) have made great progress recently on learning from graph-structured data in practice, their theoretical guarantee on generalizability remains elusive in the literature. In this paper, we provide a theoretically-grounded generalizability analysis of GNNs with one hidden layer for both regression and binary classification problems. Under the assumption that there exists a ground-truth GNN model (with zero generalization error), the objective of GNN learning is to estimate the ground-truth GNN parameters from the training data. To achieve this objective, we propose a learning algorithm that is built on tensor initialization and accelerated gradient descent. We then show that the proposed learning algorithm converges to the ground-truth GNN model for the regression problem, and to a model sufficiently close to the ground-truth for the binary classification problem. Moreover, for both cases, the convergence rate of the proposed learning algorithm is proven to be linear and faster than the vanilla gradient descent algorithm. We further explore the relationship between the sample complexity of GNNs and their underlying graph properties. Lastly, we provide numerical experiments to demonstrate the validity of our analysis and the effectiveness of the proposed learning algorithm for GNNs.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20y.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20y.htmlSparsified Linear Programming for Zero-Sum Equilibrium FindingComputational equilibrium finding in large zero-sum extensive-form imperfect-information games has led to significant recent AI breakthroughs. The fastest algorithms for the problem are new forms of counterfactual regret minimization (Brown & Sandholm, 2019). In this paper we present a totally different approach to the problem, which is competitive and often orders of magnitude better than the prior state of the art. The equilibrium-finding problem can be formulated as a linear program (LP) (Koller et al., 1994), but solving it as an LP has not been scalable due to the memory requirements of LP solvers, which can often be quadratically worse than CFR-based algorithms. We give an efficient practical algorithm that factors a large payoff matrix into a product of two matrices that are typically dramatically sparser. This allows us to express the equilibrium-finding problem as a linear program with size only a logarithmic factor worse than CFR, and thus allows linear program solvers to run on such games. With experiments on poker endgames, we demonstrate in practice, for the first time, that modern linear program solvers are competitive against even game-specific modern variants of CFR in solving large extensive-form games, and can be used to compute exact solutions unlike iterative algorithms like CFR.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20x.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20x.htmlConvex Calibrated Surrogates for the Multi-Label F-MeasureThe F-measure is a widely used performance measure for multi-label classification, where multiple labels can be active in an instance simultaneously (e.g. in image tagging, multiple tags can be active in any image). In particular, the F-measure explicitly balances recall (fraction of active labels predicted to be active) and precision (fraction of labels predicted to be active that are actually so), both of which are important in evaluating the overall performance of a multi-label classifier. As with most discrete prediction problems, however, directly optimizing the F-measure is computationally hard. In this paper, we explore the question of designing convex surrogate losses that are calibrated for the F-measure – specifically, that have the property that minimizing the surrogate loss yields (in the limit of sufficient data) a Bayes optimal multi-label classifier for the F-measure. We show that the F-measure for an $s$-label problem, when viewed as a $2^s \times 2^s$ loss matrix, has rank at most $s^2+1$, and apply a result of Ramaswamy et al. (2014) to design a family of convex calibrated surrogates for the F-measure. The resulting surrogate risk minimization algorithms can be viewed as decomposing the multi-label F-measure learning problem into $s^2+1$ binary class probability estimation problems. We also provide a quantitative regret transfer bound for our surrogates, which allows any regret guarantees for the binary problems to be transferred to regret guarantees for the overall F-measure problem, and discuss a connection with the algorithm of Dembczynski et al. (2013). Our experiments confirm our theoretical findings.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20w.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20w.htmlCAUSE: Learning Granger Causality from Event Sequences using Attribution MethodsWe study the problem of learning Granger causality between event types from asynchronous, interdependent, multi-type event sequences. Existing work suffers from either limited model flexibility or poor model explainability and thus fails to uncover Granger causality across a wide variety of event sequences with diverse event interdependency. To address these weaknesses, we propose CAUSE (Causality from AttribUtions on Sequence of Events), a novel framework for the studied task. The key idea of CAUSE is to first implicitly capture the underlying event interdependency by fitting a neural point process, and then extract from the process a Granger causality statistic using an axiomatic attribution method. Across multiple datasets riddled with diverse event interdependency, we demonstrate that CAUSE achieves superior performance on correctly inferring the inter-type Granger causality over a range of state-of-the-art methods.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20v.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20v.htmlAdaptive Reward-Poisoning Attacks against Reinforcement LearningIn reward-poisoning attacks against reinforcement learning (RL), an attacker can perturb the environment reward $r_t$ into $r_t+\delta_t$ at each step, with the goal of forcing the RL agent to learn a nefarious policy. We categorize such attacks by the infinity-norm constraint on $\delta_t$: We provide a lower threshold below which reward-poisoning attack is infeasible and RL is certified to be safe; we provide a corresponding upper threshold above which the attack is feasible. Feasible attacks can be further categorized as non-adaptive where $\delta_t$ depends only on $(s_t,a_t, s_{t+1})$, or adaptive where $\delta_t$ depends further on the RL agent’s learning process at time $t$. Non-adaptive attacks have been the focus of prior works. However, we show that under mild conditions, adaptive attacks can achieve the nefarious policy in steps polynomial in state-space size $|S|$, whereas non-adaptive attacks require exponential steps. We provide a constructive proof that a Fast Adaptive Attack strategy achieves the polynomial rate. Finally, we show that empirically an attacker can find effective reward-poisoning attacks using state-of-the-art deep RL techniques.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20u.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20u.htmlInvariant Causal Prediction for Block MDPsGeneralization across environments is critical to the successful application of reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms to real-world challenges. In this work we propose a method for learning state abstractions which generalize to novel observation distributions in the multi-environment RL setting. We prove that for certain classes of environments, this approach outputs, with high probability, a state abstraction corresponding to the causal feature set with respect to the return. We give empirical evidence that analogous methods for the nonlinear setting can also attain improved generalization over single- and multi-task baselines. Lastly, we provide bounds on model generalization error in the multi-environment setting, in the process showing a connection between causal variable identification and the state abstraction framework for MDPs.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20t.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20t.htmlProvably Convergent Two-Timescale Off-Policy Actor-Critic with Function ApproximationWe present the first provably convergent two-timescale off-policy actor-critic algorithm (COF-PAC) with function approximation. Key to COF-PAC is the introduction of a new critic, the emphasis critic, which is trained via Gradient Emphasis Learning (GEM), a novel combination of the key ideas of Gradient Temporal Difference Learning and Emphatic Temporal Difference Learning. With the help of the emphasis critic and the canonical value function critic, we show convergence for COF-PAC, where the critics are linear and the actor can be nonlinear.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20s.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20s.htmlGradientDICE: Rethinking Generalized Offline Estimation of Stationary ValuesWe present GradientDICE for estimating the density ratio between the state distribution of the target policy and the sampling distribution in off-policy reinforcement learning. GradientDICE fixes several problems of GenDICE (Zhang et al., 2020), the current state-of-the-art for estimating such density ratios. Namely, the optimization problem in GenDICE is not a convex-concave saddle-point problem once nonlinearity in optimization variable parameterization is introduced to ensure positivity, so primal-dual algorithms are not guaranteed to find the desired solution. However, such nonlinearity is essential to ensure the consistency of GenDICE even with a tabular representation. This is a fundamental contradiction, resulting from GenDICE’s original formulation of the optimization problem. In GradientDICE, we optimize a different objective from GenDICE by using the Perron-Frobenius theorem and eliminating GenDICE’s use of divergence, such that nonlinearity in parameterization is not necessary for GradientDICE, which is provably convergent under linear function approximation.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20r.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20r.htmlSelf-Attentive Hawkes ProcessCapturing the occurrence dynamics is crucial to predicting which type of events will happen next and when. A common method to do this is through Hawkes processes. To enhance their capacity, recurrent neural networks (RNNs) have been incorporated due to RNNs’ successes in processing sequential data such as languages. Recent evidence suggests that self-attention is more competent than RNNs in dealing with languages. However, we are unaware of the effectiveness of self-attention in the context of Hawkes processes. This study aims to fill the gap by designing a self-attentive Hawkes process (SAHP). SAHP employs self-attention to summarise the influence of history events and compute the probability of the next event. One deficit of the conventional self-attention when applied to event sequences is that its positional encoding only considers the order of a sequence ignoring the time intervals between events. To overcome this deficit, we modify its encoding by translating time intervals into phase shifts of sinusoidal functions. Experiments on goodness-of-fit and prediction tasks show the improved capability of SAHP. Furthermore, SAHP is more interpretable than RNN-based counterparts because the learnt attention weights reveal contributions of one event type to the happening of another type. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that studies the effectiveness of self-attention in Hawkes processes.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20q.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20q.htmlComplexity of Finding Stationary Points of Nonconvex Nonsmooth FunctionsWe provide the first non-asymptotic analysis for finding stationary points of nonsmooth, nonconvex functions. In particular, we study the class of Hadamard semi-differentiable functions, perhaps the largest class of nonsmooth functions for which the chain rule of calculus holds. This class contains important examples such as ReLU neural networks and others with non-differentiable activation functions. First, we show that finding an epsilon-stationary point with first-order methods is impossible in finite time. Therefore, we introduce the notion of (delta, epsilon)-stationarity, a generalization that allows for a point to be within distance delta of an epsilon-stationary point and reduces to epsilon-stationarity for smooth functions. We propose a series of randomized first-order methods and analyze their complexity of finding a (delta, epsilon)-stationary point. Furthermore, we provide a lower bound and show that our stochastic algorithm has min-max optimal dependence on delta. Empirically, our methods perform well for training ReLU neural networks.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20p.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20p.htmlDual-Path Distillation: A Unified Framework to Improve Black-Box AttacksWe study the problem of constructing black-box adversarial attacks, where no model information is revealed except for the feedback knowledge of the given inputs. To obtain sufficient knowledge for crafting adversarial examples, previous methods query the target model with inputs that are perturbed with different searching directions. However, these methods suffer from poor query efficiency since the employed searching directions are sampled randomly. To mitigate this issue, we formulate the goal of mounting efficient attacks as an optimization problem in which the adversary tries to fool the target model with a limited number of queries. Under such settings, the adversary has to select appropriate searching directions to reduce the number of model queries. By solving the efficient-attack problem, we find that we need to distill the knowledge in both the path of the adversarial examples and the path of the searching directions. Therefore, we propose a novel framework, dual-path distillation, that utilizes the feedback knowledge not only to craft adversarial examples but also to alter the searching directions to achieve efficient attacks. Experimental results suggest that our framework can significantly increase the query efficiency.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20o.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20o.htmlOptimal Estimator for Unlabeled Linear RegressionUnlabeled linear regression, or “linear regression with an unknown permutation”, has attracted increasing attentions due to its applications in (e.g.,) linkage record and de-anonymization. However, the computation of unlabeled linear regression proves to be cumbersome and existing algorithms typically require considerable time, especially in the high dimensional regime. In this paper, we propose a one-step estimator which is optimal from both the computational and the statistical aspects. From the computational perspective, our estimator exhibits the same order of computational complexity as that of the oracle case (which means the regression coefficients are known in advance and only the permutation needs recovery). From the statistical perspective, when comparing with the necessary conditions for permutation recovery, our requirement on the \emph{signal-to-noise ratio} ($\mathsf{SNR}$) agrees up to merely $\Omega\left(\log \log n\right)$ difference when the stable rank of the regression coefficients $\ensuremath{\mathbf{B}}^{\natural}$ is much less than $\log n/\log \log n$. Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20n.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20n.htmlLearning Structured Latent Factors from Dependent Data:A Generative Model Framework from Information-Theoretic PerspectiveLearning controllable and generalizable representation of multivariate data with desired structural properties remains a fundamental problem in machine learning. In this paper, we present a novel framework for learning generative models with various underlying structures in the latent space. Learning controllable and generalizable representation of multivariate data with desired structural properties remains a fundamental problem in machine learning. In this paper, we present a novel framework for learning generative models with various underlying structures in the latent space. We represent the inductive bias in the form of mask variables to model the dependency structure in the graphical model and extend the theory of multivariate information bottleneck (Friedman et al., 2001) to enforce it. Our model provides a principled approach to learn a set of semantically meaningful latent factors that reflect various types of desired structures like capturing correlation or encoding invariance, while also offering the flexibility to automatically estimate the dependency structure from data. We show that our framework unifies many existing generative models and can be applied to a variety of tasks, including multimodal data modeling, algorithmic fairness, and out-of-distribution generalization.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20m.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20m.htmlPrivately Learning Markov Random FieldsWe consider the problem of learning Markov Random Fields (including the prototypical example, the Ising model) under the constraint of differential privacy. Our learning goals include both \emph{structure learning}, where we try to estimate the underlying graph structure of the model, as well as the harder goal of \emph{parameter learning}, in which we additionally estimate the parameter on each edge. We provide algorithms and lower bounds for both problems under a variety of privacy constraints – namely pure, concentrated, and approximate differential privacy. While non-privately, both learning goals enjoy roughly the same complexity, we show that this is not the case under differential privacy. In particular, only structure learning under approximate differential privacy maintains the non-private logarithmic dependence on the dimensionality of the data, while a change in either the learning goal or the privacy notion would necessitate a polynomial dependence. As a result, we show that the privacy constraint imposes a strong separation between these two learning problems in the high-dimensional data regime.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20l.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20l.htmlMix-n-Match : Ensemble and Compositional Methods for Uncertainty Calibration in Deep LearningThis paper studies the problem of post-hoc calibration of machine learning classifiers. We introduce the following desiderata for uncertainty calibration: (a) accuracy-preserving, (b) data-efficient, and (c) high expressive power. We show that none of the existing methods satisfy all three requirements, and demonstrate how Mix-n-Match calibration strategies (i.e., ensemble and composition) can help achieve remarkably better data-efficiency and expressive power while provably maintaining the classification accuracy of the original classifier. Mix-n-Match strategies are generic in the sense that they can be used to improve the performance of any off-the-shelf calibrator. We also reveal potential issues in standard evaluation practices. Popular approaches (e.g., histogram-based expected calibration error (ECE)) may provide misleading results especially in small-data regime. Therefore, we propose an alternative data-efficient kernel density-based estimator for a reliable evaluation of the calibration performance and prove its asymptotically unbiasedness and consistency. Our approaches outperform state-of-the-art solutions on both the calibration as well as the evaluation tasks in most of the experimental settings. Our codes are available at https://github.com/zhang64- llnl/Mix-n-Match-Calibration.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20k.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20k.htmlSpread DivergenceFor distributions $\mathbb{P}$ and $\mathbb{Q}$ with different supports or undefined densities, the divergence $\textrm{D}(\mathbb{P}||\mathbb{Q})$ may not exist. We define a Spread Divergence $\tilde{\textrm{D}}(\mathbb{P}||\mathbb{Q})$ on modified $\mathbb{P}$ and $\mathbb{Q}$ and describe sufficient conditions for the existence of such a divergence. We demonstrate how to maximize the discriminatory power of a given divergence by parameterizing and learning the spread. We also give examples of using a Spread Divergence to train implicit generative models, including linear models (Independent Components Analysis) and non-linear models (Deep Generative Networks).Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20j.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20j.htmlRandom Hypervolume Scalarizations for Provable Multi-Objective Black Box OptimizationSingle-objective black box optimization (also known as zeroth-order optimization) is the process of minimizing a scalar objective $f(x)$, given evaluations at adaptively chosen inputs $x$. In this paper, we consider multi-objective optimization, where $f(x)$ outputs a vector of possibly competing objectives and the goal is to converge to the Pareto frontier. Quantitatively, we wish to maximize the standard \emph{hypervolume indicator} metric, which measures the dominated hypervolume of the entire set of chosen inputs. In this paper, we introduce a novel scalarization function, which we term the \emph{hypervolume scalarization}, and show that drawing random scalarizations from an appropriately chosen distribution can be used to efficiently approximate the \emph{hypervolume indicator} metric. We utilize this connection to show that Bayesian optimization with our scalarization via common acquisition functions, such as Thompson Sampling or Upper Confidence Bound, provably converges to the whole Pareto frontier by deriving tight \emph{hypervolume regret} bounds on the order of $\widetilde{O}(\sqrt{T})$. Furthermore, we highlight the general utility of our scalarization framework by showing that any provably convergent single-objective optimization process can be converted to a multi-objective optimization process with provable convergence guarantees.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20i.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20i.htmlApproximation Capabilities of Neural ODEs and Invertible Residual NetworksRecent interest in invertible models and normalizing flows has resulted in new architectures that ensure invertibility of the network model. Neural ODEs and i-ResNets are two recent techniques for constructing models that are invertible, but it is unclear if they can be used to approximate any continuous invertible mapping. Here, we show that out of the box, both of these architectures are limited in their approximation capabilities. We then show how to overcome this limitation: we prove that any homeomorphism on a $p$-dimensional Euclidean space can be approximated by a Neural ODE or an i-ResNet operating on a $2p$-dimensional Euclidean space. We conclude by showing that capping a Neural ODE or an i-ResNet with a single linear layer is sufficient to turn the model into a universal approximator for non-invertible continuous functions.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20h.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20h.htmlA Tree-Structured Decoder for Image-to-Markup GenerationRecent encoder-decoder approaches typically employ string decoders to convert images into serialized strings for image-to-markup. However, for tree-structured representational markup, string representations can hardly cope with the structural complexity. In this work, we first show via a set of toy problems that string decoders struggle to decode tree structures, especially as structural complexity increases, we then propose a tree-structured decoder that specifically aims at generating a tree-structured markup. Our decoders works sequentially, where at each step a child node and its parent node are simultaneously generated to form a sub-tree. This sub-tree is consequently used to construct the final tree structure in a recurrent manner. Key to the success of our tree decoder is twofold, (i) it strictly respects the parent-child relationship of trees, and (ii) it explicitly outputs trees as oppose to a linear string. Evaluated on both math formula recognition and chemical formula recognition, the proposed tree decoder is shown to greatly outperform strong string decoder baselines.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20g.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20g.htmlLearning the Valuations of a $k$-demand AgentWe study problems where a learner aims to learn the valuations of an agent by observing which goods he buys under varying price vectors. More specifically, we consider the case of a $k$-demand agent, whose valuation over the goods is additive when receiving up to $k$ goods, but who has no interest in receiving more than $k$ goods. We settle the query complexity for the active-learning (preference elicitation) version, where the learner chooses the prices to post, by giving a \emph{biased binary search} algorithm, generalizing the classical binary search procedure. We complement our query complexity upper bounds by lower bounds that match up to lower-order terms. We also study the passive-learning version in which the learner does not control the prices, and instead they are sampled from some distribution. We show that in the PAC model for passive learning, any \emph{empirical risk minimizer} has a sample complexity that is optimal up to a factor of $\widetilde{O}(k)$.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20f.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20f.htmlCautious Adaptation For Reinforcement Learning in Safety-Critical SettingsReinforcement learning (RL) in real-world safety-critical target settings like urban driving is hazardous, imperiling the RL agent, other agents, and the environment. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a "safety-critical adaptation" task setting: an agent first trains in non-safety-critical "source" environments such as in a simulator, before it adapts to the target environment where failures carry heavy costs. We propose a solution approach, CARL, that builds on the intuition that prior experience in diverse environments equips an agent to estimate risk, which in turn enables relative safety through risk-averse, cautious adaptation. CARL first employs model-based RL to train a probabilistic model to capture uncertainty about transition dynamics and catastrophic states across varied source environments. Then, when exploring a new safety-critical environment with unknown dynamics, the CARL agent plans to avoid actions that could lead to catastrophic states. In experiments on car driving, cartpole balancing, and half-cheetah locomotion, CARL successfully acquires cautious exploration behaviors, yielding higher rewards with fewer failures than strong RL adaptation baselines.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20e.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20e.htmlGenerative Adversarial Imitation Learning with Neural Network Parameterization: Global Optimality and Convergence RateGenerative adversarial imitation learning (GAIL) demonstrates tremendous success in practice, especially when combined with neural networks. Different from reinforcement learning, GAIL learns both policy and reward function from expert (human) demonstration. Despite its empirical success, it remains unclear whether GAIL with neural networks converges to the globally optimal solution. The major difﬁculty comes from the nonconvex-nonconcave minimax optimization structure. To bridge the gap between practice and theory, we analyze a gradient-based algorithm with alternating updates and establish its sublinear convergence to the globally optimal solution. To the best of our knowledge, our analysis establishes the global optimality and convergence rate of GAIL with neural networks for the ﬁrst time.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20d.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20d.htmlConverging to Team-Maxmin Equilibria in Zero-Sum Multiplayer GamesEfficiently computing equilibria for multiplayer games is still an open challenge in computational game theory. This paper focuses on computing Team-Maxmin Equilibria (TMEs), which is an important solution concept for zero-sum multiplayer games where players in a team having the same utility function play against an adversary independently. Existing algorithms are inefficient to compute TMEs in large games, especially when the strategy space is too large to be represented due to limited memory. In two-player games, the Incremental Strategy Generation (ISG) algorithm is an efficient approach to avoid enumerating all pure strategies. However, the study of ISG for computing TMEs is completely unexplored. To fill this gap, we first study the properties of ISG for multiplayer games, showing that ISG converges to a Nash Equilibrium (NE) but may not converge to a TME. Second, we design an ISG variant for TMEs (ISGT) by exploiting that a TME is an NE maximizing the team’s utility and show that ISGT converges to a TME and the impossibility of relaxing conditions in ISGT. Third, to further improve the scalability, we design an ISGT variant (CISGT) by using the strategy space for computing an equilibrium that is close to a TME but is easier to be computed as the initial strategy space of ISGT. Finally, extensive experimental results show that CISGT is orders of magnitude faster than ISGT and the state-of-the-art algorithm to compute TMEs in large games.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20c.htmlRobustness to Programmable String Transformations via Augmented Abstract TrainingDeep neural networks for natural language processing tasks are vulnerable to adversarial input perturbations. In this paper, we present a versatile language for programmatically specifying string transformations—e.g., insertions, deletions, substitutions, swaps, etc.—that are relevant to the task at hand. We then present an approach to adversarially training models that are robust to such user-defined string transformations. Our approach combines the advantages of search-based techniques for adversarial training with abstraction-based techniques. Specifically, we show how to decompose a set of user-defined string transformations into two component specifications, one that benefits from search and another from abstraction. We use our technique to train models on the AG and SST2 datasets and show that the resulting models are robust to combinations of user-defined transformations mimicking spelling mistakes and other meaning-preserving transformations.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20b.htmlPEGASUS: Pre-training with Extracted Gap-sentences for Abstractive SummarizationRecent work pre-training Transformers with self-supervised objectives on large text corpora has shown great success when fine-tuned on downstream NLP tasks including text summarization. However, pre-training objectives tailored for abstractive text summarization have not been explored. Furthermore there is a lack of systematic evaluation across diverse domains. In this work, we propose pre-training large Transformer-based encoder-decoder models on massive text corpora with a new self-supervised objective. In PEGASUS, important sentences are removed/masked from an input document and are generated together as one output sequence from the remaining sentences, similar to an extractive summary. We evaluated our best PEGASUS model on 12 downstream summarization tasks spanning news, science, stories, instructions, emails, patents, and legislative bills. Experiments demonstrate it achieves state-of-the-art performance on all 12 downstream datasets measured by ROUGE scores. Our model also shows surprising performance on low-resource summarization, surpassing previous state-of-the-art results on 6 datasets with only 1000 examples. Finally we validated our results using human evaluation and show that our model summaries achieve human performance on multiple datasets.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20ae.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20ae.htmlLearning with Feature and Distribution Evolvable StreamsIn many real-world applications, data are collected in the form of a stream, whose feature space can evolve over time. For instance, in the environmental monitoring task, features can be dynamically vanished or augmented due to the existence of expired old sensors and deployed new sensors. Furthermore, besides the evolvable feature space, the data distribution is usually changing in the streaming scenario. When both feature space and data distribution are evolvable, it is quite challenging to design algorithms with guarantees, particularly theoretical understandings of generalization ability. To address this difficulty, we propose a novel discrepancy measure for data with evolving feature space and data distribution, named the \emph{evolving discrepancy}. Based on that, we present the generalization error analysis, and the theory motivates the design of a learning algorithm which is further implemented by deep neural networks. Empirical studies on synthetic data verify the rationale of our proposed discrepancy measure, and extensive experiments on real-world tasks validate the effectiveness of our algorithm.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20ad.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20ad.htmlVariance Reduction in Stochastic Particle-Optimization SamplingStochastic particle-optimization sampling (SPOS) is a recently-developed scalable Bayesian sampling framework unifying stochastic gradient MCMC (SG-MCMC) and Stein variational gradient descent (SVGD) algorithms based on Wasserstein gradient flows. With a rigorous non-asymptotic convergence theory developed, SPOS can avoid the particle-collapsing pitfall of SVGD. However, the variance-reduction effect in SPOS has not been clear. In this paper, we address this gap by presenting several variance-reduction techniques for SPOS. Specifically, we propose three variants of variance-reduced SPOS, called SAGA particle-optimization sampling (SAGA-POS), SVRG particle-optimization sampling (SVRG-POS) and a variant of SVRG-POS which avoids full gradient computations, denoted as SVRG-POS$^+$. Importantly, we provide non-asymptotic convergence guarantees for these algorithms in terms of the 2-Wasserstein metric and analyze their complexities. The results show our algorithms yield better convergence rates than existing variance-reduced variants of stochastic Langevin dynamics, though more space is required to store the particles in training. Our theory aligns well with experimental results on both synthetic and real datasets.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20ac.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20ac.htmlPerceptual Generative AutoencodersModern generative models are usually designed to match target distributions directly in the data space, where the intrinsic dimension of data can be much lower than the ambient dimension. We argue that this discrepancy may contribute to the difficulties in training generative models. We therefore propose to map both the generated and target distributions to the latent space using the encoder of a standard autoencoder, and train the generator (or decoder) to match the target distribution in the latent space. Specifically, we enforce the consistency in both the data space and the latent space with theoretically justified data and latent reconstruction losses. The resulting generative model, which we call a perceptual generative autoencoder (PGA), is then trained with a maximum likelihood or variational autoencoder (VAE) objective. With maximum likelihood, PGAs generalize the idea of reversible generative models to unrestricted neural network architectures and arbitrary number of latent dimensions. When combined with VAEs, PGAs substantially improve over the baseline VAEs in terms of sample quality. Compared to other autoencoder-based generative models using simple priors, PGAs achieve state-of-the-art FID scores on CIFAR-10 and CelebA.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20ab.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20ab.htmlA Flexible Latent Space Model for Multilayer NetworksEntities often interact with each other through multiple types of relations, which are often represented as multilayer networks. Multilayer networks among the same set of nodes usually share common structures, while each layer can possess its distinct node connecting behaviors. This paper proposes a flexible latent space model for multilayer networks for the purpose of capturing such characteristics. Specifically, the proposed model embeds each node with a latent vector shared among layers and a layer-specific effect for each layer; both elements together with a layer-specific connectivity matrix determine edge formations. To fit the model, we develop a projected gradient descent algorithm for efficient parameter estimation. We also establish theoretical properties of the maximum likelihood estimators and show that the upper bound of the common latent structure’s estimation error is inversely proportional to the number of layers under mild conditions. The superior performance of the proposed model is demonstrated through simulation studies and applications to two real-world data examples.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20aa.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20aa.htmlDesigning Optimal Dynamic Treatment Regimes: A Causal Reinforcement Learning ApproachA dynamic treatment regime (DTR) consists of a sequence of decision rules, one per stage of intervention, that dictates how to determine the treatment assignment to patients based on evolving treatments and covariates’ history. These regimes are particularly effective for managing chronic disorders and is arguably one of the critical ingredients underlying more personalized decision-making systems. All reinforcement learning algorithms for finding the optimal DTR in online settings will suffer O(\sqrt{|D_{X, S}|T}) regret on some environments, where T is the number of experiments, and D_{X, S} is the domains of treatments X and covariates S. This implies T = O (|D_{X, S}|) trials to generate an optimal DTR. In many applications, domains of X and S could be so enormous that the time required to ensure appropriate learning may be unattainable. We show that, if the causal diagram of the underlying environment is provided, one could achieve regret that is exponentially smaller than D_{X, S}. In particular, we develop two online algorithms that satisfy such regret bounds by exploiting the causal structure underlying the DTR; one is based on the principle of optimism in the face of uncertainty (OFU-DTR), and the other uses the posterior sampling learning (PS-DTR). Finally, we introduce efficient methods to accelerate these online learning procedures by leveraging the abundant, yet biased observational (non-experimental) data.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhang20a.htmlLearning Calibratable Policies using Programmatic Style-ConsistencyWe study the problem of controllable generation of long-term sequential behaviors, where the goal is to calibrate to multiple behavior styles simultaneously. In contrast to the well-studied areas of controllable generation of images, text, and speech, there are two questions that pose significant challenges when generating long-term behaviors: how should we specify the factors of variation to control, and how can we ensure that the generated behavior faithfully demonstrates combinatorially many styles? We leverage programmatic labeling functions to specify controllable styles, and derive a formal notion of style-consistency as a learning objective, which can then be solved using conventional policy learning approaches. We evaluate our framework using demonstrations from professional basketball players and agents in the MuJoCo physics environment, and show that existing approaches that do not explicitly enforce style-consistency fail to generate diverse behaviors whereas our learned policies can be calibrated for up to $4^5 (1024)$ distinct style combinations.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhan20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zhan20a.htmlScaling up Hybrid Probabilistic Inference with Logical and Arithmetic Constraints via Message PassingWeighted model integration (WMI) is an appealing framework for probabilistic inference: it allows for expressing the complex dependencies in real-world problems, where variables are both continuous and discrete, via the language of Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT), as well as to compute probabilistic queries with complex logical and arithmetic constraints. Yet, existing WMI solvers are not ready to scale to these problems. They either ignore the intrinsic dependency structure of the problem entirely, or they are limited to overly restrictive structures. To narrow this gap, we derive a factorized WMI computation enabling us to devise a scalable WMI solver based on message passing, called MP-WMI. Namely, MP-WMI is the first WMI solver that can (i) perform exact inference on the full class of tree-structured WMI problems, and (ii) perform inter-query amortization, e.g., to compute all marginal densities simultaneously. Experimental results show that our solver dramatically outperforms the existingWMI solvers on a large set of benchmarks.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zeng20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zeng20a.htmlLearning Near Optimal Policies with Low Inherent Bellman ErrorWe study the exploration problem with approximate linear action-value functions in episodic reinforcement learning under the notion of low inherent Bellman error, a condition normally employed to show convergence of approximate value iteration. First we relate this condition to other common frameworks and show that it is strictly more general than the low rank (or linear) MDP assumption of prior work. Second we provide an algorithm with a high probability regret bound $\widetilde O(\sum_{t=1}^H d_t \sqrt{K} + \sum_{t=1}^H \sqrt{d_t} \IBE K)$ where $H$ is the horizon, $K$ is the number of episodes, $\IBE$ is the value if the inherent Bellman error and $d_t$ is the feature dimension at timestep $t$. In addition, we show that the result is unimprovable beyond constants and logs by showing a matching lower bound. This has two important consequences: 1) it shows that exploration is possible using only \emph{batch assumptions} with an algorithm that achieves the optimal statistical rate for the setting we consider, which is more general than prior work on low-rank MDPs 2) the lack of closedness (measured by the inherent Bellman error) is only amplified by $\sqrt{d_t}$ despite working in the online setting. Finally, the algorithm reduces to the celebrated \textsc{LinUCB} when $H=1$ but with a different choice of the exploration parameter that allows handling misspecified contextual linear bandits. While computational tractability questions remain open for the MDP setting, this enriches the class of MDPs with a linear representation for the action-value function where statistically efficient reinforcement learning is possible.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zanette20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zanette20a.htmlGraph Random Neural Features for Distance-Preserving Graph RepresentationsWe present Graph Random Neural Features (GRNF), a novel embedding method from graph-structured data to real vectors based on a family of graph neural networks. The embedding naturally deals with graph isomorphism and preserves the metric structure of the graph domain, in probability. In addition to being an explicit embedding method, it also allows us to efficiently and effectively approximate graph metric distances (as well as complete kernel functions); a criterion to select the embedding dimension trading off the approximation accuracy with the computational cost is also provided. GRNF can be used within traditional processing methods or as a training-free input layer of a graph neural network. The theoretical guarantees that accompany GRNF ensure that the considered graph distance is metric, hence allowing to distinguish any pair of non-isomorphic graphs.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zambon20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/zambon20a.htmlTraining Deep Energy-Based Models with f-Divergence MinimizationDeep energy-based models (EBMs) are very flexible in distribution parametrization but computationally challenging because of the intractable partition function. They are typically trained via maximum likelihood, using contrastive divergence to approximate the gradient of the KL divergence between data and model distribution. While KL divergence has many desirable properties, other f-divergences have shown advantages in training implicit density generative models such as generative adversarial networks. In this paper, we propose a general variational framework termed f-EBM to train EBMs using any desired f-divergence. We introduce a corresponding optimization algorithm and prove its local convergence property with non-linear dynamical systems theory. Experimental results demonstrate the superiority of f-EBM over contrastive divergence, as well as the benefits of training EBMs using f-divergences other than KL.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yu20g.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yu20g.htmlFederated Learning with Only Positive LabelsWe consider learning a multi-class classification model in the federated setting, where each user has access to the positive data associated with only a single class. As a result, during each federated learning round, the users need to locally update the classifier without having access to the features and the model parameters for the negative classes. Thus, naively employing conventional decentralized learning such as distributed SGD or Federated Averaging may lead to trivial or extremely poor classifiers. In particular, for embedding based classifiers, all the class embeddings might collapse to a single point. To address this problem, we propose a generic framework for training with only positive labels, namely Federated Averaging with Spreadout (FedAwS), where the server imposes a geometric regularizer after each round to encourage classes to be spreadout in the embedding space. We show, both theoretically and empirically, that FedAwS can almost match the performance of conventional learning where users have access to negative labels. We further extend the proposed method to settings with large output spaces.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yu20f.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yu20f.htmlGraph Convolutional Network for Recommendation with Low-pass Collaborative Filters\textbf{G}raph \textbf{C}onvolutional \textbf{N}etwork (\textbf{GCN}) is widely used in graph data learning tasks such as recommendation. However, when facing a large graph, the graph convolution is very computationally expensive thus is simplified in all existing GCNs, yet is seriously impaired due to the oversimplification. To address this gap, we leverage the \emph{original graph convolution} in GCN and propose a \textbf{L}ow-pass \textbf{C}ollaborative \textbf{F}ilter (\textbf{LCF}) to make it applicable to the large graph. LCF is designed to remove the noise caused by exposure and quantization in the observed data, and it also reduces the complexity of graph convolution in an unscathed way. Experiments show that LCF improves the effectiveness and efficiency of graph convolution and our GCN outperforms existing GCNs significantly. Codes are available on \url{https://github.com/Wenhui-Yu/LCFN}.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yu20e.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yu20e.htmlIntrinsic Reward Driven Imitation Learning via Generative ModelImitation learning in a high-dimensional environment is challenging. Most inverse reinforcement learning (IRL) methods fail to outperform the demonstrator in such a high-dimensional environment, e.g., Atari domain. To address this challenge, we propose a novel reward learning module to generate intrinsic reward signals via a generative model. Our generative method can perform better forward state transition and backward action encoding, which improves the module’s dynamics modeling ability in the environment. Thus, our module provides the imitation agent both the intrinsic intention of the demonstrator and a better exploration ability, which is critical for the agent to outperform the demonstrator. Empirical results show that our method outperforms state-of-the-art IRL methods on multiple Atari games, even with one-life demonstration. Remarkably, our method achieves performance that is up to 5 times the performance of the demonstration.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yu20d.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yu20d.htmlLabel-Noise Robust Domain AdaptationDomain adaptation aims to correct the classifiers when faced with distribution shift between source (training) and target (test) domains. State-of-the-art domain adaptation methods make use of deep networks to extract domain-invariant representations. However, existing methods assume that all the instances in the source domain are correctly labeled; while in reality, it is unsurprising that we may obtain a source domain with noisy labels. In this paper, we are the first to comprehensively investigate how label noise could adversely affect existing domain adaptation methods in various scenarios. Further, we theoretically prove that there exists a method that can essentially reduce the side-effect of noisy source labels in domain adaptation. Specifically, focusing on the generalized target shift scenario, where both label distribution $P_Y$ and the class-conditional distribution $P_{X|Y}$ can change, we discover that the denoising Conditional Invariant Component (DCIC) framework can provably ensures (1) extracting invariant representations given examples with noisy labels in the source domain and unlabeled examples in the target domain and (2) estimating the label distribution in the target domain with no bias. Experimental results on both synthetic and real-world data verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yu20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yu20c.htmlGraphical Models Meet Bandits: A Variational Thompson Sampling ApproachWe propose a novel framework for structured bandits, which we call an influence diagram bandit. Our framework uses a graphical model to capture complex statistical dependencies between actions, latent variables, and observations; and thus unifies and extends many existing models, such as combinatorial semi-bandits, cascading bandits, and low-rank bandits. We develop novel online learning algorithms that learn to act efficiently in our models. The key idea is to track a structured posterior distribution of model parameters, either exactly or approximately. To act, we sample model parameters from their posterior and then use the structure of the influence diagram to find the most optimistic action under the sampled parameters. We empirically evaluate our algorithms in three structured bandit problems, and show that they perform as well as or better than problem-specific state-of-the-art baselines.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yu20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yu20b.htmlSimultaneous Inference for Massive Data: Distributed BootstrapIn this paper, we propose a bootstrap method applied to massive data processed distributedly in a large number of machines. This new method is computationally efficient in that we bootstrap on the master machine without over-resampling, typically required by existing methods (Kleiner et al., 2014; Sengupta et al., 2016), while provably achieving optimal statistical efficiency with minimal communication. Our method does not require repeatedly re-fitting the model but only applies multiplier bootstrap in the master machine on the gradients received from the worker machines. Simulations validate our theory.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yu20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yu20a.htmlGraph Structure of Neural NetworksNeural networks are often represented as graphs of connections between neurons. However, despite their wide use, there is currently little understanding of the relationship between the graph structure of the neural network and its predictive performance. Here we systematically investigate how does the graph structure of neural networks affect their predictive performance. To this end, we develop a novel graph-based representation of neural networks called relational graph, where layers of neural network computation correspond to rounds of message exchange along the graph structure. Using this representation we show that: (1) a “sweet spot” of relational graphs leads to neural networks with significantly improved predictive performance; (2) neural network’s performance is approximately a smooth function of the clustering coefficient and average path length of its relational graph; (3) our findings are consistent across many different tasks and datasets; (4) the sweet spot can be identified efficiently; (5) top-performing neural networks have graph structure surprisingly similar to those of real biological neural networks. Our work opens new directions for the design of neural architectures and the understanding on neural networks in general.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/you20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/you20b.htmlWhen Does Self-Supervision Help Graph Convolutional Networks?Self-supervision as an emerging technique has been employed to train convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for more transferrable, generalizable, and robust representation learning of images. Its introduction to graph convolutional networks (GCNs) operating on graph data is however rarely explored. In this study, we report the first systematic exploration and assessment of incorporating self-supervision into GCNs. We first elaborate three mechanisms to incorporate self-supervision into GCNs, analyze the limitations of pretraining & finetuning and self-training, and proceed to focus on multi-task learning. Moreover, we propose to investigate three novel self-supervised learning tasks for GCNs with theoretical rationales and numerical comparisons. Lastly, we further integrate multi-task self-supervision into graph adversarial training. Our results show that, with properly designed task forms and incorporation mechanisms, self-supervision benefits GCNs in gaining more generalizability and robustness. Our codes are available at https://github.com/Shen-Lab/SS-GCNs.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/you20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/you20a.htmlRobustifying Sequential Neural ProcessesWhen tasks change over time, meta-transfer learning seeks to improve the efficiency of learning a new task via both meta-learning and transfer-learning. While the standard attention has been effective in a variety of settings, we question its effectiveness in improving meta-transfer learning since the tasks being learned are dynamic and the amount of context can be substantially smaller. In this paper, using a recently proposed meta-transfer learning model, Sequential Neural Processes (SNP), we first empirically show that it suffers from a similar underfitting problem observed in the functions inferred by Neural Processes. However, we further demonstrate that unlike the meta-learning setting, the standard attention mechanisms are not effective in meta-transfer setting. To resolve, we propose a new attention mechanism, Recurrent Memory Reconstruction (RMR), and demonstrate that providing an imaginary context that is recurrently updated and reconstructed with interaction is crucial in achieving effective attention for meta-transfer learning. Furthermore, incorporating RMR into SNP, we propose Attentive Sequential Neural Processes-RMR (ASNP-RMR) and demonstrate in various tasks that ASNP-RMR significantly outperforms the baselines.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yoon20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yoon20c.htmlXtarNet: Learning to Extract Task-Adaptive Representation for Incremental Few-Shot LearningLearning novel concepts while preserving prior knowledge is a long-standing challenge in machine learning. The challenge gets greater when a novel task is given with only a few labeled examples, a problem known as incremental few-shot learning. We propose XtarNet, which learns to extract task-adaptive representation (TAR) for facilitating incremental few-shot learning. The method utilizes a backbone network pretrained on a set of base categories while also employing additional modules that are meta-trained across episodes. Given a new task, the novel feature extracted from the meta-trained modules is mixed with the base feature obtained from the pretrained model. The process of combining two different features provides TAR and is also controlled by meta-trained modules. The TAR contains effective information for classifying both novel and base categories. The base and novel classifiers quickly adapt to a given task by utilizing the TAR. Experiments on standard image datasets indicate that XtarNet achieves state-of-the-art incremental few-shot learning performance. The concept of TAR can also be used in conjunction with existing incremental few-shot learning methods; extensive simulation results in fact show that applying TAR enhances the known methods significantly.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yoon20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yoon20b.htmlData Valuation using Reinforcement LearningQuantifying the value of data is a fundamental problem in machine learning and has multiple important use cases: (1) building insights about the dataset and task, (2) domain adaptation, (3) corrupted sample discovery, and (4) robust learning. We propose Data Valuation using Reinforcement Learning (DVRL), to adaptively learn data values jointly with the predictor model. DVRL uses a data value estimator (DVE) to learn how likely each datum is used in training of the predictor model. DVE is trained using a reinforcement signal that reflects performance on the target task. We demonstrate that DVRL yields superior data value estimates compared to alternative methods across numerous datasets and application scenarios. The corrupted sample discovery performance of DVRL is close to optimal in many regimes (i.e. as if the noisy samples were known apriori), and for domain adaptation and robust learning DVRL significantly outperforms state-of-the-art by 14.6% and 10.8%, respectively.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yoon20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yoon20a.htmlIt’s Not What Machines Can Learn, It’s What We Cannot TeachCan deep neural networks learn to solve any task, and in particular problems of high complexity? This question attracts a lot of interest, with recent works tackling computationally hard tasks such as the traveling salesman problem and satisfiability. In this work we offer a different perspective on this question. Given the common assumption that NP != coNP we prove that any polynomial-time sample generator for an NP-hard problem samples, in fact, from an easier sub-problem. We empirically explore a case study, Conjunctive Query Containment, and show how common data generation techniques generate biased data-sets that lead practitioners to over-estimate model accuracy. Our results suggest that machine learning approaches that require training on a dense uniform sampling from the target distribution cannot be used to solve computationally hard problems, the reason being the difficulty of generating sufficiently large and unbiased training sets.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yehuda20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yehuda20a.htmlGood Subnetworks Provably Exist: Pruning via Greedy Forward SelectionRecent empirical works show that large deep neural networks are often highly redundant and one can find much smaller subnetworks without a significant drop of accuracy. However, most existing methods of network pruning are empirical and heuristic, leaving it open whether good subnetworks provably exist, how to find them efficiently, and if network pruning can be provably better than direct training using gradient descent. We answer these problems positively by proposing a simple greedy selection approach for finding good subnetworks, which starts from an empty network and greedily adds important neurons from the large network. This differs from the existing methods based on backward elimination, which remove redundant neurons from the large network. Theoretically, applying the greedy selection strategy on sufficiently large {pre-trained} networks guarantees to find small subnetworks with lower loss than networks directly trained with gradient descent. Our results also apply to pruning randomly weighted networks. Practically, we improve prior arts of network pruning on learning compact neural architectures on ImageNet, including ResNet, MobilenetV2/V3, and ProxylessNet. Our theory and empirical results on MobileNet suggest that we should fine-tune the pruned subnetworks to leverage the information from the large model, instead of re-training from new random initialization as suggested in \citet{liu2018rethinking}.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ye20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ye20b.htmlPretrained Generalized Autoregressive Model with Adaptive Probabilistic Label Clusters for Extreme Multi-label Text ClassificationExtreme multi-label text classification (XMTC) is a task for tagging a given text with the most relevant labels from an extremely large label set. We propose a novel deep learning method called APLC-XLNet. Our approach fine-tunes the recently released generalized autoregressive pretrained model (XLNet) to learn a dense representation for the input text. We propose Adaptive Probabilistic Label Clusters (APLC) to approximate the cross entropy loss by exploiting the unbalanced label distribution to form clusters that explicitly reduce the computational time. Our experiments, carried out on five benchmark datasets, show that our approach has achieved new state-of-the-art results on four benchmark datasets. Our source code is available publicly at https://github.com/huiyegit/APLC_XLNet.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ye20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ye20a.htmlGraph-based, Self-Supervised Program Repair from Diagnostic FeedbackWe consider the problem of learning to repair programs from diagnostic feedback (e.g., compiler error messages). Program repair is challenging for two reasons: First, it requires reasoning and tracking symbols across source code and diagnostic feedback. Second, labeled datasets available for program repair are relatively small. In this work, we propose novel solutions to these two challenges. First, we introduce a program-feedback graph, which connects symbols relevant to program repair in source code and diagnostic feedback, and then apply a graph neural network on top to model the reasoning process. Second, we present a self-supervised learning paradigm for program repair that leverages unlabeled programs available online to create a large amount of extra program repair examples, which we use to pre-train our models. We evaluate our proposed approach on two applications: correcting introductory programming assignments (DeepFix dataset) and correcting the outputs of program synthesis (SPoC dataset). Our final system, DrRepair, significantly outperforms prior work, achieving 68.2% full repair rate on DeepFix (+22.9% over the prior best), and 48.4% synthesis success rate on SPoC (+3.7% over the prior best).Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yasunaga20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yasunaga20a.htmlSearching to Exploit Memorization Effect in Learning with Noisy LabelsSample selection approaches are popular in robust learning from noisy labels. However, how to properly control the selection process so that deep networks can benefit from the memorization effect is a hard problem. In this paper, motivated by the success of automated machine learning (AutoML), we model this issue as a function approximation problem. Specifically, we design a domain-specific search space based on general patterns of the memorization effect and propose a novel Newton algorithm to solve the bi-level optimization problem efficiently. We further provide a theoretical analysis of the algorithm, which ensures a good approximation to critical points. Experiments are performed on both benchmark and real-world data sets. Results demonstrate that the proposed method is much better than the state-of-the-art noisy-label-learning approaches, and also much more efficient than existing AutoML algorithms.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yao20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yao20b.htmlUnsupervised Transfer Learning for Spatiotemporal Predictive NetworksThis paper explores a new research problem of unsupervised transfer learning across multiple spatiotemporal prediction tasks. Unlike most existing transfer learning methods that focus on fixing the discrepancy between supervised tasks, we study how to transfer knowledge from a zoo of unsupervisedly learned models towards another predictive network. Our motivation is that models from different sources are expected to understand the complex spatiotemporal dynamics from different perspectives, thereby effectively supplementing the new task, even if the task has sufficient training samples. Technically, we propose a differentiable framework named transferable memory. It adaptively distills knowledge from a bank of memory states of multiple pretrained RNNs, and applies it to the target network via a novel recurrent structure called the Transferable Memory Unit (TMU). Compared with finetuning, our approach yields significant improvements on three benchmarks for spatiotemporal prediction, and benefits the target task even from less relevant pretext ones.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yao20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yao20a.htmlRethinking Bias-Variance Trade-off for Generalization of Neural NetworksThe classical bias-variance trade-off predicts that bias decreases and variance increase with model complexity, leading to a U-shaped risk curve. Recent work calls this into question for neural networks and other over-parameterized models, for which it is often observed that larger models generalize better. We provide a simple explanation of this by measuring the bias and variance of neural networks: while the bias is \emph{monotonically decreasing} as in the classical theory, the variance is \emph{unimodal} or bell-shaped: it increases then decreases with the width of the network. We vary the network architecture, loss function, and choice of dataset and confirm that variance unimodality occurs robustly for all models we considered. The risk curve is the sum of the bias and variance curves and displays different qualitative shapes depending on the relative scale of bias and variance, with the double descent in the recent literature as a special case. We corroborate these empirical results with a theoretical analysis of two-layer linear networks with random first layer. Finally, evaluation on out-of-distribution data shows that most of the drop in accuracy comes from increased bias while variance increases by a relatively small amount. Moreover, we find that deeper models decrease bias and increase variance for both in-distribution and out-of-distribution data.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yang20j.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yang20j.htmlMulti-Agent Determinantal Q-LearningCentralized training with decentralized execution has become an important paradigm in multi-agent learning. Though practical, current methods rely on restrictive assumptions to decompose the centralized value function across agents for execution. In this paper, we eliminate this restriction by proposing multi-agent determinantal Q-learning. Our method is established on Q-DPP, a novel extension of determinantal point process (DPP) to multi-agent setting. Q-DPP promotes agents to acquire diverse behavioral models; this allows a natural factorization of the joint Q-functions with no need for \emph{a priori} structural constraints on the value function or special network architectures. We demonstrate that Q-DPP generalizes major solutions including VDN, QMIX, and QTRAN on decentralizable cooperative tasks. To efficiently draw samples from Q-DPP, we develop a linear-time sampler with theoretical approximation guarantee. Our sampler also benefits exploration by coordinating agents to cover orthogonal directions in the state space during training. We evaluate our algorithm on multiple cooperative benchmarks; its effectiveness has been demonstrated when compared with the state-of-the-art.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yang20i.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yang20i.htmlReinforcement Learning in Feature Space: Matrix Bandit, Kernels, and Regret BoundExploration in reinforcement learning (RL) suffers from the curse of dimensionality when the state-action space is large. A common practice is to parameterize the high-dimensional value and policy functions using given features. However existing methods either have no theoretical guarantee or suffer a regret that is exponential in the planning horizon $H$.In this paper, we propose an online RL algorithm, namely the MatrixRL, that leverages ideas from linear bandit to learn a low-dimensional representation of the probability transition model while carefully balancing the exploitation-exploration tradeoff. We show that MatrixRL achieves a regret bound ${O}\big(H^2d\log T\sqrt{T}\big)$ where $d$ is the number of features, independent with the number of state-action pairs. MatrixRL has an equivalent kernelized version, which is able to work with an arbitrary kernel Hilbert space without using explicit features. In this case, the kernelized MatrixRL satisfies a regret bound ${O}\big(H^2\wt{d}\log T\sqrt{T}\big)$, where $\wt{d}$ is the effective dimension of the kernel space.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yang20h.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yang20h.htmlInterpolation between Residual and Non-Residual NetworksAlthough ordinary differential equations (ODEs) provide insights for designing network architectures, its relationship with the non-residual convolutional neural networks (CNNs) is still unclear. In this paper, we present a novel ODE model by adding a damping term. It can be shown that the proposed model can recover both a ResNet and a CNN by adjusting an interpolation coefficient. Therefore, the damped ODE model provides a unified framework for the interpretation of residual and non-residual networks. The Lyapunov analysis reveals better stability of the proposed model, and thus yields robustness improvement of the learned networks. Experiments on a number of image classification benchmarks show that the proposed model substantially improves the accuracy of ResNet and ResNeXt over the perturbed inputs from both stochastic noise and adversarial attack methods. Moreover, the loss landscape analysis demonstrates the improved robustness of our method along the attack direction.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yang20g.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yang20g.htmlOn the consistency of top-k surrogate lossesThe top-$k$ error is often employed to evaluate performance for challenging classification tasks in computer vision as it is designed to compensate for ambiguity in ground truth labels. This practical success motivates our theoretical analysis of consistent top-$k$ classification. To this end, we provide a characterization of Bayes optimality by defining a top-$k$ preserving property, which is new and fixes a non-uniqueness gap in prior work. Then, we define top-$k$ calibration and show it is necessary and sufficient for consistency. Based on the top-$k$ calibration analysis, we propose a rich class of top-$k$ calibrated Bregman divergence surrogates. Our analysis continues by showing previously proposed hinge-like top-$k$ surrogate losses are not top-$k$ calibrated and thus inconsistent. On the other hand, we propose two new hinge-like losses, one which is similarly inconsistent, and one which is consistent. Our empirical results highlight theoretical claims, confirming our analysis of the consistency of these losses.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yang20f.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yang20f.htmlImproving Molecular Design by Stochastic Iterative Target AugmentationGenerative models in molecular design tend to be richly parameterized, data-hungry neural models, as they must create complex structured objects as outputs. Estimating such models from data may be challenging due to the lack of sufficient training data. In this paper, we propose a surprisingly effective self-training approach for iteratively creating additional molecular targets. We first pre-train the generative model together with a simple property predictor. The property predictor is then used as a likelihood model for filtering candidate structures from the generative model. Additional targets are iteratively produced and used in the course of stochastic EM iterations to maximize the log-likelihood that the candidate structures are accepted. A simple rejection (re-weighting) sampler suffices to draw posterior samples since the generative model is already reasonable after pre-training. We demonstrate significant gains over strong baselines for both unconditional and conditional molecular design. In particular, our approach outperforms the previous state-of-the-art in conditional molecular design by over 10% in absolute gain. Finally, we show that our approach is useful in other domains as well, such as program synthesis.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yang20e.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yang20e.htmlQ-value Path Decomposition for Deep Multiagent Reinforcement LearningRecently, deep multiagent reinforcement learning (MARL) has become a highly active research area as many real-world problems can be inherently viewed as multiagent systems. A particularly interesting and widely applicable class of problems is the partially observable cooperative multiagent setting, in which a team of agents learns to coordinate their behaviors conditioning on their private observations and commonly shared global reward signals. One natural solution is to resort to the centralized training and decentralized execution paradigm and during centralized training, one key challenge is the multiagent credit assignment: how to allocate the global rewards for individual agent policies for better coordination towards maximizing system-level’s benefits. In this paper, we propose a new method called Q-value Path Decomposition (QPD) to decompose the system’s global Q-values into individual agents’ Q-values. Unlike previous works which restrict the representation relation of the individual Q-values and the global one, we leverage the integrated gradient attribution technique into deep MARL to directly decompose global Q-values along trajectory paths to assign credits for agents. We evaluate QPD on the challenging StarCraft II micromanagement tasks and show that QPD achieves the state-of-the-art performance in both homogeneous and heterogeneous multiagent scenarios compared with existing cooperative MARL algorithms.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yang20d.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yang20d.htmlRandomized Smoothing of All Shapes and SizesRandomized smoothing is the current state-of-the-art defense with provable robustness against $\ell_2$ adversarial attacks. Many works have devised new randomized smoothing schemes for other metrics, such as $\ell_1$ or $\ell_\infty$; however, substantial effort was needed to derive such new guarantees. This begs the question: can we find a general theory for randomized smoothing? We propose a novel framework for devising and analyzing randomized smoothing schemes, and validate its effectiveness in practice. Our theoretical contributions are: (1) we show that for an appropriate notion of "optimal", the optimal smoothing distributions for any "nice" norms have level sets given by the norm’s *Wulff Crystal*; (2) we propose two novel and complementary methods for deriving provably robust radii for any smoothing distribution; and, (3) we show fundamental limits to current randomized smoothing techniques via the theory of *Banach space cotypes*. By combining (1) and (2), we significantly improve the state-of-the-art certified accuracy in $\ell_1$ on standard datasets. Meanwhile, we show using (3) that with only label statistics under random input perturbations, randomized smoothing cannot achieve nontrivial certified accuracy against perturbations of $\ell_p$-norm $\Omega(\min(1, d^{\frac{1}{p} - \frac{1}{2}}))$, when the input dimension $d$ is large. We provide code in github.com/tonyduan/rs4a.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yang20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yang20c.htmlEnergy-Based Processes for Exchangeable DataRecently there has been growing interest in modeling sets with exchangeability such as point clouds. A shortcoming of current approaches is that they restrict the cardinality of the sets considered or can only express limited forms of distribution over unobserved data. To overcome these limitations, we introduce Energy-Based Processes (EBPs), which extend energy based models to exchangeable data while allowing neural network parameterizations of the energy function. A key advantage of these models is the ability to express more flexible distributions over sets without restricting their cardinality. We develop an efficient training procedure for EBPs that demonstrates state-of-the-art performance on a variety of tasks such as point cloud generation, classification, denoising, and image completionSat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yang20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yang20b.htmlVariational Bayesian QuantizationWe propose a novel algorithm for quantizing continuous latent representations in trained models. Our approach applies to deep probabilistic models, such as variational autoencoders (VAEs), and enables both data and model compression. Unlike current end-to-end neural compression methods that cater the model to a fixed quantization scheme, our algorithm separates model design and training from quantization. Consequently, our algorithm enables “plug-and-play” compression with variable rate-distortion trade-off, using a single trained model. Our algorithm can be seen as a novel extension of arithmetic coding to the continuous domain, and uses adaptive quantization accuracy based on estimates of posterior uncertainty. Our experimental results demonstrate the importance of taking into account posterior uncertainties, and show that image compression with the proposed algorithm outperforms JPEG over a wide range of bit rates using only a single standard VAE. Further experiments on Bayesian neural word embeddings demonstrate the versatility of the proposed method.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yang20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yang20a.htmlStochastic Optimization for Non-convex Inf-Projection ProblemsIn this paper, we study a family of non-convex and possibly non-smooth inf-projection minimization problems, where the target objective function is equal to minimization of a joint function over another variable. This problem include difference of convex (DC) functions and a family of bi-convex functions as special cases. We develop stochastic algorithms and establish their first-order convergence for finding a (nearly) stationary solution of the target non-convex function under different conditions of the component functions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that comprehensively studies stochastic optimization of non-convex inf-projection minimization problems with provable convergence guarantee. Our algorithms enable efficient stochastic optimization of a family of non-decomposable DC functions and a family of bi-convex functions. To demonstrate the power of the proposed algorithms we consider an important application in variance-based regularization. Experiments verify the effectiveness of our inf-projection based formulation and the proposed stochastic algorithm in comparison with previous stochastic algorithms based on the min-max formulation for achieving the same effect.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yan20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yan20a.htmlFeature Selection using Stochastic GatesFeature selection problems have been extensively studied in the setting of linear estimation (e.g. LASSO), but less emphasis has been placed on feature selection for non-linear functions. In this study, we propose a method for feature selection in neural network estimation problems. The new procedure is based on probabilistic relaxation of the $\ell_0$ norm of features, or the count of the number of selected features. Our $\ell_0$-based regularization relies on a continuous relaxation of the Bernoulli distribution; such relaxation allows our model to learn the parameters of the approximate Bernoulli distributions via gradient descent. The proposed framework simultaneously learns either a nonlinear regression or classification function while selecting a small subset of features. We provide an information-theoretic justification for incorporating Bernoulli distribution into feature selection. Furthermore, we evaluate our method using synthetic and real-life data to demonstrate that our approach outperforms other commonly used methods in both predictive performance and feature selection.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yamada20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yamada20a.htmlAmortized Finite Element Analysis for Fast PDE-Constrained OptimizationOptimizing the parameters of partial differential equations (PDEs), i.e., PDE-constrained optimization (PDE-CO), allows us to model natural systems from observations or perform rational design of structures with complicated mechanical, thermal, or electromagnetic properties. However, PDE-CO is often computationally prohibitive due to the need to solve the PDE—typically via finite element analysis (FEA)—at each step of the optimization procedure. In this paper we propose amortized finite element analysis (AmorFEA), in which a neural network learns to produce accurate PDE solutions, while preserving many of the advantages of traditional finite element methods. This network is trained to directly minimize the potential energy from which the PDE and finite element method are derived, avoiding the need to generate costly supervised training data by solving PDEs with traditional FEA. As FEA is a variational procedure, AmorFEA is a direct analogue to popular amortized inference approaches in latent variable models, with the finite element basis acting as the variational family. AmorFEA can perform PDE-CO without the need to repeatedly solve the associated PDE, accelerating optimization when compared to a traditional workflow using FEA and the adjoint method.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xue20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xue20a.htmlVideo Prediction via Example GuidanceIn video prediction tasks, one major challenge is to capture the multi-modal nature of future contents and dynamics. In this work, we propose a simple yet effective framework that can efficiently predict plausible future states, where the key insight is that the potential distribution of a sequence could be approximated with analogous ones in a repertoire of training pool, namely, expert examples. By further incorporating a novel optimization scheme into the training procedure, plausible predictions can be sampled efficiently from distribution constructed from the retrieved examples. Meanwhile, our method could be seamlessly integrated with existing stochastic predictive models; significant enhancement is observed with comprehensive experiments in both quantitative and qualitative aspects. We also demonstrate the generalization ability to predict the motion of unseen class, i.e., without access to corresponding data during training phase. Project Page: \hyperlink{https://sites.google.com/view/vpeg-supp/home.}{https://sites.google.com/view/vpeg-supp/home.}Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xu20j.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xu20j.htmlMetaFun: Meta-Learning with Iterative Functional UpdatesWe develop a functional encoder-decoder approach to supervised meta-learning, where labeled data is encoded into an infinite-dimensional functional representation rather than a finite-dimensional one. Furthermore, rather than directly producing the representation, we learn a neural update rule resembling functional gradient descent which iteratively improves the representation. The final representation is used to condition the decoder to make predictions on unlabeled data. Our approach is the first to demonstrates the success of encoder-decoder style meta-learning methods like conditional neural processes on large-scale few-shot classification benchmarks such as miniImageNet and tieredImageNet, where it achieves state-of-the-art performance.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xu20i.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xu20i.htmlPrediction-Guided Multi-Objective Reinforcement Learning for Continuous Robot ControlMany real-world control problems involve conflicting objectives where we desire a dense and high-quality set of control policies that are optimal for different objective preferences (called Pareto-optimal). While extensive research in multi-objective reinforcement learning (MORL) has been conducted to tackle such problems, multi-objective optimization for complex continuous robot control is still under-explored. In this work, we propose an efficient evolutionary learning algorithm to find the Pareto set approximation for continuous robot control problems, by extending a state-of-the-art RL algorithm and presenting a novel prediction model to guide the learning process. In addition to efficiently discovering the individual policies on the Pareto front, we construct a continuous set of Pareto-optimal solutions by Pareto analysis and interpolation. Furthermore, we design seven multi-objective RL environments with continuous action space, which is the first benchmark platform to evaluate MORL algorithms on various robot control problems. We test the previous methods on the proposed benchmark problems, and the experiments show that our approach is able to find a much denser and higher-quality set of Pareto policies than the existing algorithms.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xu20h.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xu20h.htmlVariational Label EnhancementLabel distribution covers a certain number of labels, representing the degree to which each label describes the instance. When dealing with label ambiguity, label distribution could describe the supervised information in a fine-grained way. Unfortunately, many training sets only contain simple logical labels rather than label distributions due to the difficulty of obtaining label distributions directly. To solve this problem, we consider the label distributions as the latent vectors and infer them from the logical labels in the training datasets by using variational inference. After that, we induce a predictive model to train the label distribution data by employing the multi-output regression technique. The recovery experiment on thirteen real-world LDL datasets and the predictive experiment on ten multi-label learning datasets validate the advantage of our approach over the state-of-the-art approaches.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xu20g.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xu20g.htmlLearning Factorized Weight Matrix for Joint FilteringJoint filtering is a fundamental problem in computer vision with applications in many different areas. Most existing algorithms solve this problem with a weighted averaging process to aggregate input pixels. However, the weight matrix of this process is often empirically designed and not robust to complex input. In this work, we propose to learn the weight matrix for joint image filtering. This is a challenging problem, as directly learning a large weight matrix is computationally intractable. To address this issue, we introduce the correlation of deep features to approximate the aggregation weights. However, this strategy only uses inner product for the weight matrix estimation, which limits the performance of the proposed algorithm. Therefore, we further propose to learn a nonlinear function to predict sparse residuals of the feature correlation matrix. Note that the proposed method essentially factorizes the weight matrix into a low-rank and a sparse matrix and then learn both of them simultaneously with deep neural networks. Extensive experiments show that the proposed algorithm compares favorably against the state-of-the-art approaches on a wide variety of joint filtering tasks.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xu20f.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xu20f.htmlLearning Autoencoders with Relational RegularizationWe propose a new algorithmic framework for learning autoencoders of data distributions. In this framework, we minimize the discrepancy between the model distribution and the target one, with relational regularization on learnable latent prior. This regularization penalizes the fused Gromov-Wasserstein (FGW) distance between the latent prior and its corresponding posterior, which allows us to learn a structured prior distribution associated with the generative model in a flexible way. Moreover, it helps us co-train multiple autoencoders even if they are with heterogeneous architectures and incomparable latent spaces. We implement the framework with two scalable algorithms, making it applicable for both probabilistic and deterministic autoencoders. Our relational regularized autoencoder (RAE) outperforms existing methods, e.g., variational autoencoder, Wasserstein autoencoder, and their variants, on generating images. Additionally, our relational co-training strategy of autoencoders achieves encouraging results in both synthesis and real-world multi-view learning tasks.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xu20e.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xu20e.htmlUnderstanding and Stabilizing GANs’ Training Dynamics Using Control TheoryGenerative adversarial networks (GANs) are effective in generating realistic images but the training is often unstable. There are existing efforts that model the training dynamics of GANs in the parameter space but the analysis cannot directly motivate practically effective stabilizing methods. To this end, we present a conceptually novel perspective from control theory to directly model the dynamics of GANs in the frequency domain and provide simple yet effective methods to stabilize GAN’s training. We first analyze the training dynamic of a prototypical Dirac GAN and adopt the widely-used closed-loop control (CLC) to improve its stability. We then extend CLC to stabilize the training dynamic of normal GANs, which can be implemented as an L2 regularizer on the output of the discriminator. Empirical results show that our method can effectively stabilize the training and obtain state-of-the-art performance on data generation tasks.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xu20d.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xu20d.htmlA Finite-Time Analysis of Q-Learning with Neural Network Function ApproximationQ-learning with neural network function approximation (neural Q-learning for short) is among the most prevalent deep reinforcement learning algorithms. Despite its empirical success, the non-asymptotic convergence rate of neural Q-learning remains virtually unknown. In this paper, we present a finite-time analysis of a neural Q-learning algorithm, where the data are generated from a Markov decision process, and the action-value function is approximated by a deep ReLU neural network. We prove that neural Q-learning finds the optimal policy with an $O(1/\sqrt{T})$ convergence rate if the neural function approximator is sufficiently overparameterized, where $T$ is the number of iterations. To our best knowledge, our result is the first finite-time analysis of neural Q-learning under non-i.i.d. data assumption.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xu20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xu20c.htmlClass-Weighted Classification: Trade-offs and Robust ApproachesWe consider imbalanced classification, the problem in which a label may have low marginal probability relative to other labels, by weighting losses according to the correct class. First, we examine the convergence rates of the expected excess weighted risk of plug-in classifiers where the weighting for the plug-in classifier and the risk may be different. This leads to irreducible errors that do not converge to the weighted Bayes risk, which motivates our consideration of robust risks. We define a robust risk that minimizes risk over a set of weightings, show excess risk bounds for this problem, and demonstrate that particular choices of the weighting set leads to a special instance of conditional value at risk (CVaR) from stochastic programming, which we call label conditional value at risk (LCVaR). Additionally, we generalize this weighting to derive a new robust risk problem that we call label heterogeneous conditional value at risk (LHCVaR). Finally, we empirically demonstrate the efficacy of LCVaR and LHCVaR on improving class conditional risks.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xu20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xu20b.htmlOn Variational Learning of Controllable Representations for Text without SupervisionThe variational autoencoder (VAE) can learn the manifold of natural images on certain datasets, as evidenced by meaningful interpolating or extrapolating in the continuous latent space. However, on discrete data such as text, it is unclear if unsupervised learning can discover similar latent space that allows controllable manipulation. In this work, we find that sequence VAEs trained on text fail to properly decode when the latent codes are manipulated, because the modified codes often land in holes or vacant regions in the aggregated posterior latent space, where the decoding network fails to generalize. Both as a validation of the explanation and as a fix to the problem, we propose to constrain the posterior mean to a learned probability simplex, and performs manipulation within this simplex. Our proposed method mitigates the latent vacancy problem and achieves the first success in unsupervised learning of controllable representations for text. Empirically, our method outperforms unsupervised baselines and strong supervised approaches on text style transfer, and is capable of performing more flexible fine-grained control over text generation than existing methods.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xu20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xu20a.htmlOn Layer Normalization in the Transformer ArchitectureThe Transformer is widely used in natural language processing tasks. To train a Transformer however, one usually needs a carefully designed learning rate warm-up stage, which is shown to be crucial to the final performance but will slow down the optimization and bring more hyper-parameter tunings. In this paper, we first study theoretically why the learning rate warm-up stage is essential and show that the location of layer normalization matters. Specifically, we prove with mean field theory that at initialization, for the original-designed Post-LN Transformer, which places the layer normalization between the residual blocks, the expected gradients of the parameters near the output layer are large. Therefore, using a large learning rate on those gradients makes the training unstable. The warm-up stage is practically helpful for avoiding this problem. On the other hand, our theory also shows that if the layer normalization is put inside the residual blocks (recently proposed as Pre-LN Transformer), the gradients are well-behaved at initialization. This motivates us to remove the warm-up stage for the training of Pre-LN Transformers. We show in our experiments that Pre-LN Transformers without the warm-up stage can reach comparable results with baselines while requiring significantly less training time and hyper-parameter tuning on a wide range of applications.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xiong20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xiong20b.htmlOn the Number of Linear Regions of Convolutional Neural NetworksOne fundamental problem in deep learning is understanding the outstanding performance of deep Neural Networks (NNs) in practice. One explanation for the superiority of NNs is that they can realize a large class of complicated functions, i.e., they have powerful expressivity. The expressivity of a ReLU NN can be quantified by the maximal number of linear regions it can separate its input space into. In this paper, we provide several mathematical results needed for studying the linear regions of CNNs, and use them to derive the maximal and average numbers of linear regions for one-layer ReLU CNNs. Furthermore, we obtain upper and lower bounds for the number of linear regions of multi-layer ReLU CNNs. Our results suggest that deeper CNNs have more powerful expressivity than their shallow counterparts, while CNNs have more expressivity than fully-connected NNs per parameter.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xiong20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xiong20a.htmlLower Complexity Bounds for Finite-Sum Convex-Concave Minimax Optimization ProblemsThis paper studies the lower bound complexity for minimax optimization problem whose objective function is the average of $n$ individual smooth convex-concave functions. We consider the algorithm which gets access to gradient and proximal oracle for each individual component. For the strongly-convex-strongly-concave case, we prove such an algorithm can not reach an $\varepsilon$-suboptimal point in fewer than $\Omega\left((n+\kappa)\log(1/\varepsilon)\right)$ iterations, where $\kappa$ is the condition number of the objective function. This lower bound matches the upper bound of the existing incremental first-order oracle algorithm stochastic variance-reduced extragradient. We develop a novel construction to show the above result, which partitions the tridiagonal matrix of classical examples into $n$ groups. This construction is friendly to the analysis of incremental gradient and proximal oracle and we also extend the analysis to general convex-concave cases.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xie20d.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xie20d.htmlZeno++: Robust Fully Asynchronous SGDWe propose Zeno++, a new robust asynchronous Stochastic Gradient Descent(SGD) procedure, intended to tolerate Byzantine failures of workers. In contrast to previous work, Zeno++ removes several unrealistic restrictions on worker-server communication, now allowing for fully asynchronous updates from anonymous workers, for arbitrarily stale worker updates, and for the possibility of an unbounded number of Byzantine workers. The key idea is to estimate the descent of the loss value after the candidate gradient is applied, where large descent values indicate that the update results in optimization progress. We prove the convergence of Zeno++ for non-convex problems under Byzantine failures. Experimental results show that Zeno++ outperforms existing Byzantine-tolerant asynchronous SGD algorithms.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xie20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xie20c.htmlMaximum-and-Concatenation NetworksWhile successful in many fields, deep neural networks (DNNs) still suffer from some open problems such as bad local minima and unsatisfactory generalization performance. In this work, we propose a novel architecture called Maximum-and-Concatenation Networks (MCN) to try eliminating bad local minima and improving generalization ability as well. Remarkably, we prove that MCN has a very nice property; that is, every local minimum of an (l+1)-layer MCN can be better than, at least as good as, the global minima of the network consisting of its first l layers. In other words, by increasing the network depth, MCN can autonomously improve its local minima’s goodness, what is more, it is easy to plug MCN into an existing deep model to make it also have this property. Finally, under mild conditions, we show that MCN can approximate certain continuous function arbitrarily well with high efficiency; that is, the covering number of MCN is much smaller than most existing DNNs such as deep ReLU. Based on this, we further provide a tight generalization bound to guarantee the inference ability of MCN when dealing with testing samples.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xie20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xie20b.htmlOptimally Solving Two-Agent Decentralized POMDPs Under One-Sided Information SharingOptimally solving decentralized partially observable Markov decision processes under either full or no information sharing received significant attention in recent years. However, little is known about how partial information sharing affects existing theory and algorithms. This paper addresses this question for a team of two agents, with one-sided information sharing—\ie both agents have imperfect information about the state of the world, but only one has access to what the other sees and does. From the perspective of a central planner, we show that the original problem can be reformulated into an equivalent information-state Markov decision process and solved as such. Besides, we prove that the optimal value function exhibits a specific form of uniform continuity. We also present a heuristic search algorithm utilizing this property and providing the first results for this family of problems.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xie20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xie20a.htmlDisentangling Trainability and Generalization in Deep Neural NetworksA longstanding goal in the theory of deep learning is to characterize the conditions under which a given neural network architecture will be trainable, and if so, how well it might generalize to unseen data. In this work, we provide such a characterization in the limit of very wide and very deep networks, for which the analysis simplifies considerably. For wide networks, the trajectory under gradient descent is governed by the Neural Tangent Kernel (NTK), and for deep networks the NTK itself maintains only weak data dependence. By analyzing the spectrum of the NTK, we formulate necessary conditions for trainability and generalization across a range of architectures, including Fully Connected Networks (FCNs) and Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). We identify large regions of hyperparameter space for which networks can memorize the training set but completely fail to generalize. We find that CNNs without global average pooling behave almost identically to FCNs, but that CNNs with pooling have markedly different and often better generalization performance. These theoretical results are corroborated experimentally on CIFAR10 for a variety of network architectures. We include a \href{https://colab.research.google.com/github/google/neural-tangents/blob/master/notebooks/disentangling_trainability_and_generalization.ipynb}{colab} notebook that reproduces the essential results of the paper.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xiao20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xiao20b.htmlGenerative Flows with Matrix ExponentialGenerative flows models enjoy the properties of tractable exact likelihood and efficient sampling, which are composed of a sequence of invertible functions. In this paper, we incorporate matrix exponential into generative flows. Matrix exponential is a map from matrices to invertible matrices, this property is suitable for generative flows. Based on matrix exponential, we propose matrix exponential coupling layers that are a general case of affine coupling layers and matrix exponential invertible 1 x 1 convolutions that do not collapse during training. And we modify the networks architecture to make training stable and significantly speed up the training process. Our experiments show that our model achieves great performance on density estimation amongst generative flows models.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xiao20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xiao20a.htmlA Flexible Framework for Nonparametric Graphical Modeling that Accommodates Machine LearningGraphical modeling has been broadly useful for exploring the dependence structure among features in a dataset. However, the strength of graphical modeling hinges on our ability to encode and estimate conditional dependencies. In particular, commonly used measures such as partial correlation are only meaningful under strongly parametric (in this case, multivariate Gaussian) assumptions. These assumptions are unverifiable, and there is often little reason to believe they hold in practice. In this paper, we instead consider 3 non-parametric measures of conditional dependence. These measures are meaningful without structural assumptions on the multivariate distribution of the data. In addition, we show that for 2 of these measures there are simple, strong plug-in estimators that require only the estimation of a conditional mean. These plug-in estimators (1) are asymptotically linear and non-parametrically efficient, (2) allow incorporation of flexible machine learning techniques for conditional mean estimation, and (3) enable the construction of valid Wald-type confidence intervals. In addition, by leveraging the influence function of these estimators, one can obtain intervals with simultaneous coverage guarantees for all pairs of features.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xiang20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xiang20a.htmlContinuous Graph Neural NetworksThis paper builds on the connection between graph neural networks and traditional dynamical systems. We propose continuous graph neural networks (CGNN), which generalise existing graph neural networks with discrete dynamics in that they can be viewed as a specific discretisation scheme. The key idea is how to characterise the continuous dynamics of node representations, i.e. the derivatives of node representations, w.r.t. time.Inspired by existing diffusion-based methods on graphs (e.g. PageRank and epidemic models on social networks), we define the derivatives as a combination of the current node representations,the representations of neighbors, and the initial values of the nodes. We propose and analyse two possible dynamics on graphs{—}including each dimension of node representations (a.k.a. the feature channel) change independently or interact with each other{—}both with theoretical justification. The proposed continuous graph neural net-works are robust to over-smoothing and hence allow us to build deeper networks, which in turn are able to capture the long-range dependencies between nodes. Experimental results on the task of node classification demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach over competitive baselines.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xhonneux20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/xhonneux20a.htmlAmortized Population Gibbs Samplers with Neural Sufficient StatisticsWe develop amortized population Gibbs (APG) samplers, a class of scalable methods that frame structured variational inference as adaptive importance sampling. APG samplers construct high-dimensional proposals by iterating over updates to lower-dimensional blocks of variables. We train each conditional proposal by minimizing the inclusive KL divergence with respect to the conditional posterior. To appropriately account for the size of the input data, we develop a new parameterization in terms of neural sufficient statistics. Experiments show that APG samplers can be used to train highly-structured deep generative models in an unsupervised manner, and achieve substantial improvements in inference accuracy relative to standard autoencoding variational methods.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wu20h.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wu20h.htmlOn the Generalization Effects of Linear Transformations in Data AugmentationData augmentation is a powerful technique to improve performance in applications such as image and text classification tasks. Yet, there is little rigorous understanding of why and how various augmentations work. In this work, we consider a family of linear transformations and study their effects on the ridge estimator in an over-parametrized linear regression setting. First, we show that transformations which preserve the labels of the data can improve estimation by enlarging the span of the training data. Second, we show that transformations which mix data can improve estimation by playing a regularization effect. Finally, we validate our theoretical insights on MNIST. Based on the insights, we propose an augmentation scheme that searches over the space of transformations by how \emph{uncertain} the model is about the transformed data. We validate our proposed scheme on image and text datasets. For example, our method outperforms RandAugment by 1.24% on CIFAR-100 using Wide-ResNet-28-10. Furthermore, we achieve comparable accuracy to the SoTA Adversarial AutoAugment on CIFAR datasets.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wu20g.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wu20g.htmlAdversarial Robustness via Runtime Masking and CleansingDeep neural networks are shown to be vulnerable to adversarial attacks. This motivates robust learning techniques, such as the adversarial training, whose goal is to learn a network that is robust against adversarial attacks. However, the sample complexity of robust learning can be significantly larger than that of “standard” learning. In this paper, we propose improving the adversarial robustness of a network by leveraging the potentially large test data seen at runtime. We devise a new defense method, called runtime masking and cleansing (RMC), that adapts the network at runtime before making a prediction to dynamically mask network gradients and cleanse the model of the non-robust features inevitably learned during the training process due to the size limit of the training set. We conduct experiments on real-world datasets and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of RMC empirically.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wu20f.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wu20f.htmlSequence Generation with Mixed RepresentationsTokenization is the first step of many natural language processing (NLP) tasks and plays an important role for neural NLP models. Tokenizaton method such as byte-pair encoding (BPE), which can greatly reduce the large vocabulary and deal with out-of-vocabulary words, has shown to be effective and is widely adopted for sequence generation tasks. While various tokenization methods exist, there is no common acknowledgement which is the best. In this work, we propose to leverage the mixed representations from different tokenization methods for sequence generation tasks, in order to boost the model performance with unique characteristics and advantages of individual tokenization methods. Specifically, we introduce a new model architecture to incorporate mixed representations and a co-teaching algorithm to better utilize the diversity of different tokenization methods. Our approach achieves significant improvements on neural machine translation (NMT) tasks with six language pairs (e.g., English$\leftrightarrow$German, English$\leftrightarrow$Romanian), as well as an abstractive summarization task.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wu20e.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wu20e.htmlStronger and Faster Wasserstein Adversarial AttacksDeep models, while being extremely flexible and accurate, are surprisingly vulnerable to “small, imperceptible” perturbations known as adversarial attacks. While the majority of existing attacks focus on measuring perturbations under the $\ell_p$ metric, Wasserstein distance, which takes geometry in pixel space into account, has long been known to be a suitable metric for measuring image quality and has recently risen as a compelling alternative to the $\ell_p$ metric in adversarial attacks. However, constructing an effective attack under the Wasserstein metric is computationally much more challenging and calls for better optimization algorithms. We address this gap in two ways: (a) we develop an exact yet efficient projection operator to enable a stronger projected gradient attack; (b) we show that the Frank-Wolfe method equipped with a suitable linear minimization oracle works extremely fast under Wasserstein constraints. Our algorithms not only converge faster but also generate much stronger attacks. For instance, we decrease the accuracy of a residual network on CIFAR-10 to $3.4%$ within a Wasserstein perturbation ball of radius $0.005$, in contrast to $65.6%$ using the previous Wasserstein attack based on an \emph{approximate} projection operator. Furthermore, employing our stronger attacks in adversarial training significantly improves the robustness of adversarially trained models.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wu20d.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wu20d.htmlOn the Noisy Gradient Descent that Generalizes as SGDThe gradient noise of SGD is considered to play a central role in the observed strong generalization abilities of deep learning. While past studies confirm that the magnitude and the covariance structure of gradient noise are critical for regularization, it remains unclear whether or not the class of noise distributions is important. In this work we provide negative results by showing that noises in classes different from the SGD noise can also effectively regularize gradient descent. Our finding is based on a novel observation on the structure of the SGD noise: it is the multiplication of the gradient matrix and a sampling noise that arises from the mini-batch sampling procedure. Moreover, the sampling noises unify two kinds of gradient regularizing noises that belong to the Gaussian class: the one using (scaled) Fisher as covariance and the one using the gradient covariance of SGD as covariance. Finally, thanks to the flexibility of choosing noise class, an algorithm is proposed to perform noisy gradient descent that generalizes well, the variant of which even benefits large batch SGD training without hurting generalization.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wu20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wu20c.htmlDeltaGrad: Rapid retraining of machine learning modelsMachine learning models are not static and may need to be retrained on slightly changed datasets, for instance, with the addition or deletion of a set of data points. This has many applications, including privacy, robustness, bias reduction, and uncertainty quantifcation. However, it is expensive to retrain models from scratch. To address this problem, we propose the DeltaGrad algorithm for rapid retraining machine learning models based on information cached during the training phase. We provide both theoretical and empirical support for the effectiveness of DeltaGrad, and show that it compares favorably to the state of the art.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wu20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wu20b.htmlObtaining Adjustable Regularization for Free via Iterate AveragingRegularization for optimization is a crucial technique to avoid overfitting in machine learning. In order to obtain the best performance, we usually train a model by tuning the regularization parameters. It becomes costly, however, when a single round of training takes significant amount of time. Very recently, Neu and Rosasco show that if we run stochastic gradient descent (SGD) on linear regression problems, then by averaging the SGD iterates properly, we obtain a regularized solution. It left open whether the same phenomenon can be achieved for other optimization problems and algorithms. In this paper, we establish an averaging scheme that provably converts the iterates of SGD on an arbitrary strongly convex and smooth objective function to its regularized counterpart with an adjustable regularization parameter. Our approaches can be used for accelerated and preconditioned optimization methods as well. We further show that the same methods work empirically on more general optimization objectives including neural networks. In sum, we obtain adjustable regularization for free for a large class of optimization problems and resolve an open question raised by Neu and Rosasco.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wu20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wu20a.htmlIs Local SGD Better than Minibatch SGD?We study local SGD (also known as parallel SGD and federated SGD), a natural and frequently used distributed optimization method. Its theoretical foundations are currently lacking and we highlight how all existing error guarantees in the convex setting are dominated by a simple baseline, minibatch SGD. (1) For quadratic objectives we prove that local SGD strictly dominates minibatch SGD and that accelerated local SGD is minmax optimal for quadratics; (2) For general convex objectives we provide the first guarantee that at least \emph{sometimes} improves over minibatch SGD, but our guarantee does not always improve over, nor even match, minibatch SGD; (3) We show that indeed local SGD does \emph{not} dominate minibatch SGD by presenting a lower bound on the performance of local SGD that is worse than the minibatch SGD guarantee.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/woodworth20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/woodworth20a.htmlNear Input Sparsity Time Kernel Embeddings via Adaptive SamplingTo accelerate kernel methods, we propose a near input sparsity time method for sampling the high-dimensional space implicitly defined by a kernel transformation. Our main contribution is an importance sampling method for subsampling the feature space of a degree $q$ tensoring of data points in almost input sparsity time, improving the recent oblivious sketching of (Ahle et al., 2020) by a factor of $q^{5/2}/\epsilon^2$. This leads to a subspace embedding for the polynomial kernel as well as the Gaussian kernel with a target dimension that is only linearly dependent on the statistical dimension of the kernel and in time which is only linearly dependent on the sparsity of the input dataset. We show how our subspace embedding bounds imply new statistical guarantees for kernel ridge regression. Furthermore, we empirically show that in large-scale regression tasks, our algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art kernel approximation methods.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/woodruff20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/woodruff20a.htmlCausal Inference using Gaussian Processes with Structured Latent ConfoundersLatent confounders—unobserved variables that influence both treatment and outcome—can bias estimates of causal effects. In some cases, these confounders are shared across observations, e.g. all students taking a course are influenced by the course’s difficulty in addition to any educational interventions they receive individually. This paper shows how to semiparametrically model latent confounders that have this structure and thereby improve estimates of causal effects. The key innovations are a hierarchical Bayesian model, Gaussian processes with structured latent confounders (GP-SLC), and a Monte Carlo inference algorithm for this model based on elliptical slice sampling. GP-SLC provides principled Bayesian uncertainty estimates of individual treatment effect with minimal assumptions about the functional forms relating confounders, covariates, treatment, and outcome. Finally, this paper shows GP-SLC is competitive with or more accurate than widely used causal inference techniques on three benchmark datasets, including the Infant Health and Development Program and a dataset showing the effect of changing temperatures on state-wide energy consumption across New England.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/witty20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/witty20a.htmlLearning to Rank Learning CurvesMany automated machine learning methods, such as those for hyperparameter and neural architecture optimization, are computationally expensive because they involve training many different model configurations. In this work, we present a new method that saves computational budget by terminating poor configurations early on in the training. In contrast to existing methods, we consider this task as a ranking and transfer learning problem. We qualitatively show that by optimizing a pairwise ranking loss and leveraging learning curves from other data sets, our model is able to effectively rank learning curves without having to observe many or very long learning curves. We further demonstrate that our method can be used to accelerate a neural architecture search by a factor of up to 100 without a significant performance degradation of the discovered architecture. In further experiments we analyze the quality of ranking, the influence of different model components as well as the predictive behavior of the model.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wistuba20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wistuba20a.htmlEfficiently sampling functions from Gaussian process posteriorsGaussian processes are the gold standard for many real-world modeling problems, especially in cases where a model’s success hinges upon its ability to faithfully represent predictive uncertainty. These problems typically exist as parts of larger frameworks, wherein quantities of interest are ultimately defined by integrating over posterior distributions. These quantities are frequently intractable, motivating the use of Monte Carlo methods. Despite substantial progress in scaling up Gaussian processes to large training sets, methods for accurately generating draws from their posterior distributions still scale cubically in the number of test locations. We identify a decomposition of Gaussian processes that naturally lends itself to scalable sampling by separating out the prior from the data. Building off of this factorization, we propose an easy-to-use and general-purpose approach for fast posterior sampling, which seamlessly pairs with sparse approximations to afford scalability both during training and at test time. In a series of experiments designed to test competing sampling schemes’ statistical properties and practical ramifications, we demonstrate how decoupled sample paths accurately represent Gaussian process posteriors at a fraction of the usual cost.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wilson20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wilson20a.htmlEfficient nonparametric statistical inference on population feature importance using Shapley valuesThe true population-level importance of a variable in a prediction task provides useful knowledge about the underlying data-generating mechanism and can help in deciding which measurements to collect in subsequent experiments. Valid statistical inference on this importance is a key component in understanding the population of interest. We present a computationally efficient procedure for estimating and obtaining valid statistical inference on the \textbf{S}hapley \textbf{P}opulation \textbf{V}ariable \textbf{I}mportance \textbf{M}easure (SPVIM). Although the computational complexity of the true SPVIM scales exponentially with the number of variables, we propose an estimator based on randomly sampling only $\Theta(n)$ feature subsets given $n$ observations. We prove that our estimator converges at an asymptotically optimal rate. Moreover, by deriving the asymptotic distribution of our estimator, we construct valid confidence intervals and hypothesis tests. Our procedure has good finite-sample performance in simulations, and for an in-hospital mortality prediction task produces similar variable importance estimates when different machine learning algorithms are applied.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/williamson20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/williamson20a.htmlState Space Expectation Propagation: Efficient Inference Schemes for Temporal Gaussian ProcessesWe formulate approximate Bayesian inference in non-conjugate temporal and spatio-temporal Gaussian process models as a simple parameter update rule applied during Kalman smoothing. This viewpoint encompasses most inference schemes, including expectation propagation (EP), the classical (Extended, Unscented, etc.) Kalman smoothers, and variational inference. We provide a unifying perspective on these algorithms, showing how replacing the power EP moment matching step with linearisation recovers the classical smoothers. EP provides some benefits over the traditional methods via introduction of the so-called cavity distribution, and we combine these benefits with the computational efficiency of linearisation, providing extensive empirical analysis demonstrating the efficacy of various algorithms under this unifying framework. We provide a fast implementation of all methods in JAX.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wilkinson20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wilkinson20a.htmlPredictive Sampling with Forecasting Autoregressive ModelsAutoregressive models (ARMs) currently hold state-of-the-art performance in likelihood-based modeling of image and audio data. Generally, neural network based ARMs are designed to allow fast inference, but sampling from these models is impractically slow. In this paper, we introduce the predictive sampling algorithm: a procedure that exploits the fast inference property of ARMs in order to speed up sampling, while keeping the model intact. We propose two variations of predictive sampling, namely sampling with ARM fixed-point iteration and learned forecasting modules. Their effectiveness is demonstrated in two settings: i) explicit likelihood modeling on binary MNIST, SVHN and CIFAR10, and ii) discrete latent modeling in an autoencoder trained on SVHN, CIFAR10 and Imagenet32. Empirically, we show considerable improvements over baselines in number of ARM inference calls and sampling speed.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wiggers20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wiggers20a.htmlHow Good is the Bayes Posterior in Deep Neural Networks Really?During the past five years the Bayesian deep learning community has developed increasingly accurate and efficient approximate inference procedures that allow for Bayesian inference in deep neural networks. However, despite this algorithmic progress and the promise of improved uncertainty quantification and sample efficiency there are—as of early 2020—no publicized deployments of Bayesian neural networks in industrial practice. In this work we cast doubt on the current understanding of Bayes posteriors in popular deep neural networks: we demonstrate through careful MCMC sampling that the posterior predictive induced by the Bayes posterior yields systematically worse predictions when compared to simpler methods including point estimates obtained from SGD. Furthermore, we demonstrate that predictive performance is improved significantly through the use of a “cold posterior” that overcounts evidence. Such cold posteriors sharply deviate from the Bayesian paradigm but are commonly used as heuristic in Bayesian deep learning papers. We put forward several hypotheses that could explain cold posteriors and evaluate the hypotheses through experiments. Our work questions the goal of accurate posterior approximations in Bayesian deep learning: If the true Bayes posterior is poor, what is the use of more accurate approximations? Instead, we argue that it is timely to focus on understanding the origin of cold posteriors.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wenzel20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wenzel20a.htmlAmortised Learning by Wake-SleepModels that employ latent variables to capture structure in observed data lie at the heart of many current unsupervised learning algorithms, but exact maximum-likelihood learning for powerful and flexible latent-variable models is almost always intractable. Thus, state-of-the-art approaches either abandon the maximum-likelihood framework entirely, or else rely on a variety of variational approximations to the posterior distribution over the latents. Here, we propose an alternative approach that we call amortised learning. Rather than computing an approximation to the posterior over latents, we use a wake-sleep Monte-Carlo strategy to learn a function that directly estimates the maximum-likelihood parameter updates. Amortised learning is possible whenever samples of latents and observations can be simulated from the generative model, treating the model as a “black box”. We demonstrate its effectiveness on a wide range of complex models, including those with latents that are discrete or supported on non-Euclidean spaces.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wenliang20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wenliang20a.htmlTowards Understanding the Regularization of Adversarial Robustness on Neural NetworksThe problem of adversarial examples has shown that modern Neural Network (NN) models could be rather fragile. Among the more established techniques to solve the problem, one is to require the model to be \emph{$\epsilon$-adversarially robust} (AR); that is, to require the model not to change predicted labels when any given input examples are perturbed within a certain range. However, it is observed that such methods would lead to standard performance degradation, i.e., the degradation on natural examples. In this work, we study the degradation through the regularization perspective. We identify quantities from generalization analysis of NNs; with the identified quantities we empirically find that AR is achieved by regularizing/biasing NNs towards less confident solutions by making the changes in the feature space (induced by changes in the instance space) of most layers smoother uniformly in all directions; so to a certain extent, it prevents sudden change in prediction w.r.t. perturbations. However, the end result of such smoothing concentrates samples around decision boundaries, resulting in less confident solutions, and leads to worse standard performance. Our studies suggest that one might consider ways that build AR into NNs in a gentler way to avoid the problematic regularization.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wen20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wen20c.htmlDomain Aggregation Networks for Multi-Source Domain AdaptationIn many real-world applications, we want to exploit multiple source datasets to build a model for a different but related target dataset. Despite the recent empirical success, most existing research has used ad-hoc methods to combine multiple sources, leading to a gap between theory and practice. In this paper, we develop a finite-sample generalization bound based on domain discrepancy and accordingly propose a theoretically justified optimization procedure. Our algorithm, Domain AggRegation Network (DARN), can automatically and dynamically balance between including more data to increase effective sample size and excluding irrelevant data to avoid negative effects during training. We find that DARN can significantly outperform the state-of-the-art alternatives on multiple real-world tasks, including digit/object recognition and sentiment analysis.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wen20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wen20b.htmlBatch Stationary Distribution EstimationWe consider the problem of approximating the stationary distribution of an ergodic Markov chain given a set of sampled transitions. Classical simulation-based approaches assume access to the underlying process so that trajectories of sufficient length can be gathered to approximate stationary sampling. Instead, we consider an alternative setting where a \emph{fixed} set of transitions has been collected beforehand, by a separate, possibly unknown procedure. The goal is still to estimate properties of the stationary distribution, but without additional access to the underlying system. We propose a consistent estimator that is based on recovering a correction ratio function over the given data. In particular, we develop a variational power method (VPM) that provides provably consistent estimates under general conditions. In addition to unifying a number of existing approaches from different subfields, we also find that VPM yields significantly better estimates across a range of problems, including queueing, stochastic differential equations, post-processing MCMC, and off-policy evaluation.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wen20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wen20a.htmlOnline Control of the False Coverage Rate and False Sign RateThe reproducibility debate has caused a renewed interest in changing how one reports uncertainty, from $p$-value for testing a null hypothesis to a confidence interval (CI) for the corresponding parameter. When CIs for multiple selected parameters are being reported, the analog of the false discovery rate (FDR) is the false coverage rate (FCR), which is the expected ratio of number of reported CIs failing to cover their respective parameters to the total number of reported CIs. Here, we consider the general problem of FCR control in the online setting, where one encounters an infinite sequence of fixed unknown parameters ordered by time. We propose a novel solution to the problem which only requires the scientist to be able to construct marginal CIs. As special cases, our framework yields algorithms for online FDR control and online sign-classification procedures that control the false sign rate (FSR). All of our methodology applies equally well to prediction intervals, having particular implications for selective conformal inference.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/weinstein20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/weinstein20a.htmlThe Implicit and Explicit Regularization Effects of DropoutDropout is a widely-used regularization technique, often required to obtain state-of-the-art for a number of architectures. This work demonstrates that dropout introduces two distinct but entangled regularization effects: an explicit effect (also studied in prior work) which occurs since dropout modifies the expected training objective, and, perhaps surprisingly, an additional implicit effect from the stochasticity in the dropout training update. This implicit regularization effect is analogous to the effect of stochasticity in small mini-batch stochastic gradient descent. We disentangle these two effects through controlled experiments. We then derive analytic simplifications which characterize each effect in terms of the derivatives of the model and the loss, for deep neural networks. We demonstrate these simplified, analytic regularizers accurately capture the important aspects of dropout, showing they faithfully replace dropout in practice.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wei20d.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wei20d.htmlModel-free Reinforcement Learning in Infinite-horizon Average-reward Markov Decision ProcessesModel-free reinforcement learning is known to be memory and computation efficient and more amendable to large scale problems. In this paper, two model-free algorithms are introduced for learning infinite-horizon average-reward Markov Decision Processes (MDPs). The first algorithm reduces the problem to the discounted-reward version and achieves $\mathcal{O}(T^{2/3})$ regret after $T$ steps, under the minimal assumption of weakly communicating MDPs. To our knowledge, this is the first model-free algorithm for general MDPs in this setting. The second algorithm makes use of recent advances in adaptive algorithms for adversarial multi-armed bandits and improves the regret to $\mathcal{O}(\sqrt{T})$, albeit with a stronger ergodic assumption. This result significantly improves over the $\mathcal{O}(T^{3/4})$ regret achieved by the only existing model-free algorithm by Abbasi-Yadkori et al. (2019) for ergodic MDPs in the infinite-horizon average-reward setting.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wei20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wei20c.htmlTuning-free Plug-and-Play Proximal Algorithm for Inverse Imaging ProblemsPlug-and-play (PnP) is a non-convex framework that combines ADMM or other proximal algorithms with advanced denoiser priors. Recently, PnP has achieved great empirical success, especially with the integration of deep learning-based denoisers. However, a key problem of PnP based approaches is that they require manual parameter tweaking. It is necessary to obtain high-quality results across the high discrepancy in terms of imaging conditions and varying scene content. In this work, we present a tuning-free PnP proximal algorithm, which can automatically determine the internal parameters including the penalty parameter, the denoising strength and the terminal time. A key part of our approach is to develop a policy network for automatic search of parameters, which can be effectively learned via mixed model-free and model-based deep reinforcement learning. We demonstrate, through numerical and visual experiments, that the learned policy can customize different parameters for different states, and often more efficient and effective than existing handcrafted criteria. Moreover, we discuss the practical considerations of the plugged denoisers, which together with our learned policy yield state-of-the-art results. This is prevalent on both linear and nonlinear exemplary inverse imaging problems, and in particular, we show promising results on Compressed Sensing MRI and phase retrieval.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wei20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wei20b.htmlLearning Representations that Support ExtrapolationExtrapolation – the ability to make inferences that go beyond the scope of one’s experiences – is a hallmark of human intelligence. By contrast, the generalization exhibited by contemporary neural network algorithms is largely limited to interpolation between data points in their training corpora. In this paper, we consider the challenge of learning representations that support extrapolation. We introduce a novel visual analogy benchmark that allows the graded evaluation of extrapolation as a function of distance from the convex domain defined by the training data. We also introduce a simple technique, temporal context normalization, that encourages representations that emphasize the relations between objects. We find that this technique enables a significant improvement in the ability to extrapolate, considerably outperforming a number of competitive techniques.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/webb20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/webb20a.htmlBreaking the Curse of Many Agents: Provable Mean Embedding Q-Iteration for Mean-Field Reinforcement LearningMulti-agent reinforcement learning (MARL) achieves significant empirical successes. However, MARL suffers from the curse of many agents. In this paper, we exploit the symmetry of agents in MARL. In the most generic form, we study a mean-field MARL problem. Such a mean-field MARL is defined on mean-field states, which are distributions that are supported on continuous space. Based on the mean embedding of the distributions, we propose MF-FQI algorithm, which solves the mean-field MARL and establishes a non-asymptotic analysis for MF-FQI algorithm. We highlight that MF-FQI algorithm enjoys a “blessing of many agents” property in the sense that a larger number of observed agents improves the performance of MF-FQI algorithm.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20z.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20z.htmlOn Differentially Private Stochastic Convex Optimization with Heavy-tailed DataIn this paper, we consider the problem of designing Differentially Private (DP) algorithms for Stochastic Convex Optimization (SCO) on heavy-tailed data. The irregularity of such data violates some key assumptions used in almost all existing DP-SCO and DP-ERM methods, resulting in failure to provide the DP guarantees. To better understand this type of challenges, we provide in this paper a comprehensive study of DP-SCO under various settings. First, we consider the case where the loss function is strongly convex and smooth. For this case, we propose a method based on the sample-and-aggregate framework, which has an excess population risk of $\tilde{O}(\frac{d^3}{n\epsilon^4})$ (after omitting other factors), where $n$ is the sample size and $d$ is the dimensionality of the data. Then, we show that with some additional assumptions on the loss functions, it is possible to reduce the \emph{expected} excess population risk to $\tilde{O}(\frac{ d^2}{ n\epsilon^2 })$. To lift these additional conditions, we also provide a gradient smoothing and trimming based scheme to achieve excess population risks of $\tilde{O}(\frac{ d^2}{n\epsilon^2})$ and $\tilde{O}(\frac{d^\frac{2}{3}}{(n\epsilon^2)^\frac{1}{3}})$ for strongly convex and general convex loss functions, respectively, \emph{with high probability}. Experiments on both synthetic and real-world datasets suggest that our algorithms can effectively deal with the challenges caused by data irregularity.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20y.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20y.htmlStriving for Simplicity and Performance in Off-Policy DRL: Output Normalization and Non-Uniform SamplingWe aim to develop off-policy DRL algorithms that not only exceed state-of-the-art performance but are also simple and minimalistic. For standard continuous control benchmarks, Soft Actor-Critic (SAC), which employs entropy maximization, currently provides state-of-the-art performance. We first demonstrate that the entropy term in SAC addresses action saturation due to the bounded nature of the action spaces, with this insight, we propose a streamlined algorithm with a simple normalization scheme or with inverted gradients. We show that both approaches can match SAC’s sample efficiency performance without the need of entropy maximization, we then propose a simple non-uniform sampling method for selecting transitions from the replay buffer during training. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our proposed sampling scheme leads to state of the art sample efficiency on challenging continuous control tasks. We combine all of our findings into one simple algorithm, which we call Streamlined Off Policy with Emphasizing Recent Experience, for which we provide robust public-domain code.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20x.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20x.htmlCost-effectively Identifying Causal Effects When Only Response Variable is ObservableIn many real tasks, we care about how to make decisions rather than mere predictions on an event, e.g. how to increase the revenue next month instead of merely knowing it will drop. The key is to identify the causal effects on the desired event. It is achievable with do-calculus if the causal structure is known; however, in many real tasks it is not easy to infer the whole causal structure with the observational data. Introducing external interventions is needed to achieve it. In this paper, we study the situation where only the response variable is observable under intervention. We propose a novel approach which is able to cost-effectively identify the causal effects, by an active strategy introducing limited interventions, and thus guide decision-making. Theoretical analysis and empirical studies validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20w.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20w.htmlNeural Network Control Policy Verification With Persistent Adversarial PerturbationDeep neural networks are known to be fragile to small adversarial perturbations, which raises serious concerns when a neural network policy is interconnected with a physical system in a closed loop. In this paper, we show how to combine recent works on static neural network certification tools with robust control theory to certify a neural network policy in a control loop. We give a sufficient condition and an algorithm to ensure that the closed loop state and control constraints are satisfied when the persistent adversarial perturbation is l-infinity norm bounded. Our method is based on finding a positively invariant set of the closed loop dynamical system, and thus we do not require the continuity of the neural network policy. Along with the verification result, we also develop an effective attack strategy for neural network control systems that outperforms exhaustive Monte-Carlo search significantly. We show that our certification algorithm works well on learned models and could achieve 5 times better result than the traditional Lipschitz-based method to certify the robustness of a neural network policy on the cart-pole balance control problem.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20v.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20v.htmlSequential Cooperative Bayesian InferenceCooperation is often implicitly assumed when learning from other agents. Cooperation implies that the agent selecting the data, and the agent learning from the data, have the same goal, that the learner infer the intended hypothesis. Recent models in human and machine learning have demonstrated the possibility of cooperation. We seek foundational theoretical results for cooperative inference by Bayesian agents through sequential data. We develop novel approaches analyzing consistency, rate of convergence and stability of Sequential Cooperative Bayesian Inference (SCBI). Our analysis of the effectiveness, sample efficiency and robustness show that cooperation is not only possible but theoretically well-founded. We discuss implications for human-human and human-machine cooperation.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20u.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20u.htmlLoss Function Search for Face RecognitionIn face recognition, designing margin-based (\emph{e.g.}, angular, additive, additive angular margins) softmax loss functions plays an important role to learn discriminative features. However, these hand-crafted heuristic methods may be sub-optimal because they require much effort to explore the large design space. Recently, an AutoML for loss function search method AM-LFS has been derived, which leverages reinforcement learning to search loss functions during the training process. But its search space is complex and unstable that hindering its superiority. In this paper, we first analyze that the key to enhance the feature discrimination is actually \textbf{how to reduce the softmax probability}. We then design a unified formulation for the current margin-based softmax losses. Accordingly, we define a novel search space and develop a reward-guided search method to automatically obtain the best candidate. Experimental results on a variety of face recognition benchmarks have demonstrated the effectiveness of our method over the state-of-the-art alternatives.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20t.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20t.htmlDoubly Stochastic Variational Inference for Neural Processes with Hierarchical Latent VariablesNeural processes (NPs) constitute a family of variational approximate models for stochastic processes with promising properties in computational efficiency and uncertainty quantification. These processes use neural networks with latent variable inputs to induce a predictive distribution. However, the expressiveness of vanilla NPs is limited as they only use a global latent variable, while target-specific local variation may be crucial sometimes. To address this challenge, we investigate NPs systematically and present a new variant of NP model that we call Doubly Stochastic Variational Neural Process (DSVNP). This model combines the global latent variable and local latent variables for prediction. We evaluate this model in several experiments, and our results demonstrate competitive prediction performance in multi-output regression and uncertainty estimation in classification.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20s.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20s.htmlWhen deep denoising meets iterative phase retrievalRecovering a signal from its Fourier intensity underlies many important applications, including lensless imaging and imaging through scattering media. Conventional algorithms for retrieving the phase suffer when noise is present but display global convergence when given clean data. Neural networks have been used to improve algorithm robustness, but efforts to date are sensitive to initial conditions and give inconsistent performance. Here, we combine iterative methods from phase retrieval with image statistics from deep denoisers, via regularization-by-denoising. The resulting methods inherit the advantages of each approach and outperform other noise-robust phase retrieval algorithms. Our work paves the way for hybrid imaging methods that integrate machine-learned constraints in conventional algorithms.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20r.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20r.htmlBandits for BMO FunctionsWe study the bandit problem where the underlying expected reward is a Bounded Mean Oscillation (BMO) function. BMO functions are allowed to be discontinuous and unbounded, and are useful in modeling signals with singularities in the domain. We develop a toolset for BMO bandits, and provide an algorithm that can achieve poly-log $\delta$-regret – a regret measured against an arm that is optimal after removing a $\delta$-sized portion of the arm space.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20q.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20q.htmlOptimizing Data Usage via Differentiable RewardsTo acquire a new skill, humans learn better and faster if a tutor, based on their current knowledge level, informs them of how much attention they should pay to particular content or practice problems. Similarly, a machine learning model could potentially be trained better with a scorer that “adapts” to its current learning state and estimates the importance of each training data instance. Training such an adaptive scorer efficiently is a challenging problem; in order to precisely quantify the effect of a data instance at a given time during the training, it is typically necessary to first complete the entire training process. To efficiently optimize data usage, we propose a reinforcement learning approach called Differentiable Data Selection (DDS). In DDS, we formulate a scorer network as a learnable function of the training data, which can be efficiently updated along with the main model being trained. Specifically, DDS updates the scorer with an intuitive reward signal: it should up-weigh the data that has a similar gradient with a dev set upon which we would finally like to perform well. Without significant computing overhead, DDS delivers strong and consistent improvements over several strong baselines on two very different tasks of machine translation and image classification.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20p.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20p.htmlBoXHED: Boosted eXact Hazard Estimator with Dynamic covariatesThe proliferation of medical monitoring devices makes it possible to track health vitals at high frequency, enabling the development of dynamic health risk scores that change with the underlying readings. Survival analysis, in particular hazard estimation, is well-suited to analyzing this stream of data to predict disease onset as a function of the time-varying vitals. This paper introduces the software package BoXHED (pronounced ‘box-head’) for nonparametrically estimating hazard functions via gradient boosting. BoXHED 1.0 is a novel tree-based implementation of the generic estimator proposed in Lee et al. (2017), which was designed for handling time-dependent covariates in a fully nonparametric manner. BoXHED is also the first publicly available software implementation for Lee et al. (2017). Applying it to a cardiovascular disease dataset from the Framingham Heart Study reveals novel interaction effects among known risk factors, potentially resolving an open question in clinical literature. BoXHED is available from GitHub: www.github.com/BoXHED.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20o.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20o.htmlDeep Streaming Label LearningIn multi-label learning, each instance can be associated with multiple and non-exclusive labels. Previous studies assume that all the labels in the learning process are fixed and static; however, they ignore the fact that the labels will emerge continuously in changing environments. In order to fill in these research gaps, we propose a novel deep neural network (DNN) based framework, Deep Streaming Label Learning (DSLL), to classify instances with newly emerged labels effectively. DSLL can explore and incorporate the knowledge from past labels and historical models to understand and develop emerging new labels. DSLL consists of three components: 1) a streaming label mapping to extract deep relationships between new labels and past labels with a novel label-correlation aware loss; 2) a streaming feature distillation propagating feature-level knowledge from the historical model to a new model; 3) a senior student network to model new labels with the help of knowledge learned from the past. Theoretically, we prove that DSLL admits tight generalization error bounds for new labels in the DNN framework. Experimentally, extensive empirical results show that the proposed method performs significantly better than the existing state-of-the-art multi-label learning methods to handle the continually emerging new labels.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20n.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20n.htmlHaar Graph PoolingDeep Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) are useful models for graph classification and graph-based regression tasks. In these tasks, graph pooling is a critical ingredient by which GNNs adapt to input graphs of varying size and structure. We propose a new graph pooling operation based on compressive Haar transforms — \emph{HaarPooling}. HaarPooling implements a cascade of pooling operations; it is computed by following a sequence of clusterings of the input graph. A HaarPooling layer transforms a given input graph to an output graph with a smaller node number and the same feature dimension; the compressive Haar transform filters out fine detail information in the Haar wavelet domain. In this way, all the HaarPooling layers together synthesize the features of any given input graph into a feature vector of uniform size. Such transforms provide a sparse characterization of the data and preserve the structure information of the input graph. GNNs implemented with standard graph convolution layers and HaarPooling layers achieve state of the art performance on diverse graph classification and regression problems.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20m.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20m.htmlEnhanced POET: Open-ended Reinforcement Learning through Unbounded Invention of Learning Challenges and their SolutionsCreating open-ended algorithms, which generate their own never-ending stream of novel and appropriately challenging learning opportunities, could help to automate and accelerate progress in machine learning. A recent step in this direction is the Paired Open-Ended Trailblazer (POET), an algorithm that generates and solves its own challenges, and allows solutions to goal-switch between challenges to avoid local optima. However, the original POET was unable to demonstrate its full creative potential because of limitations of the algorithm itself and because of external issues including a limited problem space and lack of a universal progress measure. Importantly, both limitations pose impediments not only for POET, but for the pursuit of open-endedness in general. Here we introduce and empirically validate two new innovations to the original algorithm, as well as two external innovations designed to help elucidate its full potential. Together, these four advances enable the most open-ended algorithmic demonstration to date. The algorithmic innovations are (1) a domain-general measure of how meaningfully novel new challenges are, enabling the system to potentially create and solve interesting challenges endlessly, and (2) an efficient heuristic for determining when agents should goal-switch from one problem to another (helping open-ended search better scale). Outside the algorithm itself, to enable a more definitive demonstration of open-endedness, we introduce (3) a novel, more flexible way to encode environmental challenges, and (4) a generic measure of the extent to which a system continues to exhibit open-ended innovation. Enhanced POET produces a diverse range of sophisticated behaviors that solve a wide range of environmental challenges, many of which cannot be solved through other means.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20l.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20l.htmlUnderstanding Contrastive Representation Learning through Alignment and Uniformity on the HypersphereContrastive representation learning has been outstandingly successful in practice. In this work, we identify two key properties related to the contrastive loss: (1) alignment (closeness) of features from positive pairs, and (2) uniformity of the induced distribution of the (normalized) features on the hypersphere. We prove that, asymptotically, the contrastive loss optimizes these properties, and analyze their positive effects on downstream tasks. Empirically, we introduce an optimizable metric to quantify each property. Extensive experiments on standard vision and language datasets confirm the strong agreement between both metrics and downstream task performance. Directly optimizing for these two metrics leads to representations with comparable or better performance at downstream tasks than contrastive learning.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20k.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20k.htmlFrustratingly Simple Few-Shot Object DetectionDetecting rare objects from a few examples is an emerging problem. Prior works show meta-learning is a promising approach. But, fine-tuning techniques have drawn scant attention. We find that fine-tuning only the last layer of existing detectors on rare classes is crucial to the few-shot object detection task. Such a simple approach outperforms the meta-learning methods by roughly 2 20 points on current benchmarks and sometimes even doubles the accuracy of the prior methods. However, the high variance in the few samples often leads to the unreliability of existing benchmarks. We revise the evaluation protocols by sampling multiple groups of training examples to obtain stable comparisons and build new benchmarks based on three datasets: PASCAL VOC, COCO and LVIS. Again, our fine-tuning approach establishes a new state of the art on the revised benchmarks. The code as well as the pretrained models are available at https://github.com/ucbdrive/few-shot-object-detection.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20j.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20j.htmlLearning Efficient Multi-agent Communication: An Information Bottleneck ApproachWe consider the problem of the limited-bandwidth communication for multi-agent reinforcement learning, where agents cooperate with the assistance of a communication protocol and a scheduler. The protocol and scheduler jointly determine which agent is communicating what message and to whom. Under the limited bandwidth constraint, a communication protocol is required to generate informative messages. Meanwhile, an unnecessary communication connection should not be established because it occupies limited resources in vain. In this paper, we develop an Informative Multi-Agent Communication (IMAC) method to learn efficient communication protocols as well as scheduling. First, from the perspective of communication theory, we prove that the limited bandwidth constraint requires low-entropy messages throughout the transmission. Then inspired by the information bottleneck principle, we learn a valuable and compact communication protocol and a weight-based scheduler. To demonstrate the efficiency of our method, we conduct extensive experiments in various cooperative and competitive multi-agent tasks with different numbers of agents and different bandwidths. We show that IMAC converges faster and leads to efficient communication among agents under the limited bandwidth as compared to many baseline methods.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20i.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20i.htmlContinuously Indexed Domain AdaptationExisting domain adaptation focuses on transferring knowledge between domains with categorical indices (e.g., between datasets A and B). However, many tasks involve continuously indexed domains. For example, in medical applications, one often needs to transfer disease analysis and prediction across patients of different ages, where age acts as a continuous domain index. Such tasks are challenging for prior domain adaptation methods since they ignore the underlying relation among domains. In this paper, we propose the first method for continuously indexed domain adaptation. Our approach combines traditional adversarial adaptation with a novel discriminator that models the encoding-conditioned domain index distribution. Our theoretical analysis demonstrates the value of leveraging the domain index to generate invariant features across a continuous range of domains. Our empirical results show that our approach outperforms the state-of-the-art domain adaption methods on both synthetic and real-world medical datasets.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20h.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20h.htmlNon-separable Non-stationary random fieldsWe describe a framework for constructing nonstationary nonseparable random fields based on an infinite mixture of convolved stochastic processes. When the mixing process is stationary but the convolution function is nonstationary we arrive at nonseparable kernels with constant non-separability that are available in closed form. When the mixing is nonstationary and the convolution function is stationary we arrive at nonseparable random fields that have varying nonseparability and better preserve local structure. These fields have natural interpretations through the spectral representation of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) and are demonstrated on a range of synthetic benchmarks and spatio-temporal applications in geostatistics and machine learning. We show how a single Gaussian process (GP) with these random fields can computationally and statistically outperform both separable and existing nonstationary nonseparable approaches such as treed GPs and deep GP constructions.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20g.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20g.htmlROMA: Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning with Emergent RolesThe role concept provides a useful tool to design and understand complex multi-agent systems, which allows agents with a similar role to share similar behaviors. However, existing role-based methods use prior domain knowledge and predefine role structures and behaviors. In contrast, multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL) provides flexibility and adaptability, but less efficiency in complex tasks. In this paper, we synergize these two paradigms and propose a role-oriented MARL framework (ROMA). In this framework, roles are emergent, and agents with similar roles tend to share their learning and to be specialized on certain sub-tasks. To this end, we construct a stochastic role embedding space by introducing two novel regularizers and conditioning individual policies on roles. Experiments show that our method can learn specialized, dynamic, and identifiable roles, which help our method push forward the state of the art on the StarCraft II micromanagement benchmark. Demonstrative videos are available at https://sites.google.com/view/romarl/.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20f.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20f.htmlUpper bounds for Model-Free Row-Sparse Principal Component AnalysisSparse principal component analysis (PCA) is a widely-used dimensionality reduction tool in statistics and machine learning. Most methods mentioned in literature are either heuristics for good primal feasible solutions under statistical assumptions or ADMM-type algorithms with stationary/critical points convergence property for the regularized reformulation of sparse PCA. However, none of these methods can efficiently verify the quality of the solutions via comparing current objective values with their dual bounds, especially in model-free case. We propose a new framework that finds out upper (dual) bounds for the sparse PCA within polynomial time via solving a convex integer program (IP). We show that, in the worst-case, the dual bounds provided by the convex IP is within an affine function of the global optimal value. Moreover, in contrast to the semi-definition relaxation, this framework is much easier to scale on large cases. Numerical results on both artificial and real cases are reported to demonstrate the advantages of our method.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20e.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20e.htmlSelf-Modulating Nonparametric Event-Tensor FactorizationTensor factorization is a fundamental framework to analyze high-order interactions in data. Despite the success of the existing methods, the valuable temporal information are severely underused. The timestamps of the interactions are either ignored or discretized into crude steps. The recent work although formulates event-tensors to keep the timestamps in factorization and can capture mutual excitation effects among the interaction events, it overlooks another important type of temporal influence, inhibition. In addition, it uses a local window to exclude all the long-term dependencies. To overcome these limitations, we propose a self-modulating nonparametric Bayesian factorization model. We use the latent factors to construct mutually governed, general random point processes, which can capture various short-term/long-term, excitation/inhibition effects, so as to encode the complex temporal dependencies into factor representations. In addition, our model couples with a latent Gaussian process to estimate and fuse nonlinear yet static relationships between the entities. For efficient inference, we derive a fully decomposed model evidence lower bound to dispense with the huge kernel matrix and costly summations inside the rate and log rate functions. We then develop an efficient stochastic optimization algorithm. We show the advantage of our method in four real-world applications.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20d.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20d.htmlTowards Accurate Post-training Network Quantization via Bit-Split and StitchingNetwork quantization is essential for deploying deep models to IoT devices due to its high efficiency. Most existing quantization approaches rely on the full training datasets and the time-consuming fine-tuning to retain accuracy. Post-training quantization does not have these problems, however, it has mainly been shown effective for 8-bit quantization due to the simple optimization strategy. In this paper, we propose a Bit-Split and Stitching framework (Bit-split) for lower-bit post-training quantization with minimal accuracy degradation. The proposed framework is validated on a variety of computer vision tasks, including image classification, object detection, instance segmentation, with various network architectures. Specifically, Bit-split can achieve near-original model performance even when quantizing FP32 models to INT3 without fine-tuning.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20c.htmlOn the Global Optimality of Model-Agnostic Meta-LearningModel-agnostic meta-learning (MAML) formulates meta-learning as a bilevel optimization problem, where the inner level solves each subtask based on a shared prior, while the outer level searches for the optimal shared prior by optimizing its aggregated performance over all the subtasks. Despite its empirical success, MAML remains less understood in theory, especially in terms of its global optimality, due to the nonconvexity of the meta-objective (the outer-level objective). To bridge such a gap between theory and practice, we characterize the optimality gap of the stationary points attained by MAML for both reinforcement learning and supervised learning, where the inner-level and outer-level problems are solved via first-order optimization methods. In particular, our characterization connects the optimality gap of such stationary points with (i) the functional geometry of inner-level objectives and (ii) the representation power of function approximators, including linear models and neural networks. To the best of our knowledge, our analysis establishes the global optimality of MAML with nonconvex meta-objectives for the first time.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20b.htmlA Nearly-Linear Time Algorithm for Exact Community Recovery in Stochastic Block ModelLearning community structures in graphs that are randomly generated by stochastic block models (SBMs) has received much attention lately. In this paper, we focus on the problem of exactly recovering the communities in a binary symmetric SBM, where a graph of $n$ vertices is partitioned into two equal-sized communities and the vertices are connected with probability $p = \alpha\log(n)/n$ within communities and $q = \beta\log(n)/n$ across communities for some $\alpha>\beta>0$. We propose a two-stage iterative algorithm for solving this problem, which employs the power method with a random starting point in the first-stage and turns to a generalized power method that can identify the communities in a finite number of iterations in the second-stage. It is shown that for any fixed $\alpha$ and $\beta$ such that $\sqrt{\alpha} - \sqrt{\beta} > \sqrt{2}$, which is known to be the information-theoretical limit for exact recovery, the proposed algorithm exactly identifies the underlying communities in $\tilde{O}(n)$ running time with probability tending to one as $n\rightarrow\infty$. We also present numerical results of the proposed algorithm to support and complement our theoretical development.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20ac.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20ac.htmlThompson Sampling via Local UncertaintyThompson sampling is an efficient algorithm for sequential decision making, which exploits the posterior uncertainty to address the exploration-exploitation dilemma. There has been significant recent interest in integrating Bayesian neural networks into Thompson sampling. Most of these methods rely on global variable uncertainty for exploration. In this paper, we propose a new probabilistic modeling framework for Thompson sampling, where local latent variable uncertainty is used to sample the mean reward. Variational inference is used to approximate the posterior of the local variable, and semi-implicit structure is further introduced to enhance its expressiveness. Our experimental results on eight contextual bandit benchmark datasets show that Thompson sampling guided by local uncertainty achieves state-of-the-art performance while having low computational complexity.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20ab.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20ab.htmlOn Lp-norm Robustness of Ensemble Decision Stumps and TreesRecent papers have demonstrated that ensemble stumps and trees could be vulnerable to small input perturbations, so robustness verification and defense for those models have become an important research problem. However, due to the structure of decision trees, where each node makes decision purely based on one feature value, all the previous works only consider the $\ell_\infty$ norm perturbation. To study robustness with respect to a general $\ell_p$ norm perturbation, one has to consider the correlation between perturbations on different features, which has not been handled by previous algorithms. In this paper, we study the problem of robustness verification and certified defense with respect to general $\ell_p$ norm perturbations for ensemble decision stumps and trees. For robustness verification of ensemble stumps, we prove that complete verification is NP-complete for $p\in(0, \infty)$ while polynomial time algorithms exist for $p=0$ or $\infty$. For $p\in(0, \infty)$ we develop an efficient dynamic programming based algorithm for sound verification of ensemble stumps. For ensemble trees, we generalize the previous multi-level robustness verification algorithm to $\ell_p$ norm. We demonstrate the first certified defense method for training ensemble stumps and trees with respect to $\ell_p$ norm perturbations, and verify its effectiveness empirically on real datasets.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20aa.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20aa.htmlLogistic Regression for Massive Data with Rare EventsThis paper studies binary logistic regression for rare events data, or imbalanced data, where the number of events (observations in one class, often called cases) is significantly smaller than the number of nonevents (observations in the other class, often called controls). We first derive the asymptotic distribution of the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) of the unknown parameter, which shows that the asymptotic variance convergences to zero in a rate of the inverse of the number of the events instead of the inverse of the full data sample size, indicating that the available information in rare events data is at the scale of the number of events instead of the full data sample size. Furthermore, we prove that under-sampling a small proportion of the nonevents, the resulting under-sampled estimator may have identical asymptotic distribution to the full data MLE. This demonstrates the advantage of under-sampling nonevents for rare events data, because this procedure may significantly reduce the computation and/or data collection costs. Another common practice in analyzing rare events data is to over-sample (replicate) the events, which has a higher computational cost. We show that this procedure may even result in efficiency loss in terms of parameter estimation.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wang20a.htmlProjection-free Distributed Online Convex Optimization with $O(\sqrtT)$ Communication ComplexityTo deal with complicated constraints via locally light computations in distributed online learning, a recent study has presented a projection-free algorithm called distributed online conditional gradient (D-OCG), and achieved an $O(T^{3/4})$ regret bound, where $T$ is the number of prediction rounds. However, in each round, the local learners of D-OCG need to communicate with their neighbors to share the local gradients, which results in a high communication complexity of $O(T)$. In this paper, we first propose an improved variant of D-OCG, namely D-BOCG, which enjoys an $O(T^{3/4})$ regret bound with only $O(\sqrt{T})$ communication complexity. The key idea is to divide the total prediction rounds into $\sqrt{T}$ equally-sized blocks, and only update the local learners at the beginning of each block by performing iterative linear optimization steps. Furthermore, to handle the more challenging bandit setting, in which only the loss value is available, we incorporate the classical one-point gradient estimator into D-BOCG, and obtain similar theoretical guarantees.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wan20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wan20b.htmlOrthogonalized SGD and Nested Architectures for Anytime Neural NetworksWe propose a novel variant of SGD customized for training network architectures that support anytime behavior: such networks produce a series of increasingly accurate outputs over time. Efficient architectural designs for these networks focus on re-using internal state; subnetworks must produce representations relevant for both imme- diate prediction as well as refinement by subse- quent network stages. We consider traditional branched networks as well as a new class of re- cursively nested networks. Our new optimizer, Orthogonalized SGD, dynamically re-balances task-specific gradients when training a multitask network. In the context of anytime architectures, this optimizer projects gradients from later out- puts onto a parameter subspace that does not in- terfere with those from earlier outputs. Experi- ments demonstrate that training with Orthogonal- ized SGD significantly improves generalization accuracy of anytime networks.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wan20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wan20a.htmlSafe Reinforcement Learning in Constrained Markov Decision ProcessesSafe reinforcement learning has been a promising approach for optimizing the policy of an agent that operates in safety-critical applications. In this paper, we propose an algorithm, SNO-MDP, that explores and optimizes Markov decision processes under unknown safety constraints. Specifically, we take a step-wise approach for optimizing safety and cumulative reward. In our method, the agent first learns safety constraints by expanding the safe region, and then optimizes the cumulative reward in the certified safe region. We provide theoretical guarantees on both the satisfaction of the safety constraint and the near-optimality of the cumulative reward under proper regularity assumptions. In our experiments, we demonstrate the effectiveness of SNO-MDP through two experiments: one uses a synthetic data in a new, openly-available environment named GP-Safety-Gym, and the other simulates Mars surface exploration by using real observation data.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wachi20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/wachi20a.htmlUnsupervised Discovery of Interpretable Directions in the GAN Latent SpaceThe latent spaces of GAN models often have semantically meaningful directions. Moving in these directions corresponds to human-interpretable image transformations, such as zooming or recoloring, enabling a more controllable generation process. However, the discovery of such directions is currently performed in a supervised manner, requiring human labels, pretrained models, or some form of self-supervision. These requirements severely restrict a range of directions existing approaches can discover. In this paper, we introduce an unsupervised method to identify interpretable directions in the latent space of a pretrained GAN model. By a simple model-agnostic procedure, we find directions corresponding to sensible semantic manipulations without any form of (self-)supervision. Furthermore, we reveal several non-trivial findings, which would be difficult to obtain by existing methods, e.g., a direction corresponding to background removal. As an immediate practical benefit of our work, we show how to exploit this finding to achieve competitive performance for weakly-supervised saliency detection. The implementation of our method is available online.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/voynov20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/voynov20a.htmlConditional gradient methods for stochastically constrained convex minimizationWe propose two novel conditional gradient-based methods for solving structured stochastic convex optimization problems with a large number of linear constraints. Instances of this template naturally arise from SDP-relaxations of combinatorial problems, which involve a number of constraints that is polynomial in the problem dimension. The most important feature of our framework is that only a subset of the constraints is processed at each iteration, thus gaining a computational advantage over prior works that require full passes. Our algorithms rely on variance reduction and smoothing used in conjunction with conditional gradient steps, and are accompanied by rigorous convergence guarantees. Preliminary numerical experiments are provided for illustrating the practical performance of the methods.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/vladarean20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/vladarean20a.htmlNew Oracle-Efficient Algorithms for Private Synthetic Data ReleaseWe present three new algorithms for constructing differentially private synthetic data—a sanitized version of a sensitive dataset that approximately preserves the answers to a large collection of statistical queries. All three algorithms are \emph{oracle-efficient} in the sense that they are computationally efficient when given access to an optimization oracle. Such an oracle can be implemented using many existing (non-private) optimization tools such as sophisticated integer program solvers. While the accuracy of the synthetic data is contingent on the oracle’s optimization performance, the algorithms satisfy differential privacy even in the worst case. For all three algorithms, we provide theoretical guarantees for both accuracy and privacy. Through empirical evaluation, we demonstrate that our methods scale well with both the dimensionality of the data and the number of queries. Compared to the state-of-the-art method High-Dimensional Matrix Mechanism (McKenna et al. VLDB 2018), our algorithms provide better accuracy in the large workload and high privacy regime (corresponding to low privacy loss $\eps$).Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/vietri20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/vietri20b.htmlPrivate Reinforcement Learning with PAC and Regret GuaranteesMotivated by high-stakes decision-making domains like personalized medicine where user information is inherently sensitive, we design privacy preserving exploration policies for episodic reinforcement learning (RL). We first provide a meaningful privacy formulation using the notion of joint differential privacy (JDP)–a strong variant of differential privacy for settings where each user receives their own sets of output (e.g., policy recommendations). We then develop a private optimism-based learning algorithm that simultaneously achieves strong PAC and regret bounds, and enjoys a JDP guarantee. Our algorithm only pays for a moderate privacy cost on exploration: in comparison to the non-private bounds, the privacy parameter only appears in lower-order terms. Finally, we present lower bounds on sample complexity and regret for reinforcement learning subject to JDP.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/vietri20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/vietri20a.htmlBorn-Again Tree EnsemblesThe use of machine learning algorithms in finance, medicine, and criminal justice can deeply impact human lives. As a consequence, research into interpretable machine learning has rapidly grown in an attempt to better control and fix possible sources of mistakes and biases. Tree ensembles, in particular, offer a good prediction quality in various domains, but the concurrent use of multiple trees reduces the interpretability of the ensemble. Against this background, we study born-again tree ensembles, i.e., the process of constructing a single decision tree of minimum size that reproduces the exact same behavior as a given tree ensemble in its entire feature space. To find such a tree, we develop a dynamic-programming based algorithm that exploits sophisticated pruning and bounding rules to reduce the number of recursive calls. This algorithm generates optimal born-again trees for many datasets of practical interest, leading to classifiers which are typically simpler and more interpretable without any other form of compromise.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/vidal20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/vidal20a.htmlOPtions as REsponses: Grounding behavioural hierarchies in multi-agent reinforcement learningThis paper investigates generalisation in multi-agent games, where the generality of the agent can be evaluated by playing against opponents it hasn’t seen during training. We propose two new games with concealed information and complex, non-transitive reward structure (think rock-paper-scissors). It turns out that most current deep reinforcement learning methods fail to efficiently explore the strategy space, thus learning policies that generalise poorly to unseen opponents. We then propose a novel hierarchical agent architecture, where the hierarchy is grounded in the game-theoretic structure of the game – the top level chooses strategic responses to opponents, while the low level implements them into policy over primitive actions. This grounding facilitates credit assignment across the levels of hierarchy. Our experiments show that the proposed hierarchical agent is capable of generalisation to unseen opponents, while conventional baselines fail to generalise whatsoever.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/vezhnevets20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/vezhnevets20a.htmlNon-Stationary Delayed Bandits with Intermediate ObservationsOnline recommender systems often face long delays in receiving feedback, especially when optimizing for some long-term metrics. While mitigating the effects of delays in learning is well-understood in stationary environments, the problem becomes much more challenging when the environment changes. In fact, if the timescale of the change is comparable to the delay, it is impossible to learn about the environment, since the available observations are already obsolete. However, the arising issues can be addressed if intermediate signals are available without delay, such that given those signals, the long-term behavior of the system is stationary. To model this situation, we introduce the problem of stochastic, non-stationary, delayed bandits with intermediate observations. We develop a computationally efficient algorithm based on UCRL, and prove sublinear regret guarantees for its performance. Experimental results demonstrate that our method is able to learn in non-stationary delayed environments where existing methods fail.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/vernade20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/vernade20b.htmlLinear bandits with Stochastic Delayed FeedbackStochastic linear bandits are a natural and well-studied model for structured exploration/exploitation problems and are widely used in applications such as on-line marketing and recommendation. One of the main challenges faced by practitioners hoping to apply existing algorithms is that usually the feedback is randomly delayed and delays are only partially observable. For example, while a purchase is usually observable some time after the display, the decision of not buying is never explicitly sent to the system. In other words, the learner only observes delayed positive events. We formalize this problem as a novel stochastic delayed linear bandit and propose OTFLinUCB and OTFLinTS, two computationally efficient algorithms able to integrate new information as it becomes available and to deal with the permanently censored feedback. We prove optimal O(d\sqrt{T}) bounds on the regret of the first algorithm and study the dependency on delay-dependent parameters. Our model, assumptions and results are validated by experiments on simulated and real data.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/vernade20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/vernade20a.htmlDeep Molecular Programming: A Natural Implementation of Binary-Weight ReLU Neural NetworksEmbedding computation in molecular contexts incompatible with traditional electronics is expected to have wide ranging impact in synthetic biology, medicine, nanofabrication and other fields. A key remaining challenge lies in developing programming paradigms for molecular computation that are well-aligned with the underlying chemical hardware and do not attempt to shoehorn ill-fitting electronics paradigms. We discover a surprisingly tight connection between a popular class of neural networks (binary-weight ReLU aka BinaryConnect) and a class of coupled chemical reactions that are absolutely robust to reaction rates. The robustness of rate-independent chemical computation makes it a promising target for bioengineering implementation. We show how a BinaryConnect neural network trained in silico using well-founded deep learning optimization techniques, can be compiled to an equivalent chemical reaction network, providing a novel molecular programming paradigm. We illustrate such translation on the paradigmatic IRIS and MNIST datasets. Toward intended applications of chemical computation, we further use our method to generate a chemical reaction network that can discriminate between different virus types based on gene expression levels. Our work sets the stage for rich knowledge transfer between neural network and molecular programming communities.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/vasic20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/vasic20a.htmlUncertainty Estimation Using a Single Deep Deterministic Neural NetworkWe propose a method for training a deterministic deep model that can find and reject out of distribution data points at test time with a single forward pass. Our approach, deterministic uncertainty quantification (DUQ), builds upon ideas of RBF networks. We scale training in these with a novel loss function and centroid updating scheme and match the accuracy of softmax models. By enforcing detectability of changes in the input using a gradient penalty, we are able to reliably detect out of distribution data. Our uncertainty quantification scales well to large datasets, and using a single model, we improve upon or match Deep Ensembles in out of distribution detection on notable difficult dataset pairs such as FashionMNIST vs. MNIST, and CIFAR-10 vs. SVHN.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/van-amersfoort20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/van-amersfoort20a.htmlUndirected Graphical Models as Approximate PosteriorsThe representation of the approximate posterior is a critical aspect of effective variational autoencoders (VAEs). Poor choices for the approximate posterior have a detrimental impact on the generative performance of VAEs due to the mismatch with the true posterior. We extend the class of posterior models that may be learned by using undirected graphical models. We develop an efficient method to train undirected approximate posteriors by showing that the gradient of the training objective with respect to the parameters of the undirected posterior can be computed by backpropagation through Markov chain Monte Carlo updates. We apply these gradient estimators for training discrete VAEs with Boltzmann machines as approximate posteriors and demonstrate that undirected models outperform previous results obtained using directed graphical models. Our implementation is publicly available.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/vahdat20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/vahdat20a.htmlStochasticRank: Global Optimization of Scale-Free Discrete FunctionsIn this paper, we introduce a powerful and efficient framework for direct optimization of ranking metrics. The problem is ill-posed due to the discrete structure of the loss, and to deal with that, we introduce two important techniques: stochastic smoothing and novel gradient estimate based on partial integration. We show that classic smoothing approaches may introduce bias and present a universal solution for a proper debiasing. Importantly, we can guarantee global convergence of our method by adopting a recently proposed Stochastic Gradient Langevin Boosting algorithm. Our algorithm is implemented as a part of the CatBoost gradient boosting library and outperforms the existing approaches on several learning-to-rank datasets. In addition to ranking metrics, our framework applies to any scale-free discrete loss function.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ustimenko20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ustimenko20a.htmlMinimax Weight and Q-Function Learning for Off-Policy EvaluationWe provide theoretical investigations into off-policy evaluation in reinforcement learning using function approximators for (marginalized) importance weights and value functions. Our contributions include: (1) A new estimator, MWL, that directly estimates importance ratios over the state-action distributions, removing the reliance on knowledge of the behavior policy as in prior work (Liu et.al, 2018), (2) Another new estimator, MQL, obtained by swapping the roles of importance weights and value-functions in MWL. MQL has an intuitive interpretation of minimizing average Bellman errors and can be combined with MWL in a doubly robust manner, (3) Several additional results that offer further insights, including the sample complexities of MWL and MQL, their asymptotic optimality in the tabular setting, how the learned importance weights depend the choice of the discriminator class, and how our methods provide a unified view of some old and new algorithms in RL.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/uehara20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/uehara20a.htmlApproximating Stacked and Bidirectional Recurrent Architectures with the Delayed Recurrent Neural NetworkRecent work has shown that topological enhancements to recurrent neural networks (RNNs) can increase their expressiveness and representational capacity. Two popular enhancements are stacked RNNs, which increases the capacity for learning non-linear functions, and bidirectional processing, which exploits acausal information in a sequence. In this work, we explore the delayed-RNN, which is a single-layer RNN that has a delay between the input and output. We prove that a weight-constrained version of the delayed-RNN is equivalent to a stacked-RNN. We also show that the delay gives rise to partial acausality, much like bidirectional networks. Synthetic experiments confirm that the delayed-RNN can mimic bidirectional networks, solving some acausal tasks similarly, and outperforming them in others. Moreover, we show similar performance to bidirectional networks in a real-world natural language processing task. These results suggest that delayed-RNNs can approximate topologies including stacked RNNs, bidirectional RNNs, and stacked bidirectional RNNs – but with equivalent or faster runtimes for the delayed-RNNs.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/turek20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/turek20a.htmlNormalized Flat Minima: Exploring Scale Invariant Definition of Flat Minima for Neural Networks Using PAC-Bayesian AnalysisThe notion of flat minima has gained attention as a key metric of the generalization ability of deep learning models. However, current definitions of flatness are known to be sensitive to parameter rescaling. While some previous studies have proposed to rescale flatness metrics using parameter scales to avoid the scale dependence, the normalized metrics lose the direct theoretical connections between flat minima and generalization. In this paper, we first provide generalization error bounds using existing normalized flatness measures. Using the analysis, we then propose a novel normalized flatness metric. The proposed metric enjoys both direct theoretical connections and better empirical correlation to generalization error.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tsuzuku20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tsuzuku20a.htmlFrom ImageNet to Image Classification: Contextualizing Progress on BenchmarksBuilding rich machine learning datasets in a scalable manner often necessitates a crowd-sourced data collection pipeline. In this work, we use human studies to investigate the consequences of employing such a pipeline, focusing on the popular ImageNet dataset. We study how specific design choices in the ImageNet creation process impact the fidelity of the resulting dataset—including the introduction of biases that state-of-the-art models exploit. Our analysis pinpoints how a noisy data collection pipeline can lead to a systematic misalignment between the resulting benchmark and the real-world task it serves as a proxy for. Finally, our findings emphasize the need to augment our current model training and evaluation toolkit to take such misalignment into account.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tsipras20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tsipras20a.htmlTransfer Learning without Knowing: Reprogramming Black-box Machine Learning Models with Scarce Data and Limited ResourcesCurrent transfer learning methods are mainly based on finetuning a pretrained model with target-domain data. Motivated by the techniques from adversarial machine learning (ML) that are capable of manipulating the model prediction via data perturbations, in this paper we propose a novel approach, black-box adversarial reprogramming (BAR), that repurposes a well-trained black-box ML model (e.g., a prediction API or a proprietary software) for solving different ML tasks, especially in the scenario with scarce data and constrained resources. The rationale lies in exploiting high-performance but unknown ML models to gain learning capability for transfer learning. Using zeroth order optimization and multi-label mapping techniques, BAR can reprogram a black-box ML model solely based on its input-output responses without knowing the model architecture or changing any parameter. More importantly, in the limited medical data setting, on autism spectrum disorder classification, diabetic retinopathy detection, and melanoma detection tasks, BAR outperforms state-of-the-art methods and yields comparable performance to the vanilla adversarial reprogramming method requiring complete knowledge of the target ML model. BAR also outperforms baseline transfer learning approaches by a significant margin, demonstrating cost-effective means and new insights for transfer learning.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tsai20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tsai20a.htmlGraphOpt: Learning Optimization Models of Graph FormationFormation mechanisms are fundamental to the study of complex networks, but learning them from observations is challenging. In real-world domains, one often has access only to the final constructed graph, instead of the full construction process, and observed graphs exhibit complex structural properties. In this work, we propose GraphOpt, an end-to-end framework that jointly learns an implicit model of graph structure formation and discovers an underlying optimization mechanism in the form of a latent objective function. The learned objective can serve as an explanation for the observed graph properties, thereby lending itself to transfer across different graphs within a domain. GraphOpt poses link formation in graphs as a sequential decision-making process and solves it using maximum entropy inverse reinforcement learning algorithm. Further, it employs a novel continuous latent action space that aids scalability. Empirically, we demonstrate that GraphOpt discovers a latent objective transferable across graphs with different characteristics. GraphOpt also learns a robust stochastic policy that achieves competitive link prediction performance without being explicitly trained on this task and further enables construction of graphs with properties similar to those of the observed graph.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/trivedi20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/trivedi20a.htmlSingle Point Transductive PredictionStandard methods in supervised learning separate training and prediction: the model is fit independently of any test points it may encounter. However, can knowledge of the next test point $\mathbf{x}_{\star}$ be exploited to improve prediction accuracy? We address this question in the context of linear prediction, showing how techniques from semi-parametric inference can be used transductively to combat regularization bias. We first lower bound the $\mathbf{x}_{\star}$ prediction error of ridge regression and the Lasso, showing that they must incur significant bias in certain test directions. We then provide non-asymptotic upper bounds on the $\mathbf{x}_{\star}$ prediction error of two transductive prediction rules. We conclude by showing the efficacy of our methods on both synthetic and real data, highlighting the improvements single point transductive prediction can provide in settings with distribution shift.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tripuraneni20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tripuraneni20a.htmlBayesian Differential Privacy for Machine LearningTraditional differential privacy is independent of the data distribution. However, this is not well-matched with the modern machine learning context, where models are trained on specific data. As a result, achieving meaningful privacy guarantees in ML often excessively reduces accuracy. We propose Bayesian differential privacy (BDP), which takes into account the data distribution to provide more practical privacy guarantees. We also derive a general privacy accounting method under BDP, building upon the well-known moments accountant. Our experiments demonstrate that in-distribution samples in classic machine learning datasets, such as MNIST and CIFAR-10, enjoy significantly stronger privacy guarantees than postulated by DP, while models maintain high classification accuracy.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/triastcyn20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/triastcyn20a.htmlStochastic Gauss-Newton Algorithms for Nonconvex Compositional OptimizationWe develop two new stochastic Gauss-Newton algorithms for solving a class of non-convex stochastic compositional optimization problems frequently arising in practice. We consider both the expectation and finite-sum settings under standard assumptions, and use both classical stochastic and SARAH estimators for approximating function values and Jacobians. In the expectation case, we establish $\BigO{\varepsilon^{-2}}$ iteration-complexity to achieve a stationary point in expectation and estimate the total number of stochastic oracle calls for both function value and its Jacobian, where $\varepsilon$ is a desired accuracy. In the finite sum case, we also estimate $\BigO{\varepsilon^{-2}}$ iteration-complexity and the total oracle calls with high probability. To our best knowledge, this is the first time such global stochastic oracle complexity is established for stochastic Gauss-Newton methods. Finally, we illustrate our theoretical results via two numerical examples on both synthetic and real datasets.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tran-dinh20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tran-dinh20a.htmlFundamental Tradeoffs between Invariance and Sensitivity to Adversarial PerturbationsAdversarial examples are malicious inputs crafted to induce misclassification. Commonly studied \emph{sensitivity-based} adversarial examples introduce semantically-small changes to an input that result in a different model prediction. This paper studies a complementary failure mode, \emph{invariance-based} adversarial examples, that introduce minimal semantic changes that modify an input’s true label yet preserve the model’s prediction. We demonstrate fundamental tradeoffs between these two types of adversarial examples. We show that defenses against sensitivity-based attacks actively harm a model’s accuracy on invariance-based attacks, and that new approaches are needed to resist both attack types. In particular, we break state-of-the-art adversarially-trained and \emph{certifiably-robust} models by generating small perturbations that the models are (provably) robust to, yet that change an input’s class according to human labelers. Finally, we formally show that the existence of excessively invariant classifiers arises from the presence of \emph{overly-robust} predictive features in standard datasets.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tramer20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tramer20a.htmlBayesian Learning from Sequential Data using Gaussian Processes with Signature CovariancesWe develop a Bayesian approach to learning from sequential data by using Gaussian processes (GPs) with so-called signature kernels as covariance functions. This allows to make sequences of different length comparable and to rely on strong theoretical results from stochastic analysis. Signatures capture sequential structure with tensors that can scale unfavourably in sequence length and state space dimension. To deal with this, we introduce a sparse variational approach with inducing tensors. We then combine the resulting GP with LSTMs and GRUs to build larger models that leverage the strengths of each of these approaches and benchmark the resulting GPs on multivariate time series (TS) classification datasets.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/toth20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/toth20a.htmlAlleviating Privacy Attacks via Causal LearningMachine learning models, especially deep neural networks are known to be susceptible to privacy attacks such as membership inference where an adversary can detect whether a data point was used to train a model. Such privacy risks are exacerbated when a model is used for predictions on an unseen data distribution. To alleviate privacy attacks, we demonstrate the benefit of predictive models that are based on the causal relationships between input features and the outcome. We first show that models learnt using causal structure generalize better to unseen data, especially on data from different distributions than the train distribution. Based on this generalization property, we establish a theoretical link between causality and privacy: compared to associational models, causal models provide stronger differential privacy guarantees and are more robust to membership inference attacks. Experiments on simulated Bayesian networks and the colored-MNIST dataset show that associational models exhibit upto 80% attack accuracy under different test distributions and sample sizes whereas causal models exhibit attack accuracy close to a random guess.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tople20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tople20a.htmlTrajectoryNet: A Dynamic Optimal Transport Network for Modeling Cellular DynamicsIt is increasingly common to encounter data in the form of cross-sectional population measurements over time, particularly in biomedical settings. Recent attempts to model individual trajectories from this data use optimal transport to create pairwise matchings between time points. However, these methods cannot model non-linear paths common in many underlying dynamic systems. We establish a link between continuous normalizing flows and dynamic optimal transport to model the expected paths of points over time. Continuous normalizing flows are generally under constrained, as they are allowed to take an arbitrary path from the source to the target distribution. We present \emph{TrajectoryNet}, which controls the continuous paths taken between distributions. We show how this is particularly applicable for studying cellular dynamics in data from single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) technologies, and that TrajectoryNet improves upon recently proposed static optimal transport-based models that can be used for interpolating cellular distributions.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tong20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tong20a.htmlChoice Set Optimization Under Discrete Choice Models of Group DecisionsThe way that people make choices or exhibit preferences can be strongly affected by the set of available alternatives, often called the choice set. Furthermore, there are usually heterogeneous preferences, either at an individual level within small groups or within sub-populations of large groups. Given the availability of choice data, there are now many models that capture this behavior in order to make effective predictions—however, there is little work in understanding how directly changing the choice set can be used to influence the preferences of a collection of decision-makers. Here, we use discrete choice modeling to develop an optimization framework of such interventions for several problems of group influence, namely maximizing agreement or disagreement and promoting a particular choice. We show that these problems are NP-hard in general, but imposing restrictions reveals a fundamental boundary: promoting a choice can be easier than encouraging consensus or sowing discord. We design approximation algorithms for the hard problems and show that they work well on real-world choice data.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tomlinson20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tomlinson20a.htmlMulti-step Greedy Reinforcement Learning AlgorithmsMulti-step greedy policies have been extensively used in model-based reinforcement learning (RL), both when a model of the environment is available (e.g., in the game of Go) and when it is learned. In this paper, we explore their benefits in model-free RL, when employed using multi-step dynamic programming algorithms: $\kappa$-Policy Iteration ($\kappa$-PI) and $\kappa$-Value Iteration ($\kappa$-VI). These methods iteratively compute the next policy ($\kappa$-PI) and value function ($\kappa$-VI) by solving a surrogate decision problem with a shaped reward and a smaller discount factor. We derive model-free RL algorithms based on $\kappa$-PI and $\kappa$-VI in which the surrogate problem can be solved by any discrete or continuous action RL method, such as DQN and TRPO. We identify the importance of a hyper-parameter that controls the extent to which the surrogate problem is solved and suggest a way to set this parameter. When evaluated on a range of Atari and MuJoCo benchmark tasks, our results indicate that for the right range of $\kappa$, our algorithms outperform DQN and TRPO. This shows that our multi-step greedy algorithms are general enough to be applied over any existing RL algorithm and can significantly improve its performance.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tomar20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tomar20a.htmlConvolutional dictionary learning based auto-encoders for natural exponential-family distributionsWe introduce a class of auto-encoder neural networks tailored to data from the natural exponential family (e.g., count data). The architectures are inspired by the problem of learning the filters in a convolutional generative model with sparsity constraints, often referred to as convolutional dictionary learning (CDL). Our work is the first to combine ideas from convolutional generative models and deep learning for data that are naturally modeled with a non-Gaussian distribution (e.g., binomial and Poisson). This perspective provides us with a scalable and flexible framework that can be re-purposed for a wide range of tasks and assumptions on the generative model. Specifically, the iterative optimization procedure for solving CDL, an unsupervised task, is mapped to an unfolded and constrained neural network, with iterative adjustments to the inputs to account for the generative distribution. We also show that the framework can easily be extended for discriminative training, appropriate for a supervised task. We 1) demonstrate that fitting the generative model to learn, in an unsupervised fashion, the latent stimulus that underlies neural spiking data leads to better goodness-of-fit compared to other baselines, 2) show competitive performance compared to state-of-the-art algorithms for supervised Poisson image denoising, with significantly fewer parameters, and 3) characterize the gradient dynamics of the shallow binomial auto-encoder.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tolooshams20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tolooshams20a.htmlSequential Transfer in Reinforcement Learning with a Generative ModelWe are interested in how to design reinforcement learning agents that provably reduce the sample complexity for learning new tasks by transferring knowledge from previously-solved ones. The availability of solutions to related problems poses a fundamental trade-off: whether to seek policies that are expected to immediately achieve high (yet sub-optimal) performance in the new task or whether to seek information to quickly identify an optimal solution, potentially at the cost of poor initial behaviour. In this work, we focus on the second objective when the agent has access to a generative model of state-action pairs. First, given a set of solved tasks containing an approximation of the target one, we design an algorithm that quickly identifies an accurate solution by seeking the state-action pairs that are most informative for this purpose. We derive PAC bounds on its sample complexity which clearly demonstrate the benefits of using this kind of prior knowledge. Then, we show how to learn these approximate tasks sequentially by reducing our transfer setting to a hidden Markov model and employing spectral methods to recover its parameters. Finally, we empirically verify our theoretical findings in simple simulated domains.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tirinzoni20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tirinzoni20a.htmlStudent Specialization in Deep Rectified Networks With Finite Width and Input DimensionWe consider a deep ReLU / Leaky ReLU student network trained from the output of a fixed teacher network of the same depth, with Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD). The student network is \emph{over-realized}: at each layer $l$, the number $n_l$ of student nodes is more than that ($m_l$) of teacher. Under mild conditions on dataset and teacher network, we prove that when the gradient is small at every data sample, each teacher node is \emph{specialized} by at least one student node \emph{at the lowest layer}. For two-layer network, such specialization can be achieved by training on any dataset of \emph{polynomial} size $\mathcal{O}( K^{5/2} d^3 \epsilon^{-1})$. until the gradient magnitude drops to $\mathcal{O}(\epsilon/K^{3/2}\sqrt{d})$. Here $d$ is the input dimension, $K = m_1 + n_1$ is the total number of neurons in the lowest layer of teacher and student. Note that we require a specific form of data augmentation and the sample complexity includes the additional data generated from augmentation. To our best knowledge, we are the first to give polynomial sample complexity for student specialization of training two-layer (Leaky) ReLU networks with finite depth and width in teacher-student setting, and finite complexity for the lowest layer specialization in multi-layer case, without parametric assumption of the input (like Gaussian). Our theory suggests that teacher nodes with large fan-out weights get specialized first when the gradient is still large, while others are specialized with small gradient, which suggests inductive bias in training. This shapes the stage of training as empirically observed in multiple previous works. Experiments on synthetic and CIFAR10 verify our findings. The code is released in \url{https://github.com/facebookresearch/luckmatters}.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tian20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tian20a.htmlFew-shot Domain Adaptation by Causal Mechanism TransferWe study few-shot supervised domain adaptation (DA) for regression problems, where only a few labeled target domain data and many labeled source domain data are available. Many of the current DA methods base their transfer assumptions on either parametrized distribution shift or apparent distribution similarities, e.g., identical conditionals or small distributional discrepancies. However, these assumptions may preclude the possibility of adaptation from intricately shifted and apparently very different distributions. To overcome this problem, we propose mechanism transfer, a meta-distributional scenario in which a data generating mechanism is invariant among domains. This transfer assumption can accommodate nonparametric shifts resulting in apparently different distributions while providing a solid statistical basis for DA. We take the structural equations in causal modeling as an example and propose a novel DA method, which is shown to be useful both theoretically and experimentally. Our method can be seen as the first attempt to fully leverage the invariance of structural causal models for DA.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/teshima20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/teshima20a.htmlInductive Relation Prediction by Subgraph ReasoningThe dominant paradigm for relation prediction in knowledge graphs involves learning and operating on latent representations (i.e., embeddings) of entities and relations. However, these embedding-based methods do not explicitly capture the compositional logical rules underlying the knowledge graph, and they are limited to the transductive setting, where the full set of entities must be known during training. Here, we propose a graph neural network based relation prediction framework, GraIL, that reasons over local subgraph structures and has a strong inductive bias to learn entity-independent relational semantics. Unlike embedding-based models, GraIL is naturally inductive and can generalize to unseen entities and graphs after training. We provide theoretical proof and strong empirical evidence that GraIL can rep-resent a useful subset of first-order logic and show that GraIL outperforms existing rule-induction baselines in the inductive setting. We also demonstrate significant gains obtained by ensembling GraIL with various knowledge graph embedding methods in the transductive setting, highlighting the complementary inductive bias of our method.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/teru20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/teru20a.htmlSparse Sinkhorn AttentionWe propose Sparse Sinkhorn Attention, a new efficient and sparse method for learning to attend. Our method is based on differentiable sorting of internal representations. Concretely, we introduce a meta sorting network that learns to generate latent permutations over sequences. Given sorted sequences, we are then able to compute quasi-global attention with only local windows, improving the memory efficiency of the attention module. To this end, we propose new algorithmic innovations such as Causal Sinkhorn Balancing and SortCut, a dynamic sequence truncation method for tailoring Sinkhorn Attention for encoding and/or decoding purposes. Via extensive experiments on algorithmic seq2seq sorting, language modeling, pixel-wise image generation, document classification and natural language inference, we demonstrate that our memory efficient Sinkhorn Attention method is competitive with vanilla attention and consistently outperforms recently proposed efficient Transformer models such as Sparse Transformers.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tay20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tay20a.htmlNo-Regret Exploration in Goal-Oriented Reinforcement LearningMany popular reinforcement learning problems (e.g., navigation in a maze, some Atari games, mountain car) are instances of the episodic setting under its stochastic shortest path (SSP) formulation, where an agent has to achieve a goal state while minimizing the cumulative cost. Despite the popularity of this setting, the exploration-exploitation dilemma has been sparsely studied in general SSP problems, with most of the theoretical literature focusing on different problems (i.e., fixed-horizon and infinite-horizon) or making the restrictive loop-free SSP assumption (i.e., no state can be visited twice during an episode). In this paper, we study the general SSP problem with no assumption on its dynamics (some policies may actually never reach the goal). We introduce UC-SSP, the first no-regret algorithm in this setting, and prove a regret bound scaling as $\widetilde{\mathcal{O}}( D S \sqrt{ A D K})$ after $K$ episodes for any unknown SSP with $S$ states, $A$ actions, positive costs and SSP-diameter $D$, defined as the smallest expected hitting time from any starting state to the goal. We achieve this result by crafting a novel stopping rule, such that UC-SSP may interrupt the current policy if it is taking too long to achieve the goal and switch to alternative policies that are designed to rapidly terminate the episode.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tarbouriech20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tarbouriech20a.htmlLearning disconnected manifolds: a no GAN’s landTypical architectures of Generative Adversarial Networks make use of a unimodal latent/input distribution transformed by a continuous generator. Consequently, the modeled distribution always has connected support which is cumbersome when learning a disconnected set of manifolds. We formalize this problem by establishing a "no free lunch" theorem for the disconnected manifold learning stating an upper-bound on the precision of the targeted distribution. This is done by building on the necessary existence of a low-quality region where the generator continuously samples data between two disconnected modes. Finally, we derive a rejection sampling method based on the norm of generator’s Jacobian and show its efficiency on several generators including BigGAN.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tanielian20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tanielian20a.htmlVariational Imitation Learning with Diverse-quality DemonstrationsLearning from demonstrations can be challenging when the quality of demonstrations is diverse, and even more so when the quality is unknown and there is no additional information to estimate the quality. We propose a new method for imitation learning in such scenarios. We show that simple quality-estimation approaches might fail due to compounding error, and fix this issue by jointly estimating both the quality and reward using a variational approach. Our method is easy to implement within reinforcement-learning frameworks and also achieves state-of-the-art performance on continuous-control benchmarks.Our work enables scalable and data-efficient imitation learning under more realistic settings than before.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tangkaratt20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tangkaratt20a.htmlTaylor Expansion Policy OptimizationIn this work, we investigate the application of Taylor expansions in reinforcement learning. In particular, we propose Taylor Expansion Policy Optimization, a policy optimization formalism that generalizes prior work as a first-order special case. We also show that Taylor expansions intimately relate to off-policy evaluation. Finally, we show that this new formulation entails modifications which improve the performance of several state-of-the-art distributed algorithms.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tang20d.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tang20d.htmlClinician-in-the-Loop Decision Making: Reinforcement Learning with Near-Optimal Set-Valued PoliciesStandard reinforcement learning (RL) aims to find an optimal policy that identifies the best action for each state. However, in healthcare settings, many actions may be near-equivalent with respect to the reward (e.g., survival). We consider an alternative objective – learning set-valued policies to capture near-equivalent actions that lead to similar cumulative rewards. We propose a model-free algorithm based on temporal difference learning and a near-greedy heuristic for action selection. We analyze the theoretical properties of the proposed algorithm, providing optimality guarantees and demonstrate our approach on simulated environments and a real clinical task. Empirically, the proposed algorithm exhibits good convergence properties and discovers meaningful near-equivalent actions. Our work provides theoretical, as well as practical, foundations for clinician/human-in-the-loop decision making, in which humans (e.g., clinicians, patients) can incorporate additional knowledge (e.g., side effects, patient preference) when selecting among near-equivalent actions.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tang20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tang20c.htmlThe Buckley-Osthus model and the block preferential attachment model: statistical analysis and applicationThis paper is concerned with statistical estimation of two preferential attachment models: the Buckley-Osthus model and the block preferential attachment model. We prove that the maximum likelihood estimates for both models are consistent. We perform simulation studies to corroborate our theoretical findings. We also apply both models to study the evolution of a real-world network. A list of open problems are presented.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tang20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tang20b.htmlReinforcement Learning for Integer Programming: Learning to CutInteger programming is a general optimization framework with a wide variety of applications, e.g., in scheduling, production planning, and graph optimization. As Integer Programs (IPs) model many provably hard to solve problems, modern IP solvers rely on heuristics. These heuristics are often human-designed, and tuned over time using experience and data. The goal of this work is to show that the performance of those solvers can be greatly enhanced using reinforcement learning (RL). In particular, we investigate a specific methodology for solving IPs, known as the Cutting Plane Method. This method is employed as a subroutine by all modern IP solvers. We present a deep RL formulation, network architecture, and algorithms for intelligent adaptive selection of cutting planes (aka cuts). Across a wide range of IP tasks, we show that our trained RL agent significantly outperforms human-designed heuristics, and effectively generalizes to larger instances and across IP problem classes. The trained agent is also demonstrated to benefit the popular downstream application of cutting plane methods in Branch-and-Cut algorithm, which is the backbone of state-of-the-art commercial IP solvers.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tang20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tang20a.htmlDropNet: Reducing Neural Network Complexity via Iterative PruningModern deep neural networks require a significant amount of computing time and power to train and deploy, which limits their usage on edge devices. Inspired by the iterative weight pruning in the Lottery Ticket Hypothesis, we propose DropNet, an iterative pruning method which prunes nodes/filters to reduce network complexity. DropNet iteratively removes nodes/filters with the lowest average post-activation value across all training samples. Empirically, we show that DropNet is robust across a wide range of scenarios, including MLPs and CNNs using the MNIST, CIFAR-10 and Tiny ImageNet datasets. We show that up to 90% of the nodes/filters can be removed without any significant loss of accuracy. The final pruned network performs well even with reinitialisation of the weights and biases. DropNet also achieves similar accuracy to an oracle which greedily removes nodes/filters one at a time to minimise training loss, highlighting its effectiveness.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tan20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tan20a.htmlFiedler Regularization: Learning Neural Networks with Graph SparsityWe introduce a novel regularization approach for deep learning that incorporates and respects the underlying graphical structure of the neural network. Existing regularization methods often focus on penalizing weights in a global/uniform manner that ignores the connectivity structure of the neural network. We propose to use the Fiedler value of the neural network’s underlying graph as a tool for regularization. We provide theoretical support for this approach via spectral graph theory. We show several useful properties of the Fiedler value that make it suitable for regularization. We provide an approximate, variational approach for faster computation during training. We provide an alternative formulation of this framework in the form of a structurally weighted L1 penalty, thus linking our approach to sparsity induction. We performed experiments on datasets that compare Fiedler regularization with traditional regularization methods such as Dropout and weight decay. Results demonstrate the efficacy of Fiedler regularization.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tam20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tam20a.htmlMulti-fidelity Bayesian Optimization with Max-value Entropy Search and its ParallelizationIn a standard setting of Bayesian optimization (BO), the objective function evaluation is assumed to be highly expensive. Multi-fidelity Bayesian optimization (MFBO) accelerates BO by incorporating lower fidelity observations available with a lower sampling cost. We propose a novel information-theoretic approach to MFBO, called multi-fidelity max-value entropy search (MF-MES), that enables us to obtain a more reliable evaluation of the information gain compared with existing information-based methods for MFBO. Further, we also propose a parallelization of MF-MES mainly for the asynchronous setting because queries typically occur asynchronously in MFBO due to a variety of sampling costs. We show that most of computations in our acquisition functions can be derived analytically, except for at most only two dimensional numerical integration that can be performed efficiently by simple approximations. We demonstrate effectiveness of our approach by using benchmark datasets and a real-world application to materials science data.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/takeno20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/takeno20a.htmlQuantized Decentralized Stochastic Learning over Directed GraphsWe consider a decentralized stochastic learning problem where data points are distributed among computing nodes communicating over a directed graph. As the model size gets large, decentralized learning faces a major bottleneck that is the heavy communication load due to each node transmitting large messages (model updates) to its neighbors. To tackle this bottleneck, we propose the quantized decentralized stochastic learning algorithm over directed graphs that is based on the push-sum algorithm in decentralized consensus optimization. We prove that our algorithm achieves the same convergence rates of the decentralized stochastic learning algorithm with exact-communication for both convex and non-convex losses. Numerical evaluations corroborate our main theoretical results and illustrate significant speed-up compared to the exact-communication methods.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/taheri20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/taheri20a.htmlDistinguishing Cause from Effect Using Quantiles: Bivariate Quantile Causal DiscoveryCausal inference using observational data is challenging, especially in the bivariate case. Through the minimum description length principle, we link the postulate of independence between the generating mechanisms of the cause and of the effect given the cause to quantile regression. Based on this theory, we develop Bivariate Quantile Causal Discovery (bQCD), a new method to distinguish cause from effect assuming no confounding, selection bias or feedback. Because it uses multiple quantile levels instead of the conditional mean only, bQCD is adaptive not only to additive, but also to multiplicative or even location-scale generating mechanisms. To illustrate the effectiveness of our approach, we perform an extensive empirical comparison on both synthetic and real datasets. This study shows that bQCD is robust across different implementations of the method (i.e., the quantile regression), computationally efficient, and compares favorably to state-of-the-art methods.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tagasovska20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/tagasovska20a.htmlMulti-Agent Routing Value Iteration NetworkIn this paper we tackle the problem of routing multiple agents in a coordinated manner. This is a complex problem that has a wide range of applications in fleet management to achieve a common goal, such as mapping from a swarm of robots and ride sharing. Traditional methods are typically not designed for realistic environments which contain sparsely connected graphs and unknown traffic, and are often too slow in runtime to be practical. In contrast, we propose a graph neural network based model that is able to perform multi-agent routing based on learned value iteration in a sparsely connected graph with dynamically changing traffic conditions. Moreover, our learned communication module enables the agents to coordinate online and adapt to changes more effectively. We created a simulated environment to mimic realistic mapping performed by autonomous vehicles with unknown minimum edge coverage and traffic conditions; our approach significantly outperforms traditional solvers both in terms of total cost and runtime. We also show that our model trained with only two agents on graphs with a maximum of 25 nodes can easily generalize to situations with more agents and/or nodes.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sykora20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sykora20a.htmlThe k-tied Normal Distribution: A Compact Parameterization of Gaussian Mean Field Posteriors in Bayesian Neural NetworksVariational Bayesian Inference is a popular methodology for approximating posterior distributions over Bayesian neural network weights. Recent work developing this class of methods has explored ever richer parameterizations of the approximate posterior in the hope of improving performance. In contrast, here we share a curious experimental finding that suggests instead restricting the variational distribution to a more compact parameterization. For a variety of deep Bayesian neural networks trained using Gaussian mean-field variational inference, we find that the posterior standard deviations consistently exhibit strong low-rank structure after convergence. This means that by decomposing these variational parameters into a low-rank factorization, we can make our variational approximation more compact without decreasing the models’ performance. Furthermore, we find that such factorized parameterizations improve the signal-to-noise ratio of stochastic gradient estimates of the variational lower bound, resulting in faster convergence.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/swiatkowski20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/swiatkowski20a.htmlMulti-objective Bayesian Optimization using Pareto-frontier EntropyThis paper studies an entropy-based multi-objective Bayesian optimization (MBO). Existing entropy-based MBO methods need complicated approximations to evaluate entropy or employ over-simplification that ignores trade-off among objectives. We propose a novel entropy-based MBO called Pareto-frontier entropy search (PFES), which is based on the information gain of Pareto-frontier. We show that our entropy evaluation can be reduced to a closed form whose computation is quite simple while capturing the trade-off relation in Pareto-frontier. We further propose an extension for the “decoupled” setting, in which each objective function can be observed separately, and show that the PFES-based approach derives a natural extension of the original acquisition function which can also be evaluated simply. Our numerical experiments show effectiveness of PFES through several benchmark datasets, and real-word datasets from materials science.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/suzuki20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/suzuki20a.htmlThe Many Shapley Values for Model ExplanationThe Shapley value has become the basis for several methods that attribute the prediction of a machine-learning model on an input to its base features. The use of the Shapley value is justified by citing the uniqueness result from \cite{Shapley53}, which shows that it is the only method that satisfies certain good properties (\emph{axioms}). There are, however, a multiplicity of ways in which the Shapley value is operationalized for model explanation. These differ in how they reference the model, the training data, and the explanation context. Hence they differ in output, rendering the uniqueness result inapplicable. Furthermore, the techniques that rely on they training data produce non-intuitive attributions, for instance unused features can still receive attribution. In this paper, we use the axiomatic approach to study the differences between some of the many operationalizations of the Shapley value for attribution. We discuss a technique called Baseline Shapley (BShap), provide a proper uniqueness result for it, and contrast it with two other techniques from prior literature, Integrated Gradients \cite{STY17} and Conditional Expectation Shapley \cite{Lundberg2017AUA}.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sundararajan20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sundararajan20b.htmlThe Shapley Taylor Interaction IndexThe attribution problem, that is the problem of attributing a model’s prediction to its base features, is well-studied. We extend the notion of attribution to also apply to feature interactions. The Shapley value is a commonly used method to attribute a model’s prediction to its base features. We propose a generalization of the Shapley value called Shapley-Taylor index that attributes the model’s prediction to interactions of subsets of features up to some size $k$. The method is analogous to how the truncated Taylor Series decomposes the function value at a certain point using its derivatives at a different point. In fact, we show that the Shapley Taylor index is equal to the Taylor Series of the multilinear extension of the set-theoretic behavior of the model. We axiomatize this method using the standard Shapley axioms—linearity, dummy, symmetry and efficiency—and an additional axiom that we call the interaction distribution axiom. This new axiom explicitly characterizes how interactions are distributed for a class of functions that model pure interaction. We contrast the Shapley-Taylor index against the previously proposed Shapley Interaction index from the cooperative game theory literature. We also apply the Shapley Taylor index to three models and identify interesting qualitative insights.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sundararajan20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sundararajan20a.htmlAn EM Approach to Non-autoregressive Conditional Sequence GenerationAutoregressive (AR) models have been the dominating approach to conditional sequence generation, but are suffering from the issue of high inference latency. Non-autoregressive (NAR) models have been recently proposed to reduce the latency by generating all output tokens in parallel but could only achieve inferior accuracy compared to their autoregressive counterparts, primarily due to a difficulty in dealing with the multi-modality in sequence generation. This paper proposes a new approach that jointly optimizes both AR and NAR models in a unified Expectation-Maximization (EM) framework. In the E-step, an AR model learns to approximate the regularized posterior of the NAR model. In the M-step, the NAR model is updated on the new posterior and selects the training examples for the next AR model. This iterative process can effectively guide the system to remove the multi-modality in the output sequences. To our knowledge, this is the first EM approach to NAR sequence generation. We evaluate our method on the task of machine translation. Experimental results on benchmark data sets show that the proposed approach achieves competitive, if not better, performance with existing NAR models and significantly reduces the inference latency.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sun20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sun20c.htmlTest-Time Training with Self-Supervision for Generalization under Distribution ShiftsIn this paper, we propose Test-Time Training, a general approach for improving the performance of predictive models when training and test data come from different distributions. We turn a single unlabeled test sample into a self-supervised learning problem, on which we update the model parameters before making a prediction. This also extends naturally to data in an online stream. Our simple approach leads to improvements on diverse image classification benchmarks aimed at evaluating robustness to distribution shifts.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sun20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sun20b.htmlImproving the Sample and Communication Complexity for Decentralized Non-Convex Optimization: Joint Gradient Estimation and TrackingMany modern large-scale machine learning problems benefit from decentralized and stochastic optimization. Recent works have shown that utilizing both decentralized computing and local stochastic gradient estimates can outperform state-of-the-art centralized algorithms, in applications involving highly non-convex problems, such as training deep neural networks. In this work, we propose a decentralized stochastic algorithm to deal with certain smooth non-convex problems where there are $m$ nodes in the system, and each node has a large number of samples (denoted as $n$). Differently from the majority of the existing decentralized learning algorithms for either stochastic or finite-sum problems, our focus is given to \emph{both} reducing the total communication rounds among the nodes, while accessing the minimum number of local data samples. In particular, we propose an algorithm named D-GET (decentralized gradient estimation and tracking), which jointly performs decentralized gradient estimation (which estimates the local gradient using a subset of local samples) \emph{and} gradient tracking (which tracks the global full gradient using local estimates). We show that to achieve certain $\epsilon$ stationary solution of the deterministic finite sum problem, the proposed algorithm achieves an $\mathcal{O}(mn^{1/2}\epsilon^{-1})$ sample complexity and an $\mathcal{O}(\epsilon^{-1})$ communication complexity. These bounds significantly improve upon the best existing bounds of $\mathcal{O}(mn\epsilon^{-1})$ and $\mathcal{O}(\epsilon^{-1})$, respectively. Similarly, for online problems, the proposed method achieves an $\mathcal{O}(m \epsilon^{-3/2})$ sample complexity and an $\mathcal{O}(\epsilon^{-1})$ communication complexity.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sun20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sun20a.htmlGenerative Teaching Networks: Accelerating Neural Architecture Search by Learning to Generate Synthetic Training DataThis paper investigates the intriguing question of whether we can create learning algorithms that automatically generate training data, learning environments, and curricula in order to help AI agents rapidly learn. We show that such algorithms are possible via Generative Teaching Networks (GTNs), a general approach that is, in theory, applicable to supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning, although our experiments only focus on the supervised case. GTNs are deep neural networks that generate data and/or training environments that a learner (e.g. a freshly initialized neural network) trains on for a few SGD steps before being tested on a target task. We then differentiate \emph{through the entire learning process} via meta-gradients to update the GTN parameters to improve performance on the target task. This paper introduces GTNs, discusses their potential, and showcases that they can substantially accelerate learning. We also demonstrate a practical and exciting application of GTNs: accelerating the evaluation of candidate architectures for neural architecture search (NAS). GTN-NAS improves the NAS state of the art, finding higher performing architectures when controlling for the search proposal mechanism. GTN-NAS also is competitive with the overall state of the art approaches, which achieve top performance while using orders of magnitude less computation than typical NAS methods. Speculating forward, GTNs may represent a first step toward the ambitious goal of algorithms that generate their own training data and, in doing so, open a variety of interesting new research questions and directions.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/such20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/such20a.htmlAdaptive Estimator Selection for Off-Policy EvaluationWe develop a generic data-driven method for estimator selection in off-policy policy evaluation settings. We establish a strong performance guarantee for the method, showing that it is competitive with the oracle estimator, up to a constant factor. Via in-depth case studies in contextual bandits and reinforcement learning, we demonstrate the generality and applicability of the method. We also perform comprehensive experiments, demonstrating the empirical efficacy of our approach and comparing with related approaches. In both case studies, our method compares favorably with existing methods.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/su20d.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/su20d.htmlConQUR: Mitigating Delusional Bias in Deep Q-LearningDelusional bias is a fundamental source of error in approximate Q-learning. To date, the only techniques that explicitly address delusion require comprehensive search using tabular value estimates. In this paper, we develop efficient methods to mitigate delusional bias by training Q-approximators with labels that are "consistent" with the underlying greedy policy class. We introduce a simple penalization scheme that encourages Q-labels used across training batches to remain (jointly) consistent with the expressible policy class. We also propose a search framework that allows multiple Q-approximators to be generated and tracked, thus mitigating the effect of premature (implicit) policy commitments. Experimental results demonstrate that these methods can improve the performance of Q-learning in a variety of Atari games, sometimes dramatically.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/su20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/su20c.htmlTask Understanding from Confusing Multi-task DataBeyond machine learning’s success in the specific tasks, research for learning multiple tasks simultaneously is referred to as multi-task learning. However, existing multi-task learning needs manual definition of tasks and manual task annotation. A crucial problem for advanced intelligence is how to understand the human task concept using basic input-output pairs. Without task definition, samples from multiple tasks are mixed together and result in a confusing mapping challenge. We propose Confusing Supervised Learning (CSL) that takes these confusing samples and extracts task concepts by differentiating between these samples. We theoretically proved the feasibility of the CSL framework and designed an iterative algorithm to distinguish between tasks. The experiments demonstrate that our CSL methods could achieve a human-like task understanding without task labeling in multi-function regression problems and multi-task recognition problems.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/su20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/su20b.htmlDoubly robust off-policy evaluation with shrinkageWe propose a new framework for designing estimators for off-policy evaluation in contextual bandits. Our approach is based on the asymptotically optimal doubly robust estimator, but we shrink the importance weights to minimize a bound on the mean squared error, which results in a better bias-variance tradeoff in finite samples. We use this optimization-based framework to obtain three estimators: (a) a weight-clipping estimator, (b) a new weight-shrinkage estimator, and (c) the first shrinkage-based estimator for combinatorial action sets. Extensive experiments in both standard and combinatorial bandit benchmark problems show that our estimators are highly adaptive and typically outperform state-of-the-art methods.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/su20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/su20a.htmlConfidence-Calibrated Adversarial Training: Generalizing to Unseen AttacksAdversarial training yields robust models against a specific threat model, e.g., $L_\infty$ adversarial examples. Typically robustness does not generalize to previously unseen threat models, e.g., other $L_p$ norms, or larger perturbations. Our confidence-calibrated adversarial training (CCAT) tackles this problem by biasing the model towards low confidence predictions on adversarial examples. By allowing to reject examples with low confidence, robustness generalizes beyond the threat model employed during training. CCAT, trained only on $L_\infty$ adversarial examples, increases robustness against larger $L_\infty$, $L_2$, $L_1$ and $L_0$ attacks, adversarial frames, distal adversarial examples and corrupted examples and yields better clean accuracy compared to adversarial training. For thorough evaluation we developed novel white- and black-box attacks directly attacking CCAT by maximizing confidence. For each threat model, we use $7$ attacks with up to $50$ restarts and $5000$ iterations and report worst-case robust test error, extended to our confidence-thresholded setting, across all attacks.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/stutz20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/stutz20a.htmlLearning Discrete Structured Representations by Adversarially Maximizing Mutual InformationWe propose learning discrete structured representations from unlabeled data by maximizing the mutual information between a structured latent variable and a target variable. Calculating mutual information is intractable in this setting. Our key technical contribution is an adversarial objective that can be used to tractably estimate mutual information assuming only the feasibility of cross entropy calculation. We develop a concrete realization of this general formulation with Markov distributions over binary encodings. We report critical and unexpected findings on practical aspects of the objective such as the choice of variational priors. We apply our model on document hashing and show that it outperforms current best baselines based on discrete and vector quantized variational autoencoders. It also yields highly compressed interpretable representations.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/stratos20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/stratos20a.htmlResponsive Safety in Reinforcement Learning by PID Lagrangian MethodsLagrangian methods are widely used algorithms for constrained optimization problems, but their learning dynamics exhibit oscillations and overshoot which, when applied to safe reinforcement learning, leads to constraint-violating behavior during agent training. We address this shortcoming by proposing a novel Lagrange multiplier update method that utilizes derivatives of the constraint function. We take a controls perspective, wherein the traditional Lagrange multiplier update behaves as \emph{integral} control; our terms introduce \emph{proportional} and \emph{derivative} control, achieving favorable learning dynamics through damping and predictive measures. We apply our PID Lagrangian methods in deep RL, setting a new state of the art in Safety Gym, a safe RL benchmark. Lastly, we introduce a new method to ease controller tuning by providing invariance to the relative numerical scales of reward and cost. Our extensive experiments demonstrate improved performance and hyperparameter robustness, while our algorithms remain nearly as simple to derive and implement as the traditional Lagrangian approach.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/stooke20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/stooke20a.htmlWhich Tasks Should Be Learned Together in Multi-task Learning?Many computer vision applications require solving multiple tasks in real-time. A neural network can be trained to solve multiple tasks simultaneously using multi-task learning. This can save computation at inference time as only a single network needs to be evaluated. Unfortunately, this often leads to inferior overall performance as task objectives can compete, which consequently poses the question: which tasks should and should not be learned together in one network when employing multi-task learning? We study task cooperation and competition in several different learning settings and propose a framework for assigning tasks to a few neural networks such that cooperating tasks are computed by the same neural network, while competing tasks are computed by different networks. Our framework offers a time-accuracy trade-off and can produce better accuracy using less inference time than not only a single large multi-task neural network but also many single-task networks.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/standley20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/standley20a.htmlRobustness to Spurious Correlations via Human AnnotationsThe reliability of machine learning systems critically assumes that the associations between features and labels remain similar between training and test distributions. However, unmeasured variables, such as confounders, break this assumption—useful correlations between features and labels at training time can become useless or even harmful at test time. For example, high obesity is generally predictive for heart disease, but this relation may not hold for smokers who generally have lower rates of obesity and higher rates of heart disease. We present a framework for making models robust to spurious correlations by leveraging humans’ common sense knowledge of causality. Specifically, we use human annotation to augment each training example with a potential unmeasured variable (i.e. an underweight patient with heart disease may be a smoker), reducing the problem to a covariate shift problem. We then introduce a new distributionally robust optimization objective over unmeasured variables (UV-DRO) to control the worst-case loss over possible test- time shifts. Empirically, we show improvements of 5–10% on a digit recognition task confounded by rotation, and 1.5–5% on the task of analyzing NYPD Police Stops confounded by location.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/srivastava20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/srivastava20a.htmlHypernetwork approach to generating point cloudsIn this work, we propose a novel method for generating 3D point clouds that leverage properties of hyper networks. Contrary to the existing methods that learn only the representation of a 3D object, our approach simultaneously finds a representation of the object and its 3D surfaces. The main idea of our HyperCloud method is to build a hyper network that returns weights of a particular neural network (target network) trained to map points from a uniform unit ball distribution into a 3D shape. As a consequence, a particular 3D shape can be generated using point-by-point sampling from the assumed prior distribution and transforming sampled points with the target network. Since the hyper network is based on an auto-encoder architecture trained to reconstruct realistic 3D shapes, the target network weights can be considered a parametrisation of the surface of a 3D shape, and not a standard representation of point cloud usually returned by competitive approaches. The proposed architecture allows to find mesh-based representation of 3D objects in a generative manner, while providing point clouds en pair in quality with the state-of-the-art methods.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/spurek20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/spurek20a.htmlProvably Efficient Model-based Policy AdaptationThe high sample complexity of reinforcement learning challenges its use in practice. A promising approach is to quickly adapt pre-trained policies to new environments. Existing methods for this policy adaptation problem typically rely on domain randomization and meta-learning, by sampling from some distribution of target environments during pre-training, and thus face difficulty on out-of-distribution target environments. We propose new model-based mechanisms that are able to make online adaptation in unseen target environments, by combining ideas from no-regret online learning and adaptive control. We prove that the approach learns policies in the target environment that can quickly recover trajectories from the source environment, and establish the rate of convergence in general settings. We demonstrate the benefits of our approach for policy adaptation in a diverse set of continuous control tasks, achieving the performance of state-of-the-art methods with much lower sample complexity. Our project website, including code, can be found at https://yudasong.github.io/PADA.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/song20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/song20b.htmlBridging the Gap Between f-GANs and Wasserstein GANsGenerative adversarial networks (GANs) variants approximately minimize divergences between the model and the data distribution using a discriminator. Wasserstein GANs (WGANs) enjoy superior empirical performance, however, unlike in f-GANs, the discriminator does not provide an estimate for the ratio between model and data densities, which is useful in applications such as inverse reinforcement learning. To overcome this limitation, we propose an new training objective where we additionally optimize over a set of importance weights over the generated samples. By suitably constraining the feasible set of importance weights, we obtain a family of objectives which includes and generalizes the original f-GAN and WGAN objectives. We show that a natural extension outperforms WGANs while providing density ratios as in f-GAN, and demonstrate empirical success on distribution modeling, density ratio estimation and image generation.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/song20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/song20a.htmlMulticlass Neural Network Minimization via Tropical Newton Polytope ApproximationThe field of tropical algebra is closely linked with the domain of neural networks with piecewise linear activations, since their output can be described via tropical polynomials in the max-plus semiring. In this work, we attempt to make use of methods stemming from a form of approximate division of such polynomials, which relies on the approximation of their Newton Polytopes, in order to minimize networks trained for multiclass classification problems. We make theoretical contributions in this domain, by proposing and analyzing methods which seek to reduce the size of such networks. In addition, we make experimental evaluations on the MNIST and Fashion-MNIST datasets, with our results demonstrating a significant reduction in network size, while retaining adequate performance.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/smyrnis20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/smyrnis20a.htmlOn the Generalization Benefit of Noise in Stochastic Gradient DescentIt has long been argued that minibatch stochastic gradient descent can generalize better than large batch gradient descent in deep neural networks. However recent papers have questioned this claim, arguing that this effect is simply a consequence of suboptimal hyperparameter tuning or insufficient compute budgets when the batch size is large. In this paper, we perform carefully designed experiments and rigorous hyperparameter sweeps on a range of popular models, which verify that small or moderately large batch sizes can substantially outperform very large batches on the test set. This occurs even when both models are trained for the same number of iterations and large batches achieve smaller training losses. Our results confirm that the noise in stochastic gradients can enhance generalization. We study how the optimal learning rate schedule changes as the epoch budget grows, and we provide a theoretical account of our observations based on the stochastic differential equation perspective of SGD dynamics.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/smith20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/smith20a.htmlWhen Explanations Lie: Why Many Modified BP Attributions FailAttribution methods aim to explain a neural network’s prediction by highlighting the most relevant image areas. A popular approach is to backpropagate (BP) a custom relevance score using modified rules, rather than the gradient. We analyze an extensive set of modified BP methods: Deep Taylor Decomposition, Layer-wise Relevance Propagation (LRP), Excitation BP, PatternAttribution, DeepLIFT, Deconv, RectGrad, and Guided BP. We find empirically that the explanations of all mentioned methods, except for DeepLIFT, are independent of the parameters of later layers. We provide theoretical insights for this surprising behavior and also analyze why DeepLIFT does not suffer from this limitation. Empirically, we measure how information of later layers is ignored by using our new metric, cosine similarity convergence (CSC). The paper provides a framework to assess the faithfulness of new and existing modified BP methods theoretically and empirically.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sixt20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sixt20a.htmlOptimizer Benchmarking Needs to Account for Hyperparameter TuningThe performance of optimizers, particularly in deep learning, depends considerably on their chosen hyperparameter configuration. The efficacy of optimizers is often studied under near-optimal problem-specific hyperparameters, and finding these settings may be prohibitively costly for practitioners. In this work, we argue that a fair assessment of optimizers’ performance must take the computational cost of hyperparameter tuning into account, i.e., how easy it is to find good hyperparameter configurations using an automatic hyperparameter search. Evaluating a variety of optimizers on an extensive set of standard datasets and architectures, our results indicate that Adam is the most practical solution, particularly in low-budget scenarios.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sivaprasad20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sivaprasad20a.htmlStructured Linear Contextual Bandits: A Sharp and Geometric Smoothed AnalysisBandit learning algorithms typically involve the balance of exploration and exploitation. However, in many practical applications, worst-case scenarios needing systematic exploration are seldom encountered. In this work, we consider a smoothed setting for structured linear contextual bandits where the adversarial contexts are perturbed by Gaussian noise and the unknown parameter $\theta^*$ has structure, e.g., sparsity, group sparsity, low rank, etc. We propose simple greedy algorithms for both the single- and multi-parameter (i.e., different parameter for each context) settings and provide a unified regret analysis for $\theta^*$ with any assumed structure. The regret bounds are expressed in terms of geometric quantities such as Gaussian widths associated with the structure of $\theta^*$. We also obtain sharper regret bounds compared to earlier work for the unstructured $\theta^*$ setting as a consequence of our improved analysis. We show there is implicit exploration in the smoothed setting where a simple greedy algorithm works.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sivakumar20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sivakumar20a.htmlInterpretable, Multidimensional, Multimodal Anomaly Detection with Negative Sampling for Detection of Device FailureIn this paper we propose a scalable, unsupervised approach for detecting anomalies in the Internet of Things (IoT). Complex devices are connected daily and eagerly generate vast streams of multidimensional telemetry. These devices often operate in distinct modes based on external conditions (day/night, occupied/vacant, etc.), and to prevent complete or partial system outage, we would like to recognize as early as possible when these devices begin to operate outside the normal modes. We propose an unsupervised anomaly detection method that creates a negative sample from the positive, observed sample, and trains a classifier to distinguish between positive and negative samples. Using the Concentration Phenomenon, we explain why such a classifier ought to establish suitable decision boundaries between normal and anomalous regions, and show how Integrated Gradients can attribute the anomaly to specific dimensions within the anomalous state vector. We have demonstrated that negative sampling with random forest or neural network classifiers yield significantly higher AUC scores compared to state-of-the-art approaches against benchmark anomaly detection datasets, and a multidimensional, multimodal dataset from real climate control devices. Finally, we describe how negative sampling with neural network classifiers have been successfully deployed at large scale to predict failures in real time in over 15,000 climate-control and power meter devices in 145 office buildings within the California Bay Area.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sipple20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sipple20a.htmlSmall-GAN: Speeding up GAN Training using Core-SetsRecent work suggests that Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) benefit disproportionately from large mini-batch sizes. This finding is interesting but also discouraging – large batch sizes are slow and expensive to emulate on conventional hardware. Thus, it would be nice if there were some trick by which we could generate batches that were effectively big though small in practice. In this work, we propose such a trick, inspired by the use of Coreset-selection in active learning. When training a GAN, we draw a large batch of samples from the prior and then compress that batch using Coreset-selection. To create effectively large batches of real images, we create a cached dataset of Inception activations of each training image, randomly project them down to a smaller dimension, and then use Coreset-selection on those projected embeddings at training time. We conduct experiments showing that this technique substantially reduces training time and memory usage for modern GAN variants, that it reduces the fraction of dropped modes in a synthetic dataset, and that it helps us use GANs to reach a new state of the art in anomaly detection.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sinha20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sinha20b.htmlFormulaZero: Distributionally Robust Online Adaptation via Offline Population SynthesisBalancing performance and safety is crucial to deploying autonomous vehicles in multi-agent environments. In particular, autonomous racing is a domain that penalizes safe but conservative policies, highlighting the need for robust, adaptive strategies. Current approaches either make simplifying assumptions about other agents or lack robust mechanisms for online adaptation. This work makes algorithmic contributions to both challenges. First, to generate a realistic, diverse set of opponents, we develop a novel method for self-play based on replica-exchange Markov chain Monte Carlo. Second, we propose a distributionally robust bandit optimization procedure that adaptively adjusts risk aversion relative to uncertainty in beliefs about opponents’ behaviors. We rigorously quantify the tradeoffs in performance and robustness when approximating these computations in real-time motion-planning, and we demonstrate our methods experimentally on autonomous vehicles that achieve scaled speeds comparable to Formula One racecars.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sinha20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sinha20a.htmlSecond-Order Provable Defenses against Adversarial AttacksA robustness certificate against adversarial examples is the minimum distance of a given input to the decision boundary of the classifier (or its lower bound). For \emph{any} perturbation of the input with a magnitude smaller than the certificate value, the classification output will provably remain unchanged. Computing exact robustness certificates for neural networks is difficult in general since it requires solving a non-convex optimization. In this paper, we provide computationally-efficient robustness certificates for neural networks with differentiable activation functions in two steps. First, we show that if the eigenvalues of the Hessian of the network (curvatures of the network) are bounded (globally or locally), we can compute a robustness certificate in the $l_2$ norm efficiently using convex optimization. Second, we derive a computationally-efficient differentiable upper bound on the curvature of a deep network. We also use the curvature bound as a regularization term during the training of the network to boost its certified robustness. Putting these results together leads to our proposed {\bf C}urvature-based {\bf R}obustness {\bf C}ertificate (CRC) and {\bf C}urvature-based {\bf R}obust {\bf T}raining (CRT). Our numerical results show that CRT leads to significantly higher certified robust accuracy compared to interval-bound propagation based training.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/singla20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/singla20a.htmlFractional Underdamped Langevin Dynamics: Retargeting SGD with Momentum under Heavy-Tailed Gradient NoiseStochastic gradient descent with momentum (SGDm) is one of the most popular optimization algorithms in deep learning. While there is a rich theory of SGDm for convex problems, the theory is considerably less developed in the context of deep learning where the problem is non-convex and the gradient noise might exhibit a heavy-tailed behavior, as empirically observed in recent studies. In this study, we consider a \emph{continuous-time} variant of SGDm, known as the underdamped Langevin dynamics (ULD), and investigate its asymptotic properties under heavy-tailed perturbations. Supported by recent studies from statistical physics, we argue both theoretically and empirically that the heavy-tails of such perturbations can result in a bias even when the step-size is small, in the sense that \emph{the optima of stationary distribution} of the dynamics might not match \emph{the optima of the cost function to be optimized}. As a remedy, we develop a novel framework, which we coin as \emph{fractional} ULD (FULD), and prove that FULD targets the so-called Gibbs distribution, whose optima exactly match the optima of the original cost. We observe that the Euler discretization of FULD has noteworthy algorithmic similarities with \emph{natural gradient} methods and \emph{gradient clipping}, bringing a new perspective on understanding their role in deep learning. We support our theory with experiments conducted on a synthetic model and neural networks.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/simsekli20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/simsekli20a.htmlReinforcement Learning for Molecular Design Guided by Quantum MechanicsAutomating molecular design using deep reinforcement learning (RL) holds the promise of accelerating the discovery of new chemical compounds. Existing approaches work with molecular graphs and thus ignore the location of atoms in space, which restricts them to 1) generating single organic molecules and 2) heuristic reward functions. To address this, we present a novel RL formulation for molecular design in Cartesian coordinates, thereby extending the class of molecules that can be built. Our reward function is directly based on fundamental physical properties such as the energy, which we approximate via fast quantum-chemical methods. To enable progress towards de-novo molecular design, we introduce MolGym, an RL environment comprising several challenging molecular design tasks along with baselines. In our experiments, we show that our agent can efficiently learn to solve these tasks from scratch by working in a translation and rotation invariant state-action space.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/simm20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/simm20b.htmlA Generative Model for Molecular Distance GeometryGreat computational effort is invested in generating equilibrium states for molecular systems using, for example, Markov chain Monte Carlo. We present a probabilistic model that generates statistically independent samples for molecules from their graph representations. Our model learns a low-dimensional manifold that preserves the geometry of local atomic neighborhoods through a principled learning representation that is based on Euclidean distance geometry. In a new benchmark for molecular conformation generation, we show experimentally that our generative model achieves state-of-the-art accuracy. Finally, we show how to use our model as a proposal distribution in an importance sampling scheme to compute molecular properties.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/simm20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/simm20a.htmlNaive Exploration is Optimal for Online LQRWe consider the problem of online adaptive control of the linear quadratic regulator, where the true system parameters are unknown. We prove new upper and lower bounds demonstrating that the optimal regret scales as $\tilde{\Theta} (\sqrt{d_{\mathbf{u}}^2 d_{\mathbf{x}} T})$, where $T$ is the number of time steps, $d_{\mathbf{u}}$ is the dimension of the input space, and $d_{\mathbf{x}}$ is the dimension of the system state. Notably, our lower bounds rule out the possibility of a $\mathrm{poly}(\log{T})$-regret algorithm, which had been conjectured due to the apparent strong convexity of the problem. Our upper bound is attained by a simple variant of certainty equivalent control, where the learner selects control inputs according to the optimal controller for their estimate of the system while injecting exploratory random noise. While this approach was shown to achieve $\sqrt{T}$ regret by Mania et al. (2019), we show that if the learner continually refines their estimates of the system matrices, the method attains optimal dimension dependence as well. Central to our upper and lower bounds is a new approach for controlling perturbations of Riccati equations called the self-bounding ODE method, which we use to derive suboptimality bounds for the certainty equivalent controller synthesized from estimated system dynamics. This in turn enables regret upper bounds which hold for any stabilizable instance and scale with natural control-theoretic quantities.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/simchowitz20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/simchowitz20a.htmlCollaborative Machine Learning with Incentive-Aware Model RewardsCollaborative machine learning (ML) is an appealing paradigm to build high-quality ML models by training on the aggregated data from many parties. However, these parties are only willing to share their data when given enough incentives, such as a guaranteed fair reward based on their contributions. This motivates the need for measuring a party’s contribution and designing an incentive-aware reward scheme accordingly. This paper proposes to value a party’s reward based on Shapley value and information gain on model parameters given its data. Subsequently, we give each party a model as a reward. To formally incentivize the collaboration, we define some desirable properties (e.g., fairness and stability) which are inspired by cooperative game theory but adapted for our model reward that is uniquely freely replicable. Then, we propose a novel model reward scheme to satisfy fairness and trade off between the desirable properties via an adjustable parameter. The value of each party’s model reward determined by our scheme is attained by injecting Gaussian noise to the aggregated training data with an optimized noise variance. We empirically demonstrate interesting properties of our scheme and evaluate its performance using synthetic and real-world datasets.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sim20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sim20a.htmlDeep Gaussian Markov Random FieldsGaussian Markov random fields (GMRFs) are probabilistic graphical models widely used in spatial statistics and related fields to model dependencies over spatial structures. We establish a formal connection between GMRFs and convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Common GMRFs are special cases of a generative model where the inverse mapping from data to latent variables is given by a 1-layer linear CNN. This connection allows us to generalize GMRFs to multi-layer CNN architectures, effectively increasing the order of the corresponding GMRF in a way which has favorable computational scaling. We describe how well-established tools, such as autodiff and variational inference, can be used for simple and efficient inference and learning of the deep GMRF. We demonstrate the flexibility of the proposed model and show that it outperforms the state-of-the-art on a dataset of satellite temperatures, in terms of prediction and predictive uncertainty.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/siden20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/siden20a.htmlLearning Fair Policies in Multi-Objective (Deep) Reinforcement Learning with Average and Discounted RewardsAs the operations of autonomous systems generally affect simultaneously several users, it is crucial that their designs account for fairness considerations. In contrast to standard (deep) reinforcement learning (RL), we investigate the problem of learning a policy that treats its users equitably. In this paper, we formulate this novel RL problem, in which an objective function, which encodes a notion of fairness that we formally define, is optimized. For this problem, we provide a theoretical discussion where we examine the case of discounted rewards and that of average rewards. During this analysis, we notably derive a new result in the standard RL setting, which is of independent interest: it states a novel bound on the approximation error with respect to the optimal average reward of that of a policy optimal for the discounted reward. Since learning with discounted rewards is generally easier, this discussion further justifies finding a fair policy for the average reward by learning a fair policy for the discounted reward. Thus, we describe how several classic deep RL algorithms can be adapted to our fair optimization problem, and we validate our approach with extensive experiments in three different domains.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/siddique20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/siddique20a.htmlPiecewise Linear Regression via a Difference of Convex FunctionsWe present a new piecewise linear regression methodology that utilises fitting a \emph{difference of convex} functions (DC functions) to the data. These are functions $f$ that may be represented as the difference $\phi_1 - \phi_2$ for a choice of \emph{convex} functions $\phi_1, \phi_2$. The method proceeds by estimating piecewise-liner convex functions, in a manner similar to max-affine regression, whose difference approximates the data. The choice of the function is regularised by a new seminorm over the class of DC functions that controls the $\ell_\infty$ Lipschitz constant of the estimate. The resulting methodology can be efficiently implemented via Quadratic programming \emph{even in high dimensions}, and is shown to have close to minimax statistical risk. We empirically validate the method, showing it to be practically implementable, and to outperform existing regression methods in accuracy on real-world datasets.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/siahkamari20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/siahkamari20a.htmlDistributionally Robust Policy Evaluation and Learning in Offline Contextual BanditsPolicy learning using historical observational data is an important problem that has found widespread applications. However, existing literature rests on the crucial assumption that the future environment where the learned policy will be deployed is the same as the past environment that has generated the data{–}an assumption that is often false or too coarse an approximation. In this paper, we lift this assumption and aim to learn a distributionally robust policy with bandit observational data. We propose a novel learning algorithm that is able to learn a robust policy to adversarial perturbations and unknown covariate shifts. We first present a policy evaluation procedure in the ambiguous environment and also give a heuristic algorithm to solve the distributionally robust policy learning problems efficiently. Additionally, we provide extensive simulations to demonstrate the robustness of our policy.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/si20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/si20a.htmlA Markov Decision Process Model for Socio-Economic Systems Impacted by Climate ChangeCoastal communities are at high risk of natural hazards due to unremitting global warming and sea level rise. Both the catastrophic impacts, e.g., tidal flooding and storm surges, and the long-term impacts, e.g., beach erosion, inundation of low lying areas, and saltwater intrusion into aquifers, cause economic, social, and ecological losses. Creating policies through appropriate modeling of the responses of stakeholders, such as government, businesses, and residents, to climate change and sea level rise scenarios can help to reduce these losses. In this work, we propose a Markov decision process (MDP) formulation for an agent (government) which interacts with the environment (nature and residents) to deal with the impacts of climate change, in particular sea level rise. Through theoretical analysis we show that a reasonable government’s policy on infrastructure development ought to be proactive and based on detected sea levels in order to minimize the expected total cost, as opposed to a straightforward government that reacts to observed costs from nature. We also provide a deep reinforcement learning-based scenario planning tool considering different government and resident types in terms of cooperation, and different sea level rise projections by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shuvo20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shuvo20a.htmlPredictive Coding for Locally-Linear ControlHigh-dimensional observations and unknown dynamics are major challenges when applying optimal control to many real-world decision making tasks. The Learning Controllable Embedding (LCE) framework addresses these challenges by embedding the observations into a lower dimensional latent space, estimating the latent dynamics, and then performing control directly in the latent space. To ensure the learned latent dynamics are predictive of next-observations, all existing LCE approaches decode back into the observation space and explicitly perform next-observation prediction—a challenging high-dimensional task that furthermore introduces a large number of nuisance parameters (i.e., the decoder) which are discarded during control. In this paper, we propose a novel information-theoretic LCE approach and show theoretically that explicit next-observation prediction can be replaced with predictive coding. We then use predictive coding to develop a decoder-free LCE model whose latent dynamics are amenable to locally-linear control. Extensive experiments on benchmark tasks show that our model reliably learns a controllable latent space that leads to superior performance when compared with state-of-the-art LCE baselines.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shu20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shu20a.htmlOn Conditional Versus Marginal Bias in Multi-Armed BanditsThe bias of the sample means of the arms in multi-armed bandits is an important issue in adaptive data analysis that has recently received considerable attention in the literature. Existing results relate in precise ways the sign and magnitude of the bias to various sources of data adaptivity, but do not apply to the conditional inference setting in which the sample means are computed only if some specific conditions are satisfied. In this paper, we characterize the sign of the conditional bias of monotone functions of the rewards, including the sample mean. Our results hold for arbitrary conditioning events and leverage natural monotonicity properties of the data collection policy. We further demonstrate, through several examples from sequential testing and best arm identification, that the sign of the conditional and marginal bias of the sample mean of an arm can be different, depending on the conditioning event. Our analysis offers new and interesting perspectives on the subtleties of assessing the bias in data adaptive settings.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shin20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shin20a.htmlDispersed Exponential Family Mixture VAEs for Interpretable Text GenerationDeep generative models are commonly used for generating images and text. Interpretability of these models is one important pursuit, other than the generation quality. Variational auto-encoder (VAE) with Gaussian distribution as prior has been successfully applied in text generation, but it is hard to interpret the meaning of the latent variable. To enhance the controllability and interpretability, one can replace the Gaussian prior with a mixture of Gaussian distributions (GM-VAE), whose mixture components could be related to hidden semantic aspects of data. In this paper, we generalize the practice and introduce DEM-VAE, a class of models for text generation using VAEs with a mixture distribution of exponential family. Unfortunately, a standard variational training algorithm fails due to the \emph{mode-collapse} problem. We theoretically identify the root cause of the problem and propose an effective algorithm to train DEM-VAE. Our method penalizes the training with an extra \emph{dispersion term} to induce a well-structured latent space. Experimental results show that our approach does obtain a meaningful space, and it outperforms strong baselines in text generation benchmarks. The code is available at \url{https://github.com/wenxianxian/demvae}.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shi20f.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shi20f.htmlInformative Dropout for Robust Representation Learning: A Shape-bias PerspectiveConvolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are known to rely more on local texture rather than global shape when making decisions. Recent work also indicates a close relationship between CNN’s texture-bias and its robustness against distribution shift, adversarial perturbation, random corruption, etc. In this work, we attempt at improving various kinds of robustness universally by alleviating CNN’s texture bias. With inspiration from the human visual system, we propose a light-weight model-agnostic method, namely Informative Dropout (InfoDrop), to improve interpretability and reduce texture bias. Specifically, we discriminate texture from shape based on local self-information in an image, and adopt a Dropout-like algorithm to decorrelate the model output from the local texture. Through extensive experiments, we observe enhanced robustness under various scenarios (domain generalization, few-shot classification, image corruption, and adversarial perturbation). To the best of our knowledge, this work is one of the earliest attempts to improve different kinds of robustness in a unified model, shedding new light on the relationship between shape-bias and robustness, also on new approaches to trustworthy machine learning algorithms. Code is available at https://github.com/bfshi/InfoDrop.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shi20e.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shi20e.htmlA Graph to Graphs Framework for Retrosynthesis PredictionA fundamental problem in computational chemistry is to find a set of reactants to synthesize a target molecule, a.k.a. retrosynthesis prediction. Existing state-of-the-art methods rely on matching the target molecule with a large set of reaction templates, which are very computationally expensive and also suffer from the problem of coverage. In this paper, we propose a novel template-free approach called G2Gs by transforming a target molecular graph into a set of reactant molecular graphs. G2Gs first splits the target molecular graph into a set of synthons by identifying the reaction centers, and then translates the synthons to the final reactant graphs via a variational graph translation framework. Experimental results show that G2Gs significantly outperforms existing template-free approaches by up to 63% in terms of the top-1 accuracy and achieves a performance close to that of state-of-the-art template-based approaches, but does not require domain knowledge and is much more scalable.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shi20d.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shi20d.htmlDoes the Markov Decision Process Fit the Data: Testing for the Markov Property in Sequential Decision MakingThe Markov assumption (MA) is fundamental to the empirical validity of reinforcement learning. In this paper, we propose a novel Forward-Backward Learning procedure to test MA in sequential decision making. The proposed test does not assume any parametric form on the joint distribution of the observed data and plays an important role for identifying the optimal policy in high-order Markov decision processes (MDPs) and partially observable MDPs. Theoretically, we establish the validity of our test. Empirically, we apply our test to both synthetic datasets and a real data example from mobile health studies to illustrate its usefulness.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shi20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shi20c.htmlMessage Passing Least Squares Framework and its Application to Rotation SynchronizationWe propose an efficient algorithm for solving group synchronization under high levels of corruption and noise, while we focus on rotation synchronization. We first describe our recent theoretically guaranteed message passing algorithm that estimates the corruption levels of the measured group ratios. We then propose a novel reweighted least squares method to estimate the group elements, where the weights are initialized and iteratively updated using the estimated corruption levels. We demonstrate the superior performance of our algorithm over state-of-the-art methods for rotation synchronization using both synthetic and real data.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shi20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shi20b.htmlIncremental Sampling Without Replacement for Sequence ModelsSampling is a fundamental technique, and sampling without replacement is often desirable when duplicate samples are not beneficial. Within machine learning, sampling is useful for generating diverse outputs from a trained model. We present an elegant procedure for sampling without replacement from a broad class of randomized programs, including generative neural models that construct outputs sequentially. Our procedure is efficient even for exponentially-large output spaces. Unlike prior work, our approach is incremental, i.e., samples can be drawn one at a time, allowing for increased flexibility. We also present a new estimator for computing expectations from samples drawn without replacement. We show that incremental sampling without replacement is applicable to many domains, e.g., program synthesis and combinatorial optimization.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shi20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shi20a.htmlLandscape Connectivity and Dropout Stability of SGD Solutions for Over-parameterized Neural NetworksThe optimization of multilayer neural networks typically leads to a solution with zero training error, yet the landscape can exhibit spurious local minima and the minima can be disconnected. In this paper, we shed light on this phenomenon: we show that the combination of stochastic gradient descent (SGD) and over-parameterization makes the landscape of multilayer neural networks approximately connected and thus more favorable to optimization. More specifically, we prove that SGD solutions are connected via a piecewise linear path, and the increase in loss along this path vanishes as the number of neurons grows large. This result is a consequence of the fact that the parameters found by SGD are increasingly dropout stable as the network becomes wider. We show that, if we remove part of the neurons (and suitably rescale the remaining ones), the change in loss is independent of the total number of neurons, and it depends only on how many neurons are left. Our results exhibit a mild dependence on the input dimension: they are dimension-free for two-layer networks and require the number of neurons to scale linearly with the dimension for multilayer networks. We validate our theoretical findings with numerical experiments for different architectures and classification tasks.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shevchenko20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shevchenko20a.htmlOne-shot Distributed Ridge Regression in High DimensionsTo scale up data analysis, distributed and parallel computing approaches are increasingly needed. Here we study a fundamental problem in this area: How to do ridge regression in a distributed computing environment? We study one-shot methods constructing weighted combinations of ridge regression estimators computed on each machine. By analyzing the mean squared error in a high dimensional model where each predictor has a small effect, we discover several new phenomena including that the efficiency depends strongly on the signal strength, but does not degrade with many workers, the risk decouples over machines, and the unexpected consequence that the optimal weights do not sum to unity. We also propose a new optimally weighted one-shot ridge regression algorithm. Our results are supported by simulations and real data analysis.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sheng20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sheng20a.htmlExtreme Multi-label Classification from Aggregated LabelsExtreme multi-label classification (XMC) is the problem of finding the relevant labels for an input, from a very large universe of possible labels. We consider XMC in the setting where labels are available only for groups of samples - but not for individual ones. Current XMC approaches are not built for such multi-instance multi-label (MIML) training data, and MIML approaches do not scale to XMC sizes. We develop a new and scalable algorithm to impute individual-sample labels from the group labels; this can be paired with any existing XMC method to solve the aggregated label problem. We characterize the statistical properties of our algorithm under mild assumptions, and provide a new end-to-end framework for MIML as an extension. Experiments on both aggregated label XMC and MIML tasks show the advantages over existing approaches.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shen20f.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shen20f.htmlPowerNorm: Rethinking Batch Normalization in TransformersThe standard normalization method for neural network (NN) models used in Natural Language Processing (NLP) is layer normalization (LN).This is different than batch normalization (BN), which is widely-adopted in Computer Vision. The preferred use of LN in NLP is principally due to the empirical observation that a (naive/vanilla) use of BN leads to significant performance degradation for NLP tasks; however, a thorough understanding of the underlying reasons for this is not always evident. In this paper, we perform a systematic study of NLP transformer models to understand why BN has a poor performance, as compared to LN. We find that the statistics of NLP data across the batch dimension exhibit large fluctuations throughout training. This results in instability, if BN is naively implemented. To address this, we propose Power Normalization (PN), a novel normalization scheme that resolves this issue by (i) relaxing zero-mean normalization in BN, (ii) incorporating a running quadratic mean instead of per batch statistics to stabilize fluctuations, and (iii) using an approximate backpropagation for incorporating the running statistics in the forward pass. We show theoretically, under mild assumptions, that PN leads to a smaller Lipschitz constant for the loss, compared with BN. Furthermore, we prove that the approximate backpropagation scheme leads to bounded gradients. We extensively test PN for transformers on a range of NLP tasks, and we show that it significantly outperforms both LN and BN. In particular, PN outperforms LN by 0.4/0.6 BLEU on IWSLT14/WMT14 and 5.6/3.0 PPL on PTB/WikiText-103. We make our code publicly available at https://github.com/sIncerass/powernorm.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shen20e.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shen20e.htmlLearning for Dose Allocation in Adaptive Clinical Trials with Safety ConstraintsPhase I dose-finding trials are increasingly challenging as the relationship between efficacy and toxicity of new compounds (or combination of them) becomes more complex. Despite this, most commonly used methods in practice focus on identifying a Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) by learning only from toxicity events. We present a novel adaptive clinical trial methodology, called Safe Efficacy Exploration Dose Allocation (SEEDA), that aims at maximizing the cumulative efficacies while satisfying the toxicity safety constraint with high probability. We evaluate performance objectives that have operational meanings in practical clinical trials, including cumulative efficacy, recommendation/allocation success probabilities, toxicity violation probability, and sample efficiency. An extended SEEDA-Plateau algorithm that is tailored for the increase-then-plateau efficacy behavior of molecularly targeted agents (MTA) is also presented. Through numerical experiments using both synthetic and real-world datasets, we show that SEEDA outperforms state-of-the-art clinical trial designs by finding the optimal dose with higher success rate and fewer patients.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shen20d.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shen20d.htmlEducating Text Autoencoders: Latent Representation Guidance via DenoisingGenerative autoencoders offer a promising approach for controllable text generation by leveraging their learned sentence representations. However, current models struggle to maintain coherent latent spaces required to perform meaningful text manipulations via latent vector operations. Specifically, we demonstrate by example that neural encoders do not necessarily map similar sentences to nearby latent vectors. A theoretical explanation for this phenomenon establishes that high-capacity autoencoders can learn an arbitrary mapping between sequences and associated latent representations. To remedy this issue, we augment adversarial autoencoders with a denoising objective where original sentences are reconstructed from perturbed versions (referred to as DAAE). We prove that this simple modification guides the latent space geometry of the resulting model by encouraging the encoder to map similar texts to similar latent representations. In empirical comparisons with various types of autoencoders, our model provides the best trade-off between generation quality and reconstruction capacity. Moreover, the improved geometry of the DAAE latent space enables \emph{zero-shot} text style transfer via simple latent vector arithmetic.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shen20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shen20c.htmlDeep Reinforcement Learning with Robust and Smooth PolicyDeep reinforcement learning (RL) has achieved great empirical successes in various domains. However, the large search space of neural networks requires a large amount of data, which makes the current RL algorithms not sample efficient. Motivated by the fact that many environments with continuous state space have smooth transitions, we propose to learn a smooth policy that behaves smoothly with respect to states. We develop a new framework — \textbf{S}mooth \textbf{R}egularized \textbf{R}einforcement \textbf{L}earning ($\textbf{SR}^2\textbf{L}$), where the policy is trained with smoothness-inducing regularization. Such regularization effectively constrains the search space, and enforces smoothness in the learned policy. Moreover, our proposed framework can also improve the robustness of policy against measurement error in the state space, and can be naturally extended to distribubutionally robust setting. We apply the proposed framework to both on-policy (TRPO) and off-policy algorithm (DDPG). Through extensive experiments, we demonstrate that our method achieves improved sample efficiency and robustness.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shen20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shen20b.htmlPDO-eConvs: Partial Differential Operator Based Equivariant ConvolutionsRecent research has shown that incorporating equivariance into neural network architectures is very helpful, and there have been some works investigating the equivariance of networks under group actions. However, as digital images and feature maps are on the discrete meshgrid, corresponding equivariance-preserving transformation groups are very limited. In this work, we deal with this issue from the connection between convolutions and partial differential operators (PDOs). In theory, assuming inputs to be smooth, we transform PDOs and propose a system which is equivariant to a much more general continuous group, the $n$-dimension Euclidean group. In implementation, we discretize the system using the numerical schemes of PDOs, deriving approximately equivariant convolutions (PDO-eConvs). Theoretically, the approximation error of PDO-eConvs is of the quadratic order. It is the first time that the error analysis is provided when the equivariance is approximate. Extensive experiments on rotated MNIST and natural image classification show that PDO-eConvs perform competitively yet use parameters much more efficiently. Particularly, compared with Wide ResNets, our methods result in better results using only 12.6% parameters.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shen20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shen20a.htmlAdaptive Sampling for Estimating Probability DistributionsWe consider the problem of allocating a fixed budget of samples to a finite set of discrete distributions to learn them uniformly well (minimizing the maximum error) in terms of four common distance measures: $\ell_2^2$, $\ell_1$, $f$-divergence, and separation distance. To present a unified treatment of these distances, we first propose a general \emph{optimistic tracking algorithm} and analyze its sample allocation performance w.r.t. an oracle. We then instantiate this algorithm for the four distance measures and derive bounds on their regret. We also show that the allocation performance of the proposed algorithm cannot, in general, be improved, by deriving lower-bounds on the expected deviation from the oracle allocation for any adaptive scheme. We verify our theoretical findings through some experiments. Finally, we show that the techniques developed in the paper can be easily extended to learn some classes of continuous distributions as well as to the related setting of minimizing the average error (in terms of the four distances) in learning a set of distributions.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shekhar20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shekhar20a.htmlCausal Strategic Linear RegressionIn many predictive decision-making scenarios, such as credit scoring and academic testing, a decision-maker must construct a model that accounts for agents’ propensity to “game” the decision rule by changing their features so as to receive better decisions. Whereas the strategic classification literature has previously assumed that agents’ outcomes are not causally affected by their features (and thus that strategic agents’ goal is deceiving the decision-maker), we join concurrent work in modeling agents’ outcomes as a function of their changeable attributes. As our main contribution, we provide efficient algorithms for learning decision rules that optimize three distinct decision-maker objectives in a realizable linear setting: accurately predicting agents’ post-gaming outcomes (prediction risk minimization), incentivizing agents to improve these outcomes (agent outcome maximization), and estimating the coefficients of the true underlying model (parameter estimation). Our algorithms circumvent a hardness result of Miller et al. (2019) by allowing the decision maker to test a sequence of decision rules and observe agents’ responses, in effect performing causal interventions through the decision rules.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shavit20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shavit20a.htmlLookahead-Bounded Q-learningWe introduce the lookahead-bounded Q-learning (LBQL) algorithm, a new, provably convergent variant of Q-learning that seeks to improve the performance of standard Q-learning in stochastic environments through the use of “lookahead” upper and lower bounds. To do this, LBQL employs previously collected experience and each iteration’s state-action values as dual feasible penalties to construct a sequence of sampled information relaxation problems. The solutions to these problems provide estimated upper and lower bounds on the optimal value, which we track via stochastic approximation. These quantities are then used to constrain the iterates to stay within the bounds at every iteration. Numerical experiments on benchmark problems show that LBQL exhibits faster convergence and more robustness to hyperparameters when compared to standard Q-learning and several related techniques. Our approach is particularly appealing in problems that require expensive simulations or real-world interactions.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shar20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shar20a.htmlControlVAE: Controllable Variational AutoencoderVariational Autoencoders (VAE) and their variants have been widely used in a variety of applications, such as dialog generation, image generation and disentangled representation learning. However, the existing VAE models may suffer from KL vanishing in language modeling and low reconstruction quality for disentangling. To address these issues, we propose a novel controllable variational autoencoder framework, ControlVAE, that combines a controller, inspired by automatic control theory, with the basic VAE to improve the performance of resulting generative models. Specifically, we design a new non-linear PI controller, a variant of the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control, to automatically tune the hyperparameter (weight) added in the VAE objective using the output KL-divergence as feedback during model training. The framework is evaluated using three applications; namely, language modeling, disentangled representation learning, and image generation. The results show that ControlVAE can achieve much better reconstruction quality than the competitive methods for the comparable disentanglement performance. For language modeling, it not only averts the KL-vanishing, but also improves the diversity of generated text. Finally, we also demonstrate that ControlVAE improves the reconstruction quality for image generation compared to the original VAE.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shao20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shao20b.htmlChannel Equilibrium Networks for Learning Deep RepresentationConvolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are typically constructed by stacking multiple building blocks, each of which contains a normalization layer such as batch normalization (BN) and a rectified linear function such as ReLU. However, this work shows that the combination of normalization and rectified linear function leads to inhibited channels, which have small magnitude and contribute little to the learned feature representation, impeding the generalization ability of CNNs. Unlike prior arts that simply removed the inhibited channels, we propose to “wake them up” during training by designing a novel neural building block, termed Channel Equilibrium (CE) block, which enables channels at the same layer to contribute equally to the learned representation. We show that CE is able to prevent inhibited channels both empirically and theoretically. CE has several appealing benefits. (1) It can be integrated into many advanced CNN architectures such as ResNet and MobileNet, outperforming their original networks. (2) CE has an interesting connection with the Nash Equilibrium, a well-known solution of a non-cooperative game. (3) Extensive experiments show that CE achieves state-of-the-art performance on various challenging benchmarks such as ImageNet and COCO.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shao20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shao20a.htmlEvaluating Machine Accuracy on ImageNetWe evaluate a wide range of ImageNet models with five trained human labelers. In our year-long experiment, trained humans first annotated 40,000 images from the ImageNet and ImageNetV2 test sets with multi-class labels to enable a semantically coherent evaluation. Then we measured the classification accuracy of the five trained humans on the full task with 1,000 classes. Only the latest models from 2020 are on par with our best human labeler, and human accuracy on the 590 object classes is still 4% and 10% higher than the best model on ImageNet and ImageNetV2, respectively. Moreover, humans achieve the same accuracy on ImageNet and ImageNetV2, while all models see a consistent accuracy drop. Overall, our results show that there is still substantial room for improvement on ImageNet and direct accuracy comparisons between humans and machines may overstate machine performance.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shankar20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shankar20c.htmlLearning Robot Skills with Temporal Variational InferenceIn this paper, we address the discovery of robotic options from demonstrations in an unsupervised manner. Specifically, we present a framework to jointly learn low-level control policies and higher-level policies of how to use them from demonstrations of a robot performing various tasks. By representing options as continuous latent variables, we frame the problem of learning these options as latent variable inference. We then present a temporally causal variant of variational inference based on a temporal factorization of trajectory likelihoods, that allows us to infer options in an unsupervised manner. We demonstrate the ability of our framework to learn such options across three robotic demonstration datasets, and provide our code.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shankar20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shankar20b.htmlNeural Kernels Without TangentsWe investigate the connections between neural networks and simple building blocks in kernel space. In particular, using well established feature space tools such as direct sum, averaging, and moment lifting, we present an algebra for creating “compositional” kernels from bags of features. We show that these operations correspond to many of the building blocks of “neural tangent kernels (NTK)”. Experimentally, we show that there is a correlation in test error between neural network architectures and the associated kernels. We construct a simple neural network architecture using only 3x3 convolutions, 2x2 average pooling, ReLU, and optimized with SGD and MSE loss that achieves 96% accuracy on CIFAR10, and whose corresponding compositional kernel achieves 90% accuracy. We also use our constructions to investigate the relative performance of neural networks, NTKs, and compositional kernels in the small dataset regime. In particular, we find that compositional kernels outperform NTKs and neural networks outperform both kernel methods.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shankar20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shankar20a.htmlOptimistic Policy Optimization with Bandit FeedbackPolicy optimization methods are one of the most widely used classes of Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithms. Yet, so far, such methods have been mostly analyzed from an optimization perspective, without addressing the problem of exploration, or by making strong assumptions on the interaction with the environment. In this paper we consider model-based RL in the tabular finite-horizon MDP setting with unknown transitions and bandit feedback. For this setting, we propose an optimistic trust region policy optimization (TRPO) algorithm for which we establish $\tilde O(\sqrt{S^2 A H^4 K})$ regret for stochastic rewards. Furthermore, we prove $\tilde O( \sqrt{ S^2 A H^4 } K^{2/3} ) $ regret for adversarial rewards. Interestingly, this result matches previous bounds derived for the bandit feedback case, yet with known transitions. To the best of our knowledge, the two results are the first sub-linear regret bounds obtained for policy optimization algorithms with unknown transitions and bandit feedback.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shani20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shani20a.htmlAn Explicitly Relational Neural Network ArchitectureWith a view to bridging the gap between deep learning and symbolic AI, we present a novel end-to-end neural network architecture that learns to form propositional representations with an explicitly relational structure from raw pixel data. In order to evaluate and analyse the architecture, we introduce a family of simple visual relational reasoning tasks of varying complexity. We show that the proposed architecture, when pre-trained on a curriculum of such tasks, learns to generate reusable representations that better facilitate subsequent learning on previously unseen tasks when compared to a number of baseline architectures. The workings of a successfully trained model are visualised to shed some light on how the architecture functions.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shanahan20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/shanahan20a.htmlPlanning to Explore via Self-Supervised World ModelsReinforcement learning allows solving complex tasks, however, the learning tends to be task-specific and the sample efficiency remains a challenge. We present Plan2Explore, a self-supervised reinforcement learning agent that tackles both these challenges through a new approach to self-supervised exploration and fast adaptation to new tasks, which need not be known during exploration. During exploration, unlike prior methods which retrospectively compute the novelty of observations after the agent has already reached them, our agent acts efficiently by leveraging planning to seek out expected future novelty. After exploration, the agent quickly adapts to multiple downstream tasks in a zero or a few-shot manner. We evaluate on challenging control tasks from high-dimensional image inputs. Without any training supervision or task-specific interaction, Plan2Explore outperforms prior self-supervised exploration methods, and in fact, almost matches the performances oracle which has access to rewards. Videos and code: https://ramanans1.github.io/plan2explore/Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sekar20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sekar20a.htmlRandom Matrix Theory Proves that Deep Learning Representations of GAN-data Behave as Gaussian MixturesThis paper shows that deep learning (DL) representations of data produced by generative adversarial nets (GANs) are random vectors which fall within the class of so-called \emph{concentrated} random vectors. Further exploiting the fact that Gram matrices, of the type $G = X^\intercal X$ with $X=[x_1,\ldots,x_n]\in \mathbb{R}^{p\times n}$ and $x_i$ independent concentrated random vectors from a mixture model, behave asymptotically (as $n,p\to \infty$) as if the $x_i$ were drawn from a Gaussian mixture, suggests that DL representations of GAN-data can be fully described by their first two statistical moments for a wide range of standard classifiers. Our theoretical findings are validated by generating images with the BigGAN model and across different popular deep representation networks.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/seddik20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/seddik20a.htmlUniversal Average-Case Optimality of Polyak MomentumPolyak momentum (PM), also known as the heavy-ball method, is a widely used optimization method that enjoys an asymptotic optimal worst-case complexity on quadratic objectives. However, its remarkable empirical success is not fully explained by this optimality, as the worst-case analysis –contrary to the average-case– is not representative of the expected complexity of an algorithm. In this work we establish a novel link between PM and the average-case analysis. Our main contribution is to prove that any optimal average-case method converges in the number of iterations to PM, under mild assumptions. This brings a new perspective on this classical method, showing that PM is asymptotically both worst-case and average-case optimal.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/scieur20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/scieur20a.htmlDiscriminative Adversarial Search for Abstractive SummarizationWe introduce a novel approach for sequence decoding, Discriminative Adversarial Search (DAS), which has the desirable properties of alleviating the effects of exposure bias without requiring external metrics. Inspired by Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs), wherein a discriminator is used to improve the generator, our method differs from GANs in that the generator parameters are not updated at training time and the discriminator is used to drive sequence generation at inference time. We investigate the effectiveness of the proposed approach on the task of Abstractive Summarization: the results obtained show that a naive application of DAS improves over the state-of-the-art methods, with further gains obtained via discriminator retraining. Moreover, we show how DAS can be effective for cross-domain adaptation. Finally, all results reported are obtained without additional rule-based filtering strategies, commonly used by the best performing systems available: this indicates that DAS can effectively be deployed without relying on post-hoc modifications of the generated outputs.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/scialom20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/scialom20a.htmlOff-Policy Actor-Critic with Shared Experience ReplayWe investigate the combination of actor-critic reinforcement learning algorithms with a uniform large-scale experience replay and propose solutions for two ensuing challenges: (a) efficient actor-critic learning with experience replay (b) the stability of off-policy learning where agents learn from other agents behaviour. To this end we analyze the bias-variance tradeoffs in V-trace, a form of importance sampling for actor-critic methods. Based on our analysis, we then argue for mixing experience sampled from replay with on-policy experience, and propose a new trust region scheme that scales effectively to data distributions where V-trace becomes unstable. We provide extensive empirical validation of the proposed solutions on DMLab-30 and further show the benefits of this setup in two training regimes for Atari: (1) a single agent is trained up until 200M environment frames per game (2) a population of agents is trained up until 200M environment frames each and may share experience. We demonstrate state-of-the-art data efficiency among model-free agents in both regimes.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/schmitt20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/schmitt20a.htmlImplicit competitive regularization in GANsThe success of GANs is usually attributed to properties of the divergence obtained by an optimal discriminator. In this work we show that this approach has a fundamental flaw:\\{If} we do not impose regularity of the discriminator, it can exploit visually imperceptible errors of the generator to always achieve the maximal generator loss. In practice, gradient penalties are used to regularize the discriminator. However, this needs a metric on the space of images that captures visual similarity. Such a metric is not known, which explains the limited success of gradient penalties in stabilizing GANs.\\{Instead}, we argue that the implicit competitive regularization (ICR) arising from the simultaneous optimization of generator and discriminator enables GANs performance. We show that opponent-aware modelling of generator and discriminator, as present in competitive gradient descent (CGD), can significantly strengthen ICR and thus stabilize GAN training without explicit regularization. In our experiments, we use an existing implementation of WGAN-GP and show that by training it with CGD without any explicit regularization, we can improve the inception score (IS) on CIFAR10, without any hyperparameter tuning.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/schaefer20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/schaefer20a.htmlHarmonic Decompositions of Convolutional NetworksWe present a description of the function space and the smoothness class associated with a convolutional network using the machinery of reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces. We show that the mapping associated with a convolutional network expands into a sum involving elementary functions akin to spherical harmonics. This functional decomposition can be related to the functional ANOVA decomposition in nonparametric statistics. Building off our functional characterization of convolutional networks, we obtain statistical bounds highlighting an interesting trade-off between the approximation error and the estimation error.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/scetbon20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/scetbon20a.htmlA Sample Complexity Separation between Non-Convex and Convex Meta-LearningOne popular trend in meta-learning is to learn from many training tasks a common initialization that a gradient-based method can use to solve a new task with few samples. The theory of meta-learning is still in its early stages, with several recent learning-theoretic analyses of methods such as Reptile [Nichol et al., 2018] being for \emph{convex models}. This work shows that convex-case analysis might be insufficient to understand the success of meta-learning, and that even for non-convex models it is important to look inside the optimization black-box, specifically at properties of the optimization trajectory. We construct a simple meta-learning instance that captures the problem of one-dimensional subspace learning. For the convex formulation of linear regression on this instance, we show that the new task sample complexity of any \emph{initialization-based meta-learning} algorithm is $\Omega(d)$, where $d$ is the input dimension. In contrast, for the non-convex formulation of a two layer linear network on the same instance, we show that both Reptile and multi-task representation learning can have new task sample complexity of $O(1)$, demonstrating a separation from convex meta-learning. Crucially, analyses of the training dynamics of these methods reveal that they can meta-learn the correct subspace onto which the data should be projected.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/saunshi20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/saunshi20a.htmlConstrained Markov Decision Processes via Backward Value FunctionsAlthough Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithms have found tremendous success in simulated domains, they often cannot directly be applied to physical systems, especially in cases where there are hard constraints to satisfy (e.g. on safety or resources). In standard RL, the agent is incentivized to explore any behavior as long as it maximizes rewards, but in the real world, undesired behavior can damage either the system or the agent in a way that breaks the learning process itself. In this work, we model the problem of learning with constraints as a Constrained Markov Decision Process and provide a new on-policy formulation for solving it. A key contribution of our approach is to translate cumulative cost constraints into state-based constraints. Through this, we define a safe policy improvement method which maximizes returns while ensuring that the constraints are satisfied at every step. We provide theoretical guarantees under which the agent converges while ensuring safety over the course of training. We also highlight the computational advantages of this approach. The effectiveness of our approach is demonstrated on safe navigation tasks and in safety-constrained versions of MuJoCo environments, with deep neural networks.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/satija20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/satija20a.htmlDetecting Out-of-Distribution Examples with Gram MatricesWhen presented with Out-of-Distribution (OOD) examples, deep neural networks yield confident, incorrect predictions; detecting OOD examples is challenging, and the potential risks are high. In this paper, we propose to detect OOD examples by identifying inconsistencies between activity patterns and predicted class. We find that characterizing activity patterns by Gram matrices and identifying anomalies in Gram matrix values can yield high OOD detection rates. We identify anomalies in the Gram matrices by simply comparing each value with its respective range observed over the training data. Unlike many approaches, this can be used with any pre-trained softmax classifier and neither requires access to OOD data for fine-tuning hyperparameters, nor does it require OOD access for inferring parameters. We empirically demonstrate applicability across a variety of architectures and vision datasets and, for the important and surprisingly hard task of detecting far out-of-distribution examples, it generally performs better than or equal to state-of-the-art OOD detection methods (including those that do assume access to OOD examples).Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sastry20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sastry20a.htmlExplicit Gradient Learning for Black-Box OptimizationBlack-Box Optimization (BBO) methods can find optimal policies for systems that interact with complex environments with no analytical representation. As such, they are of interest in many Artificial Intelligence (AI) domains. Yet classical BBO methods fall short in high-dimensional non-convex problems. They are thus often overlooked in real-world AI tasks. Here we present a BBO method, termed Explicit Gradient Learning (EGL), that is designed to optimize high-dimensional ill-behaved functions. We derive EGL by finding weak spots in methods that fit the objective function with a parametric Neural Network (NN) model and obtain the gradient signal by calculating the parametric gradient. Instead of fitting the function, EGL trains a NN to estimate the objective gradient directly. We prove the convergence of EGL to a stationary point and its robustness in the optimization of integrable functions. We evaluate EGL and achieve state-of-the-art results in two challenging problems: (1) the COCO test suite against an assortment of standard BBO methods; and (2) in a high-dimensional non-convex image generation task.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sarafian20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sarafian20a.htmlThe Impact of Neural Network Overparameterization on Gradient Confusion and Stochastic Gradient DescentThis paper studies how neural network architecture affects the speed of training. We introduce a simple concept called gradient confusion to help formally analyze this. When gradient confusion is high, stochastic gradients produced by different data samples may be negatively correlated, slowing down convergence. But when gradient confusion is low, data samples interact harmoniously, and training proceeds quickly. Through theoretical and experimental results, we demonstrate how the neural network architecture affects gradient confusion, and thus the efficiency of training. Our results show that, for popular initialization techniques, increasing the width of neural networks leads to lower gradient confusion, and thus faster model training. On the other hand, increasing the depth of neural networks has the opposite effect. Our results indicate that alternate initialization techniques or networks using both batch normalization and skip connections help reduce the training burden of very deep networks.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sankararaman20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sankararaman20a.htmlLearning to Simulate Complex Physics with Graph NetworksHere we present a machine learning framework and model implementation that can learn to simulate a wide variety of challenging physical domains, involving fluids, rigid solids, and deformable materials interacting with one another. Our framework—which we term "Graph Network-based Simulators" (GNS)—represents the state of a physical system with particles, expressed as nodes in a graph, and computes dynamics via learned message-passing. Our results show that our model can generalize from single-timestep predictions with thousands of particles during training, to different initial conditions, thousands of timesteps, and at least an order of magnitude more particles at test time. Our model was robust to hyperparameter choices across various evaluation metrics: the main determinants of long-term performance were the number of message-passing steps, and mitigating the accumulation of error by corrupting the training data with noise. Our GNS framework advances the state-of-the-art in learned physical simulation, and holds promise for solving a wide range of complex forward and inverse problems.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sanchez-gonzalez20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sanchez-gonzalez20a.htmlSpectral Subsampling MCMC for Stationary Time SeriesBayesian inference using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) on large datasets has developed rapidly in recent years. However, the underlying methods are generally limited to relatively simple settings where the data have specific forms of independence. We propose a novel technique for speeding up MCMC for time series data by efficient data subsampling in the frequency domain. For several challenging time series models, we demonstrate a speedup of up to two orders of magnitude while incurring negligible bias compared to MCMC on the full dataset. We also propose alternative control variates for variance reduction based on data grouping and coreset constructions.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/salomone20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/salomone20a.htmlA Quantile-based Approach for Hyperparameter Transfer LearningBayesian optimization (BO) is a popular methodology to tune the hyperparameters of expensive black-box functions. Traditionally, BO focuses on a single task at a time and is not designed to leverage information from related functions, such as tuning performance objectives of the same algorithm across multiple datasets. In this work, we introduce a novel approach to achieve transfer learning across different datasets as well as different objectives. The main idea is to regress the mapping from hyperparameter to objective quantiles with a semi-parametric Gaussian Copula distribution, which provides robustness against different scales or outliers that can occur in different tasks. We introduce two methods to leverage this estimation: a Thompson sampling strategy as well as a Gaussian Copula process using such quantile estimate as a prior. We show that these strategies can combine the estimation of multiple objectives such as latency and accuracy, steering the optimization toward faster predictions for the same level of accuracy. Experiments on an extensive set of hyperparameter tuning tasks demonstrate significant improvements over state-of-the-art methods for both hyperparameter optimization and neural architecture search.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/salinas20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/salinas20a.htmlStochastic Coordinate Minimization with Progressive Precision for Stochastic Convex OptimizationA framework based on iterative coordinate minimization (CM) is developed for stochastic convex optimization. Given that exact coordinate minimization is impossible due to the unknown stochastic nature of the objective function, the crux of the proposed optimization algorithm is an optimal control of the minimization precision in each iteration. We establish the optimal precision control and the resulting order-optimal regret performance for strongly convex and separably nonsmooth functions. An interesting finding is that the optimal progression of precision across iterations is independent of the low-dimension CM routine employed, suggesting a general framework for extending low-dimensional optimization routines to high-dimensional problems. The proposed algorithm is amenable to online implementation and inherits the scalability and parallelizability properties of CM for large-scale optimization. Requiring only a sublinear order of message exchanges, it also lends itself well to distributed computing as compared with the alternative approach of coordinate gradient descent.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/salgia20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/salgia20a.htmlThe Performance Analysis of Generalized Margin Maximizers on Separable DataLogistic models are commonly used for binary classification tasks. The success of such models has often been attributed to their connection to maximum-likelihood estimators. It has been shown that gradient descent algorithm, when applied on the logistic loss, converges to the max-margin classifier (a.k.a. hard-margin SVM). The performance of the max-margin classifier has been recently analyzed in \cite{montanari2019generalization, deng2019model}. Inspired by these results, in this paper, we present and study a more general setting, where the underlying parameters of the logistic model possess certain structures (sparse, block-sparse, low-rank, etc.) and introduce a more general framework (which is referred to as “Generalized Margin Maximizer”, GMM). While classical max-margin classifiers minimize the $2$-norm of the parameter vector subject to linearly separating the data, GMM minimizes any arbitrary convex function of the parameter vector. We provide a precise analysis of the performance of GMM via the solution of a system of nonlinear equations. We also provide a detailed study for three special cases: ($1$) $\ell_2$-GMM that is the max-margin classifier, ($2$) $\ell_1$-GMM which encourages sparsity, and ($3$) $\ell_{\infty}$-GMM which is often used when the parameter vector has binary entries. Our theoretical results are validated by extensive simulation results across a range of parameter values, problem instances, and model structures.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/salehi20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/salehi20a.htmlInferring DQN structure for high-dimensional continuous controlDespite recent advancements in the field of Deep Reinforcement Learning, Deep Q-network (DQN) models still show lackluster performance on problems with high-dimensional action spaces. The problem is even more pronounced for cases with high-dimensional continuous action spaces due to a combinatorial increase in the number of the outputs. Recent works approach the problem by dividing the network into multiple parallel or sequential (action) modules responsible for different discretized actions. However, there are drawbacks to both the parallel and the sequential approaches. Parallel module architectures lack coordination between action modules, leading to extra complexity in the task, while a sequential structure can result in the vanishing gradients problem and exploding parameter space. In this work, we show that the compositional structure of the action modules has a significant impact on model performance. We propose a novel approach to infer the network structure for DQN models operating with high-dimensional continuous actions. Our method is based on the uncertainty estimation techniques introduced in the paper. Our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance on MuJoCo environments with high-dimensional continuous action spaces. Furthermore, we demonstrate the improvement of the introduced approach on a realistic AAA sailing simulator game.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sakryukin20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sakryukin20a.htmlCounterfactual Cross-Validation: Stable Model Selection Procedure for Causal Inference ModelsWe study the model selection problem in \emph{conditional average treatment effect} (CATE) prediction. Unlike previous works on this topic, we focus on preserving the rank order of the performance of candidate CATE predictors to enable accurate and stable model selection. To this end, we analyze the model performance ranking problem and formulate guidelines to obtain a better evaluation metric. We then propose a novel metric that can identify the ranking of the performance of CATE predictors with high confidence. Empirical evaluations demonstrate that our metric outperforms existing metrics in both model selection and hyperparameter tuning tasks.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/saito20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/saito20a.htmlFrom Sets to Multisets: Provable Variational Inference for Probabilistic Integer Submodular ModelsSubmodular functions have been studied extensively in machine learning and data mining. In particular, the optimization of submodular functions over the integer lattice (integer submodular functions) has recently attracted much interest, because this domain relates naturally to many practical problem settings, such as multilabel graph cut, budget allocation and revenue maximization with discrete assignments. In contrast, the use of these functions for probabilistic modeling has received surprisingly little attention so far. In this work, we firstly propose the Generalized Multilinear Extension, a continuous DR-submodular extension for integer submodular functions. We study central properties of this extension and formulate a new probabilistic model which is defined through integer submodular functions. Then, we introduce a block-coordinate ascent algorithm to perform approximate inference for this class of models and finally, we demonstrate its effectiveness and viability on several real-world social connection graph datasets with integer submodular objectives.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sahin20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sahin20a.htmlMeasuring Non-Expert Comprehension of Machine Learning Fairness MetricsBias in machine learning has manifested injustice in several areas, such as medicine, hiring, and criminal justice. In response, computer scientists have developed myriad definitions of fairness to correct this bias in fielded algorithms. While some definitions are based on established legal and ethical norms, others are largely mathematical. It is unclear whether the general public agrees with these fairness definitions, and perhaps more importantly, whether they understand these definitions. We take initial steps toward bridging this gap between ML researchers and the public, by addressing the question: does a lay audience understand a basic definition of ML fairness? We develop a metric to measure comprehension of three such definitions–demographic parity, equal opportunity, and equalized odds. We evaluate this metric using an online survey, and investigate the relationship between comprehension and sentiment, demographics, and the definition itself.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/saha20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/saha20c.htmlFrom PAC to Instance-Optimal Sample Complexity in the Plackett-Luce ModelWe consider PAC learning a good item from $k$-subsetwise feedback sampled from a Plackett-Luce probability model, with instance-dependent sample complexity performance. In the setting where subsets of a fixed size can be tested and top-ranked feedback is made available to the learner, we give an optimal instance-dependent algorithm with a sample complexity bound for PAC best arm identification algorithm of $O\bigg(\frac{\Theta_{[k]}}{k}\sum_{i = 2}^n\max\Big(1,\frac{1}{\Delta_i^2}\Big) \ln\frac{k}{\delta}\Big(\ln \frac{1}{\Delta_i}\Big)\bigg)$, $\Delta_i$ being the Plackett-Luce parameter gap between the best and the $i^{th}$ best item, and $\Theta_{[k]}$ is the sum of the Plackett-Luce parameters for top-$k$ items. The algorithm is based on a wrapper around a PAC winner-finding algorithm with weaker performance guarantees to adapt to the hardness of the input instance. The sample complexity is also shown to be multiplicatively better depending on the length of rank-ordered feedback available in each subset-wise play. We show optimality of our algorithms with matching sample complexity lower bounds. We next address the winner-finding problem in Plackett-Luce models in the fixed-budget setting with instance dependent upper and lower bounds on the misidentification probability, of $\Omega\left(\exp(-2 \tilde \Delta Q) \right)$ for a given budget $Q$, where $\tilde \Delta$ is an explicit instance-dependent problem complexity parameter. Numerical performance results are also reported for the algorithms.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/saha20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/saha20b.htmlImproved Sleeping Bandits with Stochastic Action Sets and Adversarial RewardsIn this paper, we consider the problem of sleeping bandits with stochastic action sets and adversarial rewards. In this setting, in contrast to most work in bandits, the actions may not be available at all times. For instance, some products might be out of stock in item recommendation. The best existing efficient (i.e., polynomial-time) algorithms for this problem only guarantee an $O(T^{2/3})$ upper-bound on the regret. Yet, inefficient algorithms based on EXP4 can achieve $O(\sqrt{T})$. In this paper, we provide a new computationally efficient algorithm inspired by EXP3 satisfying a regret of order $O(\sqrt{T})$ when the availabilities of each action $i \in \cA$ are independent. We then study the most general version of the problem where at each round available sets are generated from some unknown arbitrary distribution (i.e., without the independence assumption) and propose an efficient algorithm with $O(\sqrt {2^K T})$ regret guarantee. Our theoretical results are corroborated with experimental evaluations.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/saha20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/saha20a.htmlAn Investigation of Why Overparameterization Exacerbates Spurious CorrelationsWe study why overparameterization—increasing model size well beyond the point of zero training error—can hurt test error on minority groups despite improving average test error when there are spurious correlations in the data. Through simulations and experiments on two image datasets, we identify two key properties of the training data that drive this behavior: the proportions of majority versus minority groups, and the signal-to-noise ratio of the spurious correlations. We then analyze a linear setting and theoretically show how the inductive bias of models towards “memorizing” fewer examples can cause overparameterization to hurt. Our analysis leads to a counterintuitive approach of subsampling the majority group, which empirically achieves low minority error in the overparameterized regime, even though the standard approach of upweighting the minority fails. Overall, our results suggest a tension between using overparameterized models versus using all the training data for achieving low worst-group error.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sagawa20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sagawa20a.htmlCausal Structure Discovery from Distributions Arising from Mixtures of DAGsWe consider distributions arising from a mixture of causal models, where each model is represented by a directed acyclic graph (DAG). We provide a graphical representation of such mixture distributions and prove that this representation encodes the conditional independence relations of the mixture distribution. We then consider the problem of structure learning based on samples from such distributions. Since the mixing variable is latent, we consider causal structure discovery algorithms such as FCI that can deal with latent variables. We show that such algorithms recover a “union” of the component DAGs and can identify variables whose conditional distribution across the component DAGs vary. We demonstrate our results on synthetic and real data showing that the inferred graph identifies nodes that vary between the different mixture components. As an immediate application, we demonstrate how retrieval of this causal information can be used to cluster samples according to each mixture component.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/saeed20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/saeed20a.htmlRadioactive data: tracing through trainingData tracing determines whether particular data samples have been used to train a model. We propose a new technique, radioactive data, that makes imperceptible changes to these samples such that any model trained on them will bear an identifiable mark. Given a trained model, our technique detects the use of radioactive data and provides a level of confidence (p-value). Experiments on large-scale benchmarks (Imagenet), with standard architectures (Resnet-18, VGG-16, Densenet-121) and training procedures, show that we detect radioactive data with high confidence (p<0.0001) when only 1% of the data used to train a model is radioactive. Our radioactive mark is resilient to strong data augmentations and variations of the model architecture. As a result, it offers a much higher signal-to-noise ratio than data poisoning and backdoor methods.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sablayrolles20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sablayrolles20a.htmlBounding the fairness and accuracy of classifiers from population statisticsWe consider the study of a classification model whose properties are impossible to estimate using a validation set, either due to the absence of such a set or because access to the classifier, even as a black-box, is impossible. Instead, only aggregate statistics on the rate of positive predictions in each of several sub-populations are available, as well as the true rates of positive labels in each of these sub-populations. We show that these aggregate statistics can be used to lower-bound the discrepancy of a classifier, which is a measure that balances inaccuracy and unfairness. To this end, we define a new measure of unfairness, equal to the fraction of the population on which the classifier behaves differently, compared to its global, ideally fair behavior, as defined by the measure of equalized odds. We propose an efficient and practical procedure for finding the best possible lower bound on the discrepancy of the classifier, given the aggregate statistics, and demonstrate in experiments the empirical tightness of this lower bound, as well as its possible uses on various types of problems, ranging from estimating the quality of voting polls to measuring the effectiveness of patient identification from internet search queries. The code and data are available at https://github.com/sivansabato/bfa.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sabato20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/sabato20a.htmlAdversarial Attacks on Copyright Detection SystemsIt is well-known that many machine learning models are susceptible to adversarial attacks, in which an attacker evades a classifier by making small perturbations to inputs. This paper discusses how industrial copyright detection tools, which serve a central role on the web, are susceptible to adversarial attacks. As proof of concept, we describe a well-known music identification method and implement this system in the form of a neural net. We then attack this system using simple gradient methods and show that it is easily broken with white-box attacks. By scaling these perturbations up, we can create transfer attacks on industrial systems, such as the AudioTag copyright detector and YouTube’s Content ID system, using perturbations that are audible but significantly smaller than a random baseline. Our goal is to raise awareness of the threats posed by adversarial examples in this space and to highlight the importance of hardening copyright detection systems to attacks.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/saadatpanah20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/saadatpanah20a.htmlBio-Inspired Hashing for Unsupervised Similarity SearchThe fruit fly Drosophila’s olfactory circuit has inspired a new locality sensitive hashing (LSH) algorithm, FlyHash. In contrast with classical LSH algorithms that produce low dimensional hash codes, FlyHash produces sparse high-dimensional hash codes and has also been shown to have superior empirical performance compared to classical LSH algorithms in similarity search. However, FlyHash uses random projections and cannot learn from data. Building on inspiration from FlyHash and the ubiquity of sparse expansive representations in neurobiology, our work proposes a novel hashing algorithm BioHash that produces sparse high dimensional hash codes in a data-driven manner. We show that BioHash outperforms previously published benchmarks for various hashing methods. Since our learning algorithm is based on a local and biologically plausible synaptic plasticity rule, our work provides evidence for the proposal that LSH might be a computational reason for the abundance of sparse expansive motifs in a variety of biological systems. We also propose a convolutional variant BioConvHash that further improves performance. From the perspective of computer science, BioHash and BioConvHash are fast, scalable and yield compressed binary representations that are useful for similarity search.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ryali20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ryali20a.htmlInter-domain Deep Gaussian ProcessesInter-domain Gaussian processes (GPs) allow for high flexibility and low computational cost when performing approximate inference in GP models. They are particularly suitable for modeling data exhibiting global structure but are limited to stationary covariance functions and thus fail to model non-stationary data effectively. We propose Inter-domain Deep Gaussian Processes, an extension of inter-domain shallow GPs that combines the advantages of inter-domain and deep Gaussian processes (DGPs), and demonstrate how to leverage existing approximate inference methods to perform simple and scalable approximate inference using inter-domain features in DGPs. We assess the performance of our method on a range of regression tasks and demonstrate that it outperforms inter-domain shallow GPs and conventional DGPs on challenging large-scale real-world datasets exhibiting both global structure as well as a high-degree of non-stationarity.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rudner20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rudner20a.htmlBayesian Optimisation over Multiple Continuous and Categorical InputsEfficient optimisation of black-box problems that comprise both continuous and categorical inputs is important, yet poses significant challenges. Current approaches, like one-hot encoding, severely increase the dimension of the search space, while separate modelling of category-specific data is sample-inefficient. Both frameworks are not scalable to practical applications involving multiple categorical variables, each with multiple possible values. We propose a new approach, Continuous and Categorical Bayesian Optimisation (CoCaBO), which combines the strengths of multi-armed bandits and Bayesian optimisation to select values for both categorical and continuous inputs. We model this mixed-type space using a Gaussian Process kernel, designed to allow sharing of information across multiple categorical variables; this allows CoCaBO to leverage all available data efficiently. We extend our method to the batch setting and propose an efficient selection procedure that dynamically balances exploration and exploitation whilst encouraging batch diversity. We demonstrate empirically that our method outperforms existing approaches on both synthetic and real-world optimisation tasks with continuous and categorical inputs.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ru20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ru20a.htmlSimple and sharp analysis of k-means||We present a simple analysis of k-means|| (Bahmani et al., PVLDB 2012) - a distributed variant of the k-means++ algorithm (Arthur and Vassilvitskii, SODA 2007). Moreover, the bound on the number of rounds is improved from $O(\log n)$ to $O(\log n / \log\log n)$, which we show to be tight.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rozhon20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rozhon20a.htmlFetchSGD: Communication-Efficient Federated Learning with SketchingExisting approaches to federated learning suffer from a communication bottleneck as well as convergence issues due to sparse client participation. In this paper we introduce a novel algorithm,called FetchSGD, to overcome these challenges. FetchSGD compresses model updates using a Count Sketch, and then takes advantage of the mergeability of sketches to combine model updates from many workers. A key insight in the design of FetchSGD is that, because the Count Sketch is linear, momentum and error accumulation can both be carried out within the sketch.This allows the algorithm to move momentum and error accumulation from clients to the central aggregator, overcoming the challenges of sparse client participation while still achieving high compression rates and good convergence. We prove that FetchSGD has favorable convergence guarantees, and we demonstrate its empirical effectiveness by training two residual networks and a transformer model.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rothchild20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rothchild20a.htmlRevisiting Training Strategies and Generalization Performance in Deep Metric LearningDeep Metric Learning (DML) is arguably one of the most influential lines of research for learning visual similarities with many proposed approaches every year. Although the field benefits from the rapid progress, the divergence in training protocols, architectures, and parameter choices make an unbiased comparison difficult. To provide a consistent reference point, we revisit the most widely used DML objective functions and conduct a study of the crucial parameter choices as well as the commonly neglected mini-batch sampling process. Under consistent comparison, DML objectives show much higher saturation than indicated by literature. Further based on our analysis, we uncover a correlation between the embedding space density and compression to the generalization performance of DML models. Exploiting these insights, we propose a simple, yet effective, training regularization to reliably boost the performance of ranking-based DML models on various standard benchmark datasets. Code and a publicly accessible WandB-repo are available at https://github.com/Confusezius/Revisiting_Deep_Metric_Learning_PyTorch.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/roth20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/roth20a.htmlCertified Robustness to Label-Flipping Attacks via Randomized SmoothingMachine learning algorithms are known to be susceptible to data poisoning attacks, where an adversary manipulates the training data to degrade performance of the resulting classifier. In this work, we present a unifying view of randomized smoothing over arbitrary functions, and we leverage this novel characterization to propose a new strategy for building classifiers that are pointwise-certifiably robust to general data poisoning attacks. As a specific instantiation, we utilize our framework to build linear classifiers that are robust to a strong variant of label flipping, where each test example is targeted independently. In other words, for each test point, our classifier includes a certification that its prediction would be the same had some number of training labels been changed adversarially. Randomized smoothing has previously been used to guarantee—with high probability—test-time robustness to adversarial manipulation of the input to a classifier; we derive a variant which provides a deterministic, analytical bound, sidestepping the probabilistic certificates that traditionally result from the sampling subprocedure. Further, we obtain these certified bounds with minimal additional runtime complexity over standard classification and no assumptions on the train or test distributions. We generalize our results to the multi-class case, providing the first multi-class classification algorithm that is certifiably robust to label-flipping attacks.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rosenfeld20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rosenfeld20b.htmlPredicting Choice with Set-Dependent AggregationProviding users with alternatives to choose from is an essential component of many online platforms, making the accurate prediction of choice vital to their success. A renewed interest in learning choice models has led to improved modeling power, but most current methods are either limited in the type of choice behavior they capture, cannot be applied to large-scale data, or both. Here we propose a learning framework for predicting choice that is accurate, versatile, and theoretically grounded. Our key modeling point is that to account for how humans choose, predictive models must be expressive enough to accommodate complex choice patterns but structured enough to retain statistical efficiency. Building on recent results in economics, we derive a class of models that achieves this balance, and propose a neural implementation that allows for scalable end-to-end training. Experiments on three large choice datasets demonstrate the utility of our approach.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rosenfeld20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rosenfeld20a.htmlNear-optimal Regret Bounds for Stochastic Shortest PathStochastic shortest path (SSP) is a well-known problem in planning and control, in which an agent has to reach a goal state in minimum total expected cost. In the learning formulation of the problem, the agent is unaware of the environment dynamics (i.e., the transition function) and has to repeatedly play for a given number of episodes, while learning the problem’s optimal solution. Unlike other well-studied models in reinforcement learning (RL), the length of an episode is not predetermined (or bounded) and is influenced by the agent’s actions. Recently, \cite{tarbouriech2019noregret} studied this problem in the context of regret minimization, and provided an algorithm whose regret bound is inversely proportional to the square root of the minimum instantaneous cost. In this work we remove this dependence on the minimum cost—we give an algorithm that guarantees a regret bound of $\widetilde{O}(B^{3/2} S \sqrt{A K})$, where $B$ is an upper bound on the expected cost of the optimal policy, $S$ is the number of states, $A$ is the number of actions and $K$ is the total number of episodes. We additionally show that any learning algorithm must have at least $\Omega(B \sqrt{S A K})$ regret in the worst case.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rosenberg20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rosenberg20a.htmlFinite-Time Convergence in Continuous-Time OptimizationIn this paper, we investigate a Lyapunov-like differential inequality that allows us to establish finite-time stability of a continuous-time state-space dynamical system represented via a multivariate ordinary differential equation or differential inclusion. Equipped with this condition, we successfully synthesize first and second-order dynamical systems that achieve finite-time convergence to the minima of a given sufficiently regular cost function. As a byproduct, we show that the p-rescaled gradient flow (p-RGF) proposed by Wibisono et al. (2016) is indeed finite-time convergent, provided the cost function is gradient dominated of order q in (1,p). Thus, we effectively bridge a gap between the p-RGF and the normalized gradient flow (NGF) (p=\infty) proposed by Cortes (2006) in his seminal paper in the context of multi-agent systems. We discuss strategies to discretize our proposed flows and conclude by conducting some numerical experiments to illustrate our results.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/romero20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/romero20b.htmlAttentive Group Equivariant Convolutional NetworksAlthough group convolutional networks are able to learn powerful representations based on symmetry patterns, they lack explicit means to learn meaningful relationships among them (e.g., relative positions and poses). In this paper, we present attentive group equivariant convolutions, a generalization of the group convolution, in which attention is applied during the course of convolution to accentuate meaningful symmetry combinations and suppress non-plausible, misleading ones. We indicate that prior work on visual attention can be described as special cases of our proposed framework and show empirically that our attentive group equivariant convolutional networks consistently outperform conventional group convolutional networks on benchmark image datasets. Simultaneously, we provide interpretability to the learned concepts through the visualization of equivariant attention maps.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/romero20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/romero20a.htmlReverse-engineering deep ReLU networksThe output of a neural network depends on its architecture and weights in a highly nonlinear way, and it is often assumed that a network’s parameters cannot be recovered from its output. Here, we prove that, in fact, it is frequently possible to reconstruct the architecture, weights, and biases of a deep ReLU network by observing only its output. We leverage the fact that every ReLU network defines a piecewise linear function, where the boundaries between linear regions correspond to inputs for which some neuron in the network switches between inactive and active ReLU states. By dissecting the set of region boundaries into components associated with particular neurons, we show both theoretically and empirically that it is possible to recover the weights of neurons and their arrangement within the network, up to isomorphism.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rolnick20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rolnick20a.htmlDouble-Loop Unadjusted Langevin AlgorithmA well-known first-order method for sampling from log-concave probability distributions is the Unadjusted Langevin Algorithm (ULA). This work proposes a new annealing step-size schedule for ULA, which allows to prove new convergence guarantees for sampling from a smooth log-concave distribution, which are not covered by existing state-of-the-art convergence guarantees. To establish this result, we derive a new theoretical bound that relates the Wasserstein distance to total variation distance between any two log-concave distributions that complements the reach of Talagrand $T_2$ inequality. Moreover, applying this new step size schedule to an existing constrained sampling algorithm, we show state-of-the-art convergence rates for sampling from a constrained log-concave distribution, as well as improved dimension dependence.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rolland20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rolland20a.htmlBalancing Competing Objectives with Noisy Data: Score-Based Classifiers for Welfare-Aware Machine LearningWhile real-world decisions involve many competing objectives, algorithmic decisions are often evaluated with a single objective function. In this paper, we study algorithmic policies which explicitly trade off between a private objective (such as profit) and a public objective (such as social welfare). We analyze a natural class of policies which trace an empirical Pareto frontier based on learned scores, and focus on how such decisions can be made in noisy or data-limited regimes. Our theoretical results characterize the optimal strategies in this class, bound the Pareto errors due to inaccuracies in the scores, and show an equivalence between optimal strategies and a rich class of fairness-constrained profit-maximizing policies. We then present empirical results in two different contexts — online content recommendation and sustainable abalone fisheries — to underscore the generality of our approach to a wide range of practical decisions. Taken together, these results shed light on inherent trade-offs in using machine learning for decisions that impact social welfare.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rolf20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rolf20a.htmlFR-Train: A Mutual Information-Based Approach to Fair and Robust TrainingTrustworthy AI is a critical issue in machine learning where, in addition to training a model that is accurate, one must consider both fair and robust training in the presence of data bias and poisoning. However, the existing model fairness techniques mistakenly view poisoned data as an additional bias to be fixed, resulting in severe performance degradation. To address this problem, we propose FR-Train, which holistically performs fair and robust model training. We provide a mutual information-based interpretation of an existing adversarial training-based fairness-only method, and apply this idea to architect an additional discriminator that can identify poisoned data using a clean validation set and reduce its influence. In our experiments, FR-Train shows almost no decrease in fairness and accuracy in the presence of data poisoning by both mitigating the bias and defending against poisoning. We also demonstrate how to construct clean validation sets using crowdsourcing, and release new benchmark datasets.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/roh20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/roh20a.htmlOn Semi-parametric Inference for BARTThere has been a growing realization of the potential of Bayesian machine learning as a platform that can provide both flexible modeling, accurate predictions as well as coherent uncertainty statements. In particular, Bayesian Additive Regression Trees (BART) have emerged as one of today’s most effective general approaches to predictive modeling under minimal assumptions. Statistical theoretical developments for machine learning have been mostly concerned with approximability or rates of estimation when recovering infinite dimensional objects (curves or densities). Despite the impressive array of available theoretical results, the literature has been largely silent about uncertainty quantification. In this work, we continue the theoretical investigation of BART initiated recently by Rockova and van der Pas (2017). We focus on statistical inference questions. In particular, we study the Bernstein-von Mises (BvM) phenomenon (i.e. asymptotic normality) for smooth linear functionals of the regression surface within the framework of non-parametric regression with fixed covariates. Our semi-parametric BvM results show that, beyond rate-optimal estimation, BART can be also used for valid statistical inference.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rockova20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rockova20a.htmlStrength from Weakness: Fast Learning Using Weak SupervisionWe study generalization properties of weakly supervised learning, that is, learning where only a few "strong" labels (the actual target for prediction) are present but many more "weak" labels are available. In particular, we show that pretraining using weak labels and finetuning using strong can accelerate the learning rate for the strong task to the fast rate of O(1/n), where n is the number of strongly labeled data points. This acceleration can happen even if, by itself, the strongly labeled data admits only the slower O(1/\sqrt{n}) rate. The acceleration depends continuously on the number of weak labels available, and on the relation between the two tasks. Our theoretical results are reflected empirically across a range of tasks and illustrate how weak labels speed up learning on the strong task.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/robinson20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/robinson20a.htmlInterpretations are Useful: Penalizing Explanations to Align Neural Networks with Prior KnowledgeFor an explanation of a deep learning model to be effective, it must provide both insight into a model and suggest a corresponding action in order to achieve some objective. Too often, the litany of proposed explainable deep learning methods stop at the first step, providing practitioners with insight into a model, but no way to act on it. In this paper, we propose contextual decomposition explanation penalization (CDEP), a method which enables practitioners to leverage existing explanation methods to increase the predictive accuracy of a deep learning model. In particular, when shown that a model has incorrectly assigned importance to some features, CDEP enables practitioners to correct these errors by inserting domain knowledge into the model via explanations. We demonstrate the ability of CDEP to increase performance on an array of toy and real datasets.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rieger20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rieger20a.htmlDecentralised Learning with Random Features and Distributed Gradient DescentWe investigate the generalisation performance of Distributed Gradient Descent with implicit regularisation and random features in the homogenous setting where a network of agents are given data sampled independently from the same unknown distribution. Along with reducing the memory footprint, random features are particularly convenient in this setting as they provide a common parameterisation across agents that allows to overcome previous difficulties in implementing decentralised kernel regression. Under standard source and capacity assumptions, we establish high probability bounds on the predictive performance for each agent as a function of the step size, number of iterations, inverse spectral gap of the communication matrix and number of random features. By tuning these parameters, we obtain statistical rates that are minimax optimal with respect to the total number of samples in the network. The algorithm provides a linear improvement over single-machine gradient descent in memory cost and, when agents hold enough data with respect to the network size and inverse spectral gap, a linear speed up in computational run-time for any network topology. We present simulations that show how the number of random features, iterations and samples impact predictive performance.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/richards20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/richards20a.htmlOverfitting in adversarially robust deep learningIt is common practice in deep learning to use overparameterized networks and train for as long as possible; there are numerous studies that show, both theoretically and empirically, that such practices surprisingly do not unduly harm the generalization performance of the classifier. In this paper, we empirically study this phenomenon in the setting of adversarially trained deep networks, which are trained to minimize the loss under worst-case adversarial perturbations. We find that overfitting to the training set does in fact harm robust performance to a very large degree in adversarially robust training across multiple datasets (SVHN, CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, and ImageNet) and perturbation models (L-infinity and L-2). Based upon this observed effect, we show that the performance gains of virtually all recent algorithmic improvements upon adversarial training can be matched by simply using early stopping. We also show that effects such as the double descent curve do still occur in adversarially trained models, yet fail to explain the observed overfitting. Finally, we study several classical and modern deep learning remedies for overfitting, including regularization and data augmentation, and find that no approach in isolation improves significantly upon the gains achieved by early stopping. All code for reproducing the experiments as well as pretrained model weights and training logs can be found at https://github.com/ locuslab/robust_overfitting.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rice20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rice20a.htmlNormalizing Flows on Tori and SpheresNormalizing flows are a powerful tool for building expressive distributions in high dimensions. So far, most of the literature has concentrated on learning flows on Euclidean spaces. Some problems however, such as those involving angles, are defined on spaces with more complex geometries, such as tori or spheres. In this paper, we propose and compare expressive and numerically stable flows on such spaces. Our flows are built recursively on the dimension of the space, starting from flows on circles, closed intervals or spheres.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rezende20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rezende20a.htmlNetGAN without GAN: From Random Walks to Low-Rank ApproximationsA graph generative model takes a graph as input and is supposed to generate new graphs that “look like” the input graph. While most classical models focus on few, hand-selected graph statistics and are too simplistic to reproduce real-world graphs, NetGAN recently emerged as an attractive alternative: by training a GAN to learn the random walk distribution of the input graph, the algorithm is able to reproduce a large number of important network patterns simultaneously, without explicitly specifying any of them. In this paper, we investigate the implicit bias of NetGAN. We find that the root of its generalization properties does not lie in the GAN architecture, but in an inconspicuous low-rank approximation of the logits random walk transition matrix. Step by step we can strip NetGAN of all unnecessary parts, including the GAN, and obtain a highly simplified reformulation that achieves comparable generalization results, but is orders of magnitudes faster and easier to adapt. Being much simpler on the conceptual side, we reveal the implicit inductive bias of the algorithm — an important step towards increasing the interpretability, transparency and acceptance of machine learning systems.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rendsburg20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rendsburg20a.htmlThe Sample Complexity of Best-$k$ Items Selection from Pairwise ComparisonsThis paper studies the sample complexity (aka number of comparisons) bounds for the active best-$k$ items selection from pairwise comparisons. From a given set of items, the learner can make pairwise comparisons on every pair of items, and each comparison returns an independent noisy result about the preferred item. At any time, the learner can adaptively choose a pair of items to compare according to past observations (i.e., active learning). The learner’s goal is to find the (approximately) best-$k$ items with a given confidence, while trying to use as few comparisons as possible. In this paper, we study two problems: (i) finding the probably approximately correct (PAC) best-$k$ items and (ii) finding the exact best-$k$ items, both under strong stochastic transitivity and stochastic triangle inequality. For PAC best-$k$ items selection, we first show a lower bound and then propose an algorithm whose sample complexity upper bound matches the lower bound up to a constant factor. For the exact best-$k$ items selection, we first prove a worst-instance lower bound. We then propose two algorithms based on our PAC best items selection algorithms: one works for $k=1$ and is sample complexity optimal up to a loglog factor, and the other works for all values of $k$ and is sample complexity optimal up to a log factor.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ren20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ren20a.htmlActive Learning on Attributed Graphs via Graph Cognizant Logistic Regression and Preemptive Query GenerationNode classification in attributed graphs is an important task in multiple practical settings, but it can often be difficult or expensive to obtain labels. Active learning can improve the achieved classification performance for a given budget on the number of queried labels. The best existing methods are based on graph neural networks, but they often perform poorly unless a sizeable validation set of labelled nodes is available in order to choose good hyperparameters. We propose a novel graph-based active learning algorithm for the task of node classification in attributed graphs; our algorithm uses graph cognizant logistic regression, equivalent to a linearized graph-convolutional neural network (GCN), for the prediction phase and maximizes the expected error reduction in the query phase. To reduce the delay experienced by a labeller interacting with the system, we derive a preemptive querying system that calculates a new query during the labelling process, and to address the setting where learning starts with almost no labelled data, we also develop a hybrid algorithm that performs adaptive model averaging of label propagation and linearized GCN inference. We conduct experiments on five public benchmark datasets, demonstrating a significant improvement over state-of-the-art approaches and illustrate the practical value of the method by applying it to a private microwave link network dataset.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/regol20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/regol20a.htmlOptimistic Bounds for Multi-output LearningWe investigate the challenge of multi-output learning, where the goal is to learn a vector-valued function based on a supervised data set. This includes a range of important problems in Machine Learning including multi-target regression, multi-class classification and multi-label classification. We begin our analysis by introducing the self-bounding Lipschitz condition for multi-output loss functions, which interpolates continuously between a classical Lipschitz condition and a multi-dimensional analogue of a smoothness condition. We then show that the self-bounding Lipschitz condition gives rise to optimistic bounds for multi-output learning, which attain the minimax optimal rate up to logarithmic factors. The proof exploits local Rademacher complexity combined with a powerful minoration inequality due to Srebro, Sridharan and Tewari. As an application we derive a state-of-the-art generalisation bound for multi-class gradient boosting.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/reeve20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/reeve20a.htmlLearning Human Objectives by Evaluating Hypothetical BehaviorWe seek to align agent behavior with a user’s objectives in a reinforcement learning setting with unknown dynamics, an unknown reward function, and unknown unsafe states. The user knows the rewards and unsafe states, but querying the user is expensive. We propose an algorithm that safely and efficiently learns a model of the user’s reward function by posing ’what if?’ questions about hypothetical agent behavior. We start with a generative model of initial states and a forward dynamics model trained on off-policy data. Our method uses these models to synthesize hypothetical behaviors, asks the user to label the behaviors with rewards, and trains a neural network to predict the rewards. The key idea is to actively synthesize the hypothetical behaviors from scratch by maximizing tractable proxies for the value of information, without interacting with the environment. We call this method reward query synthesis via trajectory optimization (ReQueST). We evaluate ReQueST with simulated users on a state-based 2D navigation task and the image-based Car Racing video game. The results show that ReQueST significantly outperforms prior methods in learning reward models that transfer to new environments with different initial state distributions. Moreover, ReQueST safely trains the reward model to detect unsafe states, and corrects reward hacking before deploying the agent.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/reddy20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/reddy20a.htmlAutoML-Zero: Evolving Machine Learning Algorithms From ScratchMachine learning research has advanced in multiple aspects, including model structures and learning methods. The effort to automate such research, known as AutoML, has also made significant progress. However, this progress has largely focused on the architecture of neural networks, where it has relied on sophisticated expert-designed layers as building blocks—or similarly restrictive search spaces. Our goal is to show that AutoML can go further: it is possible today to automatically discover complete machine learning algorithms just using basic mathematical operations as building blocks. We demonstrate this by introducing a novel framework that significantly reduces human bias through a generic search space. Despite the vastness of this space, evolutionary search can still discover two-layer neural networks trained by backpropagation. These simple neural networks can then be surpassed by evolving directly on tasks of interest, e.g. CIFAR-10 variants, where modern techniques emerge in the top algorithms, such as bilinear interactions, normalized gradients, and weight averaging. Moreover, evolution adapts algorithms to different task types: e.g., dropout-like techniques appear when little data is available. We believe these preliminary successes in discovering machine learning algorithms from scratch indicate a promising new direction for the field.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/real20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/real20a.htmlUniversal Equivariant Multilayer PerceptronsGroup invariant and equivariant Multilayer Perceptrons (MLP), also known as Equivariant Networks and Group Group Convolutional Neural Networks (G-CNN) have achieved remarkable success in learning on a variety of data structures, such as sequences, images, sets, and graphs. This paper proves the universality of a broad class of equivariant MLPs with a single hidden layer. In particular, it is shown that having a hidden layer on which the group acts regularly is sufficient for universal equivariance (invariance). For example, some types of steerable-CNN’s become universal. Another corollary is the unconditional universality of equivariant MLPs for all Abelian groups. A third corollary is the universality of equivariant MLPs with a high-order hidden layer, where we give both group-agnostic bounds and group-specific bounds on the order of the hidden layer that guarantees universal equivariance.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ravanbakhsh20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ravanbakhsh20a.htmlImplicit Generative Modeling for Efficient ExplorationEfficient exploration remains a challenging problem in reinforcement learning, especially for those tasks where rewards from environments are sparse. In this work, we introduce an exploration approach based on a novel implicit generative modeling algorithm to estimate a Bayesian uncertainty of the agent’s belief of the environment dynamics. Each random draw from our generative model is a neural network that instantiates the dynamic function, hence multiple draws would approximate the posterior, and the variance in the predictions based on this posterior is used as an intrinsic reward for exploration. We design a training algorithm for our generative model based on the amortized Stein Variational Gradient Descent. In experiments, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this exploration algorithm in both pure exploration tasks and a downstream task, comparing with state-of-the-art intrinsic reward-based exploration approaches, including two recent approaches based on an ensemble of dynamic models. In challenging exploration tasks, our implicit generative model consistently outperforms competing approaches regarding data efficiency in exploration.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ratzlaff20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ratzlaff20a.htmlPolicy Teaching via Environment Poisoning: Training-time Adversarial Attacks against Reinforcement LearningWe study a security threat to reinforcement learning where an attacker poisons the learning environment to force the agent into executing a target policy chosen by the attacker. As a victim, we consider RL agents whose objective is to find a policy that maximizes average reward in undiscounted infinite-horizon problem settings. The attacker can manipulate the rewards or the transition dynamics in the learning environment at training-time and is interested in doing so in a stealthy manner. We propose an optimization framework for finding an \emph{optimal stealthy attack} for different measures of attack cost. We provide sufficient technical conditions under which the attack is feasible and provide lower/upper bounds on the attack cost. We instantiate our attacks in two settings: (i) an \emph{offline} setting where the agent is doing planning in the poisoned environment, and (ii) an \emph{online} setting where the agent is learning a policy using a regret-minimization framework with poisoned feedback. Our results show that the attacker can easily succeed in teaching any target policy to the victim under mild conditions and highlight a significant security threat to reinforcement learning agents in practice.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rakhsha20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rakhsha20a.htmlClosing the convergence gap of SGD without replacementStochastic gradient descent without replacement sampling is widely used in practice for model training. However, the vast majority of SGD analyses assumes data is sampled with replacement, and when the function minimized is strongly convex, an $\mathcal{O}\left(\frac{1}{T}\right)$ rate can be established when SGD is run for $T$ iterations. A recent line of breakthrough works on SGD without replacement (SGDo) established an $\mathcal{O}\left(\frac{n}{T^2}\right)$ convergence rate when the function minimized is strongly convex and is a sum of $n$ smooth functions, and an $\mathcal{O}\left(\frac{1}{T^2}+\frac{n^3}{T^3}\right)$ rate for sums of quadratics. On the other hand, the tightest known lower bound postulates an $\Omega\left(\frac{1}{T^2}+\frac{n^2}{T^3}\right)$ rate, leaving open the possibility of better SGDo convergence rates in the general case. In this paper, we close this gap and show that SGD without replacement achieves a rate of $\mathcal{O}\left(\frac{1}{T^2}+\frac{n^2}{T^3}\right)$ when the sum of the functions is a quadratic, and offer a new lower bound of $\Omega\left(\frac{n}{T^2}\right)$ for strongly convex functions that are sums of smooth functions.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rajput20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rajput20a.htmlA Game Theoretic Framework for Model Based Reinforcement LearningDesigning stable and efficient algorithms for model-based reinforcement learning (MBRL) with function approximation has remained challenging despite growing interest in the field. To help expose the practical challenges in MBRL and simplify algorithm design from the lens of abstraction, we develop a new framework that casts MBRL as a game between: (1) a policy player, which attempts to maximize rewards under the learned model; (2) a model player, which attempts to fit the real-world data collected by the policy player. We show that a near-optimal policy for the environment can be obtained by finding an approximate equilibrium for aforementioned game, and we develop two families of algorithms to find the game equilibrium by drawing upon ideas from Stackelberg games. Experimental studies suggest that the proposed algorithms achieve state of the art sample efficiency, match the asymptotic performance of model-free policy gradient, and scale gracefully to high-dimensional tasks like dexterous hand manipulation. Project page: \url{https://sites.google.com/view/mbrl-game}.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rajeswaran20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rajeswaran20a.htmlMulti-Precision Policy Enforced Training (MuPPET) : A Precision-Switching Strategy for Quantised Fixed-Point Training of CNNsLarge-scale convolutional neural networks (CNNs) suffer from very long training times, spanning from hours to weeks, limiting the productivity and experimentation of deep learning practitioners. As networks grow in size and complexity, training time can be reduced through low-precision data representations and computations, however, in doing so the final accuracy suffers due to the problem of vanishing gradients. Existing state-of-the-art methods combat this issue by means of a mixed-precision approach utilising two different precision levels, FP32 (32-bit floating-point) and FP16/FP8 (16-/8-bit floating-point), leveraging the hardware support of recent GPU architectures for FP16 operations to obtain performance gains. This work pushes the boundary of quantised training by employing a multilevel optimisation approach that utilises multiple precisions including low-precision fixed-point representations resulting in a novel training strategy MuPPET; it combines the use of multiple number representation regimes together with a precision-switching mechanism that decides at run time the transition point between precision regimes. Overall, the proposed strategy tailors the training process to the hardware-level capabilities of the target hardware architecture and yields improvements in training time and energy efficiency compared to state-of-the-art approaches. Applying MuPPET on the training of AlexNet, ResNet18 and GoogLeNet on ImageNet (ILSVRC12) and targeting an NVIDIA Turing GPU, MuPPET achieves the same accuracy as standard full-precision training with training-time speedup of up to 1.84x and an average speedup of 1.58x across the networks.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rajagopal20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rajagopal20a.htmlImproving Robustness of Deep-Learning-Based Image ReconstructionDeep-learning-based methods for various applications have been shown vulnerable to adversarial examples. Here we address the use of deep-learning networks as inverse problem solvers, which has generated much excitement and even adoption efforts by the main equipment vendors for medical imaging including computed tomography (CT) and MRI. However, the recent demonstration that such networks suffer from a similar vulnerability to adversarial attacks potentially undermines their future. We propose to modify the training strategy of end-to-end deep-learning-based inverse problem solvers to improve robustness. To this end, we introduce an auxiliary net-work to generate adversarial examples, which is used in a min-max formulation to build robust image reconstruction networks. Theoretically, we argue that for such inverse problem solvers, one should analyze and study the effect of adversaries in the measurement-space, instead of in the signal-space used in previous work. We show for a linear reconstruction scheme that our min-max formulation results in a singular-value filter regularized solution, which suppresses the effect of adversarial examples. Numerical experiments using the proposed min-max scheme confirm convergence to this solution. We complement the theory by experiments on non-linear Compressive Sensing(CS) reconstruction by a deep neural network on two standard datasets, and, using anonymized clinical data, on a state-of-the-art published algorithm for low-dose x-ray CT reconstruction. We show a significant improvement in robustness over other methods for deep network-based reconstruction, by using the proposed approach.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/raj20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/raj20a.htmlFast Adaptation to New Environments via Policy-Dynamics Value FunctionsStandard RL algorithms assume fixed environment dynamics and require a significant amount of interaction to adapt to new environments. We introduce Policy-Dynamics Value Functions (PD-VF), a novel approach for rapidly adapting to dynamics different from those previously seen in training. PD-VF explicitly estimates the cumulative reward in a space of policies and environments. An ensemble of conventional RL policies is used to gather experience on training environments, from which embeddings of both policies and environments can be learned. Then, a value function conditioned on both embeddings is trained. At test time, a few actions are sufficient to infer the environment embedding, enabling a policy to be selected by maximizing the learned value function (which requires no additional environment interaction). We show that our method can rapidly adapt to new dynamics on a set of MuJoCo domains.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/raileanu20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/raileanu20a.htmlUnderstanding and Mitigating the Tradeoff between Robustness and AccuracyAdversarial training augments the training set with perturbations to improve the robust error (over worst-case perturbations), but it often leads to an increase in the standard error (on unperturbed test inputs). Previous explanations for this tradeoff rely on the assumption that no predictor in the hypothesis class has low standard and robust error. In this work, we precisely characterize the effect of augmentation on the standard error in linear regression when the optimal linear predictor has zero standard and robust error. In particular, we show that the standard error could increase even when the augmented perturbations have noiseless observations from the optimal linear predictor. We then prove that the recently proposed robust self-training (RST) estimator improves robust error without sacrificing standard error for noiseless linear regression. Empirically, for neural networks, we find that RST with different adversarial training methods improves both standard and robust error for random and adversarial rotations and adversarial l_infty perturbations in CIFAR-10.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/raghunathan20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/raghunathan20a.htmlTransparency Promotion with Model-Agnostic Linear CompetitorsWe propose a novel type of hybrid model for multi-class classification, which utilizes competing linear models to collaborate with an existing black-box model, promoting transparency in the decision-making process. Our proposed hybrid model, Model-Agnostic Linear Competitors (MALC), brings together the interpretable power of linear models and the good predictive performance of the state-of-the-art black-box models. We formulate the training of a MALC model as a convex optimization problem, optimizing the predictive accuracy and transparency (defined as the percentage of data captured by the linear models) in the objective function. Experiments show that MALC offers more model flexibility for users to balance transparency and accuracy, in contrast to the currently available choice of either a pure black-box model or a pure interpretable model. The human evaluation also shows that more users are likely to choose MALC for this model flexibility compared with interpretable models and black-box models.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rafique20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rafique20a.htmlFast and Private Submodular and $k$-Submodular Functions Maximization with Matroid ConstraintsThe problem of maximizing nonnegative monotone submodular functions under a certain constraint has been intensively studied in the last decade, and a wide range of efficient approximation algorithms have been developed for this problem. Many machine learning problems, including data summarization and influence maximization, can be naturally modeled as the problem of maximizing monotone submodular functions. However, when such applications involve sensitive data about individuals, their privacy concerns should be addressed. In this paper, we study the problem of maximizing monotone submodular functions subject to matroid constraints in the framework of differential privacy. We provide $(1-\frac{1}{\mathrm{e}})$-approximation algorithm which improves upon the previous results in terms of approximation guarantee. This is done with an almost cubic number of function evaluations in our algorithm. Moreover, we study $k$-submodularity, a natural generalization of submodularity. We give the first $\frac{1}{2}$-approximation algorithm that preserves differential privacy for maximizing monotone $k$-submodular functions subject to matroid constraints. The approximation ratio is asymptotically tight and is obtained with an almost linear number of function evaluations.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rafiey20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/rafiey20a.htmlDeepCoDA: personalized interpretability for compositional health dataAbstract Interpretability allows the domain-expert to directly evaluate the model’s relevance and reliability, a practice that offers assurance and builds trust. In the healthcare setting, interpretable models should implicate relevant biological mechanisms independent of technical factors like data pre-processing. We define personalized interpretability as a measure of sample-specific feature attribution, and view it as a minimum requirement for a precision health model to justify its conclusions. Some health data, especially those generated by high-throughput sequencing experiments, have nuances that compromise precision health models and their interpretation. These data are compositional, meaning that each feature is conditionally dependent on all other features. We propose the Deep Compositional Data Analysis (DeepCoDA) framework to extend precision health modelling to high-dimensional compositional data, and to provide personalized interpretability through patient-specific weights. Our architecture maintains state-of-the-art performance across 25 real-world data sets, all while producing interpretations that are both personalized and fully coherent for compositional data.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/quinn20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/quinn20a.htmlFew-shot Relation Extraction via Bayesian Meta-learning on Relation GraphsThis paper studies few-shot relation extraction, which aims at predicting the relation for a pair of entities in a sentence by training with a few labeled examples in each relation. To more effectively generalize to new relations, in this paper we study the relationships between different relations and propose to leverage a global relation graph. We propose a novel Bayesian meta-learning approach to effectively learn the posterior distribution of the prototype vectors of relations, where the initial prior of the prototype vectors is parameterized with a graph neural network on the global relation graph. Moreover, to effectively optimize the posterior distribution of the prototype vectors, we propose to use the stochastic gradient Langevin dynamics, which is related to the MAML algorithm but is able to handle the uncertainty of the prototype vectors. The whole framework can be effectively and efficiently optimized in an end-to-end fashion. Experiments on two benchmark datasets prove the effectiveness of our proposed approach against competitive baselines in both the few-shot and zero-shot settings.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/qu20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/qu20a.htmlRobust One-Bit Recovery via ReLU Generative Networks: Near-Optimal Statistical Rate and Global Landscape AnalysisWe study the robust one-bit compressed sensing problem whose goal is to design an algorithm that faithfully recovers any sparse target vector $\theta_0\in\mathbb{R}^d$ \emph{uniformly} via $m$ quantized noisy measurements. Specifically, we consider a new framework for this problem where the sparsity is implicitly enforced via mapping a low dimensional representation $x_0 \in \mathbb{R}^k$ through a known $n$-layer ReLU generative network $G:\mathbb{R}^k\rightarrow\mathbb{R}^d$ such that $\theta_0 = G(x_0)$. Such a framework poses low-dimensional priors on $\theta_0$ without a known sparsity basis. We propose to recover the target $G(x_0)$ solving an unconstrained empirical risk minimization (ERM). Under a weak \emph{sub-exponential measurement assumption}, we establish a joint statistical and computational analysis. In particular, we prove that the ERM estimator in this new framework achieves a statistical rate of $m=\widetilde{\mathcal{O}}(kn \log d /\varepsilon^2)$ recovering any $G(x_0)$ uniformly up to an error $\varepsilon$. When the network is shallow (i.e., $n$ is small), we show this rate matches the information-theoretic lower bound up to logarithm factors of $\varepsilon^{-1}$. From the lens of computation, we prove that under proper conditions on the network weights, our proposed empirical risk, despite non-convexity, has no stationary point outside of small neighborhoods around the true representation $x_0$ and its negative multiple; furthermore, we show that the global minimizer of the empirical risk stays within the neighborhood around $x_0$ rather than its negative multiple under further assumptions on weights.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/qiu20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/qiu20a.htmlScalable Differentiable Physics for Learning and ControlDifferentiable physics is a powerful approach to learning and control problems that involve physical objects and environments. While notable progress has been made, the capabilities of differentiable physics solvers remain limited. We develop a scalable framework for differentiable physics that can support a large number of objects and their interactions. To accommodate objects with arbitrary geometry and topology, we adopt meshes as our representation and leverage the sparsity of contacts for scalable differentiable collision handling. Collisions are resolved in localized regions to minimize the number of optimization variables even when the number of simulated objects is high. We further accelerate implicit differentiation of optimization with nonlinear constraints. Experiments demonstrate that the presented framework requires up to two orders of magnitude less memory and computation in comparison to recent particle-based methods. We further validate the approach on inverse problems and control scenarios, where it outperforms derivative-free and model-free baselines by at least an order of magnitude.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/qiao20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/qiao20a.htmlUnsupervised Speech Decomposition via Triple Information BottleneckSpeech information can be roughly decomposed into four components: language content, timbre, pitch, and rhythm. Obtaining disentangled representations of these components is useful in many speech analysis and generation applications. Recently, state-of-the-art voice conversion systems have led to speech representations that can disentangle speaker-dependent and independent information. However, these systems can only disentangle timbre, while information about pitch, rhythm and content is still mixed together. Further disentangling the remaining speech components is an under-determined problem in the absence of explicit annotations for each component, which are difficult and expensive to obtain. In this paper, we propose SpeechSplit, which can blindly decompose speech into its four components by introducing three carefully designed information bottlenecks. SpeechSplit is among the first algorithms that can separately perform style transfer on timbre, pitch and rhythm without text labels. Our code is publicly available at https://github.com/auspicious3000/SpeechSplit.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/qian20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/qian20a.htmlDeep Isometric Learning for Visual RecognitionInitialization, normalization, and skip connections are believed to be three indispensable techniques for training very deep convolutional neural networks and obtaining state-of-the-art performance. This paper shows that deep vanilla ConvNets without normalization nor skip connections can also be trained to achieve surprisingly good performance on standard image recognition benchmarks. This is achieved by enforcing the convolution kernels to be near isometric during initialization and training, as well as by using a variant of ReLU that is shifted towards being isometric. Further experiments show that if combined with skip connections, such near isometric networks can achieve performances on par with (for ImageNet) and better than (for COCO) the standard ResNet, even without normalization at all. Our code is available at https://github.com/HaozhiQi/ISONet.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/qi20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/qi20a.htmlAdversarial Risk via Optimal Transport and Optimal CouplingsThe accuracy of modern machine learning algorithms deteriorates severely on adversarially manipulated test data. Optimal adversarial risk quantifies the best error rate of any classifier in the presence of adversaries, and optimal adversarial classifiers are sought that minimize adversarial risk. In this paper, we investigate the optimal adversarial risk and optimal adversarial classifiers from an optimal transport perspective. We present a new and simple approach to show that the optimal adversarial risk for binary classification with 0 − 1 loss function is completely characterized by an optimal transport cost between the probability distributions of the two classes, for a suitably defined cost function. We propose a novel coupling strategy that achieves the optimal transport cost for several univariate distributions like Gaussian, uniform and triangular. Using the optimal couplings, we obtain the optimal adversarial classifiers in these settings and show how they differ from optimal classifiers in the absence of adversaries. Based on our analysis, we evaluate algorithm-independent fundamental limits on adversarial risk for CIFAR-10, MNIST, Fashion-MNIST and SVHN datasets, and Gaussian mixtures based on them.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/pydi20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/pydi20a.htmlGraph-based Nearest Neighbor Search: From Practice to TheoryGraph-based approaches are empirically shown to be very successful for the nearest neighbor search (NNS). However, there has been very little research on their theoretical guarantees. We fill this gap and rigorously analyze the performance of graph-based NNS algorithms, specifically focusing on the low-dimensional ($d \ll \log n$) regime. In addition to the basic greedy algorithm on nearest neighbor graphs, we also analyze the most successful heuristics commonly used in practice: speeding up via adding shortcut edges and improving accuracy via maintaining a dynamic list of candidates. We believe that our theoretical insights supported by experimental analysis are an important step towards understanding the limits and benefits of graph-based NNS algorithms.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/prokhorenkova20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/prokhorenkova20a.htmlSoftSort: A Continuous Relaxation for the argsort OperatorWhile sorting is an important procedure in computer science, the argsort operator - which takes as input a vector and returns its sorting permutation - has a discrete image and thus zero gradients almost everywhere. This prohibits end-to-end, gradient-based learning of models that rely on the argsort operator. A natural way to overcome this problem is to replace the argsort operator with a continuous relaxation. Recent work has shown a number of ways to do this, but the relaxations proposed so far are computationally complex. In this work we propose a simple continuous relaxation for the argsort operator which has the following qualities: it can be implemented in three lines of code, achieves state-of-the-art performance, is easy to reason about mathematically - substantially simplifying proofs - and is faster than competing approaches. We open source the code to reproduce all of the experiments and results.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/prillo20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/prillo20a.htmlSkew-Fit: State-Covering Self-Supervised Reinforcement LearningAutonomous agents that must exhibit flexible and broad capabilities will need to be equipped with large repertoires of skills. Defining each skill with a manually-designed reward function limits this repertoire and imposes a manual engineering burden. Self-supervised agents that set their own goals can automate this process, but designing appropriate goal setting objectives can be difficult, and often involves heuristic design decisions. In this paper, we propose a formal exploration objective for goal-reaching policies that maximizes state coverage. We show that this objective is equivalent to maximizing goal reaching performance together with the entropy of the goal distribution, where goals correspond to full state observations. To instantiate this principle, we present an algorithm called Skew-Fit for learning a maximum-entropy goal distributions. We prove that, under regularity conditions, Skew-Fit converges to a uniform distribution over the set of valid states, even when we do not know this set beforehand. Our experiments show that combining Skew-Fit for learning goal distributions with existing goal-reaching methods outperforms a variety of prior methods on open-sourced visual goal-reaching tasks. Moreover, we demonstrate that Skew-Fit enables a real-world robot to learn to open a door, entirely from scratch, from pixels, and without any manually-designed reward function.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/pong20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/pong20a.htmlOn the Unreasonable Effectiveness of the Greedy Algorithm: Greedy Adapts to SharpnessIt is well known that the standard greedy algorithm guarantees a worst-case approximation factor of $1-1/e$ when maximizing a monotone submodular function under a cardinality constraint. However, empirical studies show that its performance is substantially better in practice. This raises a natural question of explaining this improved performance of the greedy algorithm. In this work, we define sharpness for submodular functions as a candidate explanation for this phenomenon. We show that the greedy algorithm provably performs better as the sharpness of the submodular function increases. This improvement ties in closely with the faster convergence rates of first order methods for sharp functions in convex optimization.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/pokutta20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/pokutta20a.htmlExplaining Groups of Points in Low-Dimensional RepresentationsA common workflow in data exploration is to learn a low-dimensional representation of the data, identify groups of points in that representation, and examine the differences between the groups to determine what they represent. We treat this workflow as an interpretable machine learning problem by leveraging the model that learned the low-dimensional representation to help identify the key differences between the groups. To solve this problem, we introduce a new type of explanation, a Global Counterfactual Explanation (GCE), and our algorithm, Transitive Global Translations (TGT), for computing GCEs. TGT identifies the differences between each pair of groups using compressed sensing but constrains those pairwise differences to be consistent among all of the groups. Empirically, we demonstrate that TGT is able to identify explanations that accurately explain the model while being relatively sparse, and that these explanations match real patterns in the data.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/plumb20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/plumb20a.htmlMaximum Entropy Gain Exploration for Long Horizon Multi-goal Reinforcement LearningWhat goals should a multi-goal reinforcement learning agent pursue during training in long-horizon tasks? When the desired (test time) goal distribution is too distant to offer a useful learning signal, we argue that the agent should not pursue unobtainable goals. Instead, it should set its own intrinsic goals that maximize the entropy of the historical achieved goal distribution. We propose to optimize this objective by having the agent pursue past achieved goals in sparsely explored areas of the goal space, which focuses exploration on the frontier of the achievable goal set. We show that our strategy achieves an order of magnitude better sample efficiency than the prior state of the art on long-horizon multi-goal tasks including maze navigation and block stacking.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/pitis20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/pitis20a.htmlDissecting Non-Vacuous Generalization Bounds based on the Mean-Field ApproximationExplaining how overparametrized neural networks simultaneously achieve low risk and zero empirical risk on benchmark datasets is an open problem. PAC-Bayes bounds optimized using variational inference (VI) have been recently proposed as a promising direction in obtaining non-vacuous bounds. We show empirically that this approach gives negligible gains when modelling the posterior as a Gaussian with diagonal covariance—known as the mean-field approximation. We investigate common explanations, such as the failure of VI due to problems in optimization or choosing a suboptimal prior. Our results suggest that investigating richer posteriors is the most promising direction forward.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/pitas20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/pitas20a.htmlEfficient Domain Generalization via Common-Specific Low-Rank DecompositionDomain generalization refers to the task of training a model which generalizes to new domains that are not seen during training. We present CSD (Common Specific Decomposition), for this setting, which jointly learns a common component (which generalizes to new domains) and a domain specific component (which overfits on training domains). The domain specific components are discarded after training and only the common component is retained. The algorithm is extremely simple and involves only modifying the final linear classification layer of any given neural network architecture. We present a principled analysis to understand existing approaches, provide identifiability results of CSD, and study the effect of low-rank on domain generalization. We show that CSD either matches or beats state of the art approaches for domain generalization based on domain erasure, domain perturbed data augmentation, and meta-learning. Further diagnostics on rotated MNIST, where domains are interpretable, confirm the hypothesis that CSD successfully disentangles common and domain specific components and hence leads to better domain generalization; moreover, our code and dataset are publicly available at the following URL: \url{https://github.com/vihari/csd}.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/piratla20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/piratla20a.htmlRandomization matters How to defend against strong adversarial attacks\emph{Is there a classifier that ensures optimal robustness against all adversarial attacks?} This paper tackles this question by adopting a game-theoretic point of view. We present the adversarial attacks and defenses problem as an \emph{infinite} zero-sum game where classical results (\emph{e.g.} Nash or Sion theorems) do not apply. We demonstrate the non-existence of a Nash equilibrium in our game when the classifier and the Adversary are both deterministic, hence giving a negative answer to the above question in the deterministic regime. Nonetheless, the question remains open in the randomized regime. We tackle this problem by showing that any deterministic classifier can be outperformed by a randomized one. This gives arguments for using randomization, and leads us to a simple method for building randomized classifiers that are robust to state-or-the-art adversarial attacks. Empirical results validate our theoretical analysis, and show that our defense method considerably outperforms Adversarial Training against strong adaptive attacks, by achieving 0.55 accuracy under adaptive PGD-attack on CIFAR10, compared to 0.42 for Adversarial training.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/pinot20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/pinot20a.htmlWaveFlow: A Compact Flow-based Model for Raw AudioIn this work, we propose WaveFlow, a small-footprint generative flow for raw audio, which is directly trained with maximum likelihood. It handles the long-range structure of 1-D waveform with a dilated 2-D convolutional architecture, while modeling the local variations using expressive autoregressive functions. WaveFlow provides a unified view of likelihood-based models for 1-D data, including WaveNet and WaveGlow as special cases. It generates high-fidelity speech as WaveNet, while synthesizing several orders of magnitude faster as it only requires a few sequential steps to generate very long waveforms with hundreds of thousands of time-steps. Furthermore, it can significantly reduce the likelihood gap that has existed between autoregressive models and flow-based models for efficient synthesis. Finally, our small-footprint WaveFlow has only 5.91M parameters, which is 15{\texttimes} smaller than WaveGlow. It can generate 22.05 kHz high-fidelity audio 42.6{\texttimes} faster than real-time (at a rate of 939.3 kHz) on a V100 GPU without engineered inference kernels.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ping20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ping20a.htmlNeural Networks are Convex Regularizers: Exact Polynomial-time Convex Optimization Formulations for Two-layer NetworksWe develop exact representations of training two-layer neural networks with rectified linear units (ReLUs) in terms of a single convex program with number of variables polynomial in the number of training samples and the number of hidden neurons. Our theory utilizes semi-infinite duality and minimum norm regularization. We show that ReLU networks trained with standard weight decay are equivalent to block $\ell_1$ penalized convex models. Moreover, we show that certain standard convolutional linear networks are equivalent semi-definite programs which can be simplified to $\ell_1$ regularized linear models in a polynomial sized discrete Fourier feature spaceSat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/pilanci20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/pilanci20a.htmlScalable Differential Privacy with Certified Robustness in Adversarial LearningIn this paper, we aim to develop a scalable algorithm to preserve differential privacy (DP) in adversarial learning for deep neural networks (DNNs), with certified robustness to adversarial examples. By leveraging the sequential composition theory in DP, we randomize both input and latent spaces to strengthen our certified robustness bounds. To address the trade-off among model utility, privacy loss, and robustness, we design an original adversarial objective function, based on the post-processing property in DP, to tighten the sensitivity of our model. A new stochastic batch training is proposed to apply our mechanism on large DNNs and datasets, by bypassing the vanilla iterative batch-by-batch training in DP DNNs. An end-to-end theoretical analysis and evaluations show that our mechanism notably improves the robustness and scalability of DP DNNs.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/phan20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/phan20a.htmlOn Unbalanced Optimal Transport: An Analysis of Sinkhorn AlgorithmWe provide a computational complexity analysis for the Sinkhorn algorithm that solves the entropic regularized Unbalanced Optimal Transport (UOT) problem between two measures of possibly different masses with at most $n$ components. We show that the complexity of the Sinkhorn algorithm for finding an $\varepsilon$-approximate solution to the UOT problem is of order $\widetilde{\mathcal{O}}(n^2/ \varepsilon)$. To the best of our knowledge, this complexity is better than the best known complexity upper bound of the Sinkhorn algorithm for solving the Optimal Transport (OT) problem, which is of order $\widetilde{\mathcal{O}}(n^2/\varepsilon^2)$. Our proof technique is based on the geometric convergence rate of the Sinkhorn updates to the optimal dual solution of the entropic regularized UOT problem and scaling properties of the primal solution. It is also different from the proof technique used to establish the complexity of the Sinkhorn algorithm for approximating the OT problem since the UOT solution does not need to meet the marginal constraints of the measures.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/pham20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/pham20a.htmlIPBoost – Non-Convex Boosting via Integer ProgrammingRecently non-convex optimization approaches for solving machine learning problems have gained significant attention. In this paper we explore non-convex boosting in classification by means of integer programming and demonstrate real-world practicability of the approach while circumvent- ing shortcomings of convex boosting approaches. We report results that are comparable to or better than the current state-of-the-art.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/pfetsch20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/pfetsch20a.htmlSample Factory: Egocentric 3D Control from Pixels at 100000 FPS with Asynchronous Reinforcement LearningIncreasing the scale of reinforcement learning experiments has allowed researchers to achieve unprecedented results in both training sophisticated agents for video games, and in sim-to-real transfer for robotics. Typically such experiments rely on large distributed systems and require expensive hardware setups, limiting wider access to this exciting area of research. In this work we aim to solve this problem by optimizing the efficiency and resource utilization of reinforcement learning algorithms instead of relying on distributed computation. We present the "Sample Factory", a high-throughput training system optimized for a single-machine setting. Our architecture combines a highly efficient, asynchronous, GPU-based sampler with off-policy correction techniques, allowing us to achieve throughput higher than $10^5$ environment frames/second on non-trivial control problems in 3D without sacrificing sample efficiency. We extend Sample Factory to support self-play and population-based training and apply these techniques to train highly capable agents for a multiplayer first-person shooter game. Github: https://github.com/alex-petrenko/sample-factorySat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/petrenko20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/petrenko20a.htmlOn Convergence-Diagnostic based Step Sizes for Stochastic Gradient DescentConstant step-size Stochastic Gradient Descent exhibits two phases: a transient phase during which iterates make fast progress towards the optimum, followed by a stationary phase during which iterates oscillate around the optimal point. In this paper, we show that efficiently detecting this transition and appropriately decreasing the step size can lead to fast convergence rates. We analyse the classical statistical test proposed by Pflug (1983), based on the inner product between consecutive stochastic gradients. Even in the simple case where the objective function is quadratic we show that this test cannot lead to an adequate convergence diagnostic. We then propose a novel and simple statistical procedure that accurately detects stationarity and we provide experimental results showing state-of-the-art performance on synthetic and real-word datasets.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/pesme20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/pesme20a.htmlLow Bias Low Variance Gradient Estimates for Boolean Stochastic NetworksStochastic neural networks with discrete random variables are an important class of models for their expressiveness and interpretability. Since direct differentiation and backpropagation is not possible, Monte Carlo gradient estimation techniques are a popular alternative. Efficient stochastic gradient estimators, such Straight-Through and Gumbel-Softmax, work well for shallow stochastic models. Their performance, however, suffers with hierarchical, more complex models. We focus on stochastic networks with Boolean latent variables. To analyze such networks, we introduce the framework of harmonic analysis for Boolean functions to derive an analytic formulation for the bias and variance in the Straight-Through estimator. Exploiting these formulations, we propose \emph{FouST}, a low-bias and low-variance gradient estimation algorithm that is just as efficient. Extensive experiments show that FouST performs favorably compared to state-of-the-art biased estimators and is much faster than unbiased ones.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/pervez20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/pervez20a.htmlBudgeted Online Influence MaximizationWe introduce a new budgeted framework for online influence maximization, considering the total cost of an advertising campaign instead of the common cardinality constraint on a chosen influencer set. Our approach models better the real-world setting where the cost of influencers varies and advertizers want to find the best value for their overall social advertising budget. We propose an algorithm assuming an independent cascade diffusion model and edge-level semi-bandit feedback, and provide both theoretical and experimental results. Our analysis is also valid for the cardinality-constraint setting and improves the state of the art regret bound in this case.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/perrault20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/perrault20a.htmlConstructive Universal High-Dimensional Distribution Generation through Deep ReLU NetworksWe present an explicit deep neural network construction that transforms uniformly distributed one-dimensional noise into an arbitrarily close approximation of any two-dimensional Lipschitz-continuous target distribution. The key ingredient of our design is a generalization of the "space-filling" property of sawtooth functions discovered in (Bailey & Telgarsky, 2018). We elicit the importance of depth - in our neural network construction - in driving the Wasserstein distance between the target distribution and the approximation realized by the network to zero. An extension to output distributions of arbitrary dimension is outlined. Finally, we show that the proposed construction does not incur a cost - in terms of error measured in Wasserstein-distance - relative to generating $d$-dimensional target distributions from $d$ independent random variables.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/perekrestenko20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/perekrestenko20a.htmlPerformative PredictionWhen predictions support decisions they may influence the outcome they aim to predict. We call such predictions performative; the prediction influences the target. Performativity is a well-studied phenomenon in policy-making that has so far been neglected in supervised learning. When ignored, performativity surfaces as undesirable distribution shift, routinely addressed with retraining. We develop a risk minimization framework for performative prediction bringing together concepts from statistics, game theory, and causality. A conceptual novelty is an equilibrium notion we call performative stability. Performative stability implies that the predictions are calibrated not against past outcomes, but against the future outcomes that manifest from acting on the prediction. Our main results are necessary and sufficient conditions for the convergence of retraining to a performatively stable point of nearly minimal loss. In full generality, performative prediction strictly subsumes the setting known as strategic classification. We thus also give the first sufficient conditions for retraining to overcome strategic feedback effects.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/perdomo20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/perdomo20a.htmlNon-Autoregressive Neural Text-to-SpeechIn this work, we propose ParaNet, a non-autoregressive seq2seq model that converts text to spectrogram. It is fully convolutional and brings 46.7 times speed-up over the lightweight Deep Voice 3 at synthesis, while obtaining reasonably good speech quality. ParaNet also produces stable alignment between text and speech on the challenging test sentences by iteratively improving the attention in a layer-by-layer manner. Furthermore, we build the parallel text-to-speech system by applying various parallel neural vocoders, which can synthesize speech from text through a single feed-forward pass. We also explore a novel VAE-based approach to train the inverse autoregressive flow (IAF) based parallel vocoder from scratch, which avoids the need for distillation from a separately trained WaveNet as previous work.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/peng20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/peng20a.htmlLearning Selection Strategies in Buchberger’s AlgorithmStudying the set of exact solutions of a system of polynomial equations largely depends on a single iterative algorithm, known as Buchberger’s algorithm. Optimized versions of this algorithm are crucial for many computer algebra systems (e.g., Mathematica, Maple, Sage). We introduce a new approach to Buchberger’s algorithm that uses reinforcement learning agents to perform S-pair selection, a key step in the algorithm. We then study how the difficulty of the problem depends on the choices of domain and distribution of polynomials, about which little is known. Finally, we train a policy model using proximal policy optimization (PPO) to learn S-pair selection strategies for random systems of binomial equations. In certain domains, the trained model outperforms state-of-the-art selection heuristics in total number of polynomial additions performed, which provides a proof-of-concept that recent developments in machine learning have the potential to improve performance of algorithms in symbolic computation.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/peifer20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/peifer20a.htmlEinsum Networks: Fast and Scalable Learning of Tractable Probabilistic CircuitsProbabilistic circuits (PCs) are a promising avenue for probabilistic modeling, as they permit a wide range of exact and efficient inference routines. Recent “deep-learning-style” implementations of PCs strive for a better scalability, but are still difficult to train on real-world data, due to their sparsely connected computational graphs. In this paper, we propose Einsum Networks (EiNets), a novel implementation design for PCs, improving prior art in several regards. At their core, EiNets combine a large number of arithmetic operations in a single monolithic einsum-operation, leading to speedups and memory savings of up to two orders of magnitude, in comparison to previous implementations. As an algorithmic contribution, we show that the implementation of Expectation-Maximization (EM) can be simplified for PCs, by leveraging automatic differentiation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that EiNets scale well to datasets which were previously out of reach, such as SVHN and CelebA, and that they can be used as faithful generative image models.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/peharz20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/peharz20a.htmlAcceleration through spectral density estimationWe develop a framework for the average-case analysis of random quadratic problems and derive algorithms that are optimal under this analysis. This yields a new class of methods that achieve acceleration given a model of the Hessian’s eigenvalue distribution. We develop explicit algorithms for the uniform, Marchenko-Pastur, and exponential distributions. These methods have a simple momentum-like update, in which each update only makes use on the current gradient and previous two iterates. Furthermore, the momentum and step-size parameters can be estimated without knowledge of the Hessian’s smallest singular value, in contrast with classical accelerated methods like Nesterov acceleration and Polyak momentum. Through empirical benchmarks on quadratic and logistic regression problems, we identify regimes in which the the proposed methods improve over classical (worst-case) accelerated methods.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/pedregosa20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/pedregosa20a.htmlReducing Sampling Error in Batch Temporal Difference LearningTemporal difference (TD) learning is one of the main foundations of modern reinforcement learning. This paper studies the use of TD(0), a canonical TD algorithm, to estimate the value function of a given policy from a batch of data. In this batch setting, we show that TD(0) may converge to an inaccurate value function because the update following an action is weighted according to the number of times that action occurred in the batch – not the true probability of the action under the given policy. To address this limitation, we introduce \emph{policy sampling error corrected}-TD(0) (PSEC-TD(0)). PSEC-TD(0) first estimates the empirical distribution of actions in each state in the batch and then uses importance sampling to correct for the mismatch between the empirical weighting and the correct weighting for updates following each action. We refine the concept of a certainty-equivalence estimate and argue that PSEC-TD(0) is a more data efficient estimator than TD(0) for a fixed batch of data. Finally, we conduct an empirical evaluation of PSEC-TD(0) on three batch value function learning tasks, with a hyperparameter sensitivity analysis, and show that PSEC-TD(0) produces value function estimates with lower mean squared error than TD(0).Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/pavse20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/pavse20a.htmlRegularized Optimal Transport is Ground Cost AdversarialRegularizing the optimal transport (OT) problem has proven crucial for OT theory to impact the field of machine learning. For instance, it is known that regularizing OT problems with entropy leads to faster computations and better differentiation using the Sinkhorn algorithm, as well as better sample complexity bounds than classic OT. In this work we depart from this practical perspective and propose a new interpretation of regularization as a robust mechanism, and show using Fenchel duality that any convex regularization of OT can be interpreted as ground cost adversarial. This incidentally gives access to a robust dissimilarity measure on the ground space, which can in turn be used in other applications. We propose algorithms to compute this robust cost, and illustrate the interest of this approach empirically.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/paty20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/paty20a.htmlStructured Policy Iteration for Linear Quadratic RegulatorLinear quadratic regulator (LQR) is one of the most popular frameworks to tackle continuous Markov decision process tasks. With its fundamental theory and tractable optimal policy, LQR has been revisited and analyzed in recent years, in terms of reinforcement learning scenarios such as the model-free or model-based setting. In this paper, we introduce the Structured Policy Iteration (S-PI) for LQR, a method capable of deriving a structured linear policy. Such a structured policy with (block) sparsity or low-rank can have significant advantages over the standard LQR policy: more interpretable, memory-efficient, and well-suited for the distributed setting. In order to derive such a policy, we first cast a regularized LQR problem when the model is known. Then, our Structured Policy Iteration (S-PI) algorithm, which takes a policy evaluation step and a policy improvement step in an iterative manner, can solve this regularized LQR efficiently. We further extend the S-PI algorithm to the model-free setting where a smoothing procedure is adopted to estimate the gradient. In both the known-model and model-free setting, we prove convergence analysis under the proper choice of parameters. Finally, the experiments demonstrate the advantages of S-PI in terms of balancing the LQR performance and level of structure by varying the weight parameter.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/park20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/park20c.htmlMeta Variance Transfer: Learning to Augment from the OthersHumans have the ability to robustly recognize objects with various factors of variations such as nonrigid transformations, background noises, and changes in lighting conditions. However, training deep learning models generally require huge amount of data instances under diverse variations, to ensure its robustness. To alleviate the need of collecting large amount of data and better learn to generalize with scarce data instances, we propose a novel meta-learning method which learns to transfer factors of variations from one class to another, such that it can improve the classification performance on unseen examples. Transferred variations generate virtual samples that augment the feature space of the target class during training, simulating upcoming query samples with similar variations. By sharing the factors of variations across different classes, the model becomes more robust to variations in the unseen examples and tasks using small number of examples per class. We validate our model on multiple benchmark datasets for few-shot classification and face recognition, on which our model significantly improves the performance of the base model, outperforming relevant baselines.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/park20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/park20b.htmlMultiresolution Tensor Learning for Efficient and Interpretable Spatial AnalysisEfficient and interpretable spatial analysis is crucial in many fields such as geology, sports, and climate science. Tensor latent factor models can describe higher-order correlations for spatial data. However, they are computationally expensive to train and are sensitive to initialization, leading to spatially incoherent, uninterpretable results. We develop a novel Multiresolution Tensor Learning (MRTL) algorithm for efficiently learning interpretable spatial patterns. MRTL initializes the latent factors from an approximate full-rank tensor model for improved interpretability and progressively learns from a coarse resolution to the fine resolution to reduce computation. We also prove the theoretical convergence and computational complexity of MRTL. When applied to two real-world datasets, MRTL demonstrates 4 5x speedup compared to a fixed resolution approach while yielding accurate and interpretable latent factors.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/park20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/park20a.htmlStabilizing Transformers for Reinforcement LearningOwing to their ability to both effectively integrate information over long time horizons and scale to massive amounts of data, self-attention architectures have recently shown breakthrough success in natural language processing (NLP). Harnessing the transformer’s ability to process long time horizons of information could provide a similar performance boost in partially observable reinforcement learning (RL) domains, but the large-scale transformers used in NLP have yet to be successfully applied to the RL setting. In this work we demonstrate that the standard transformer architecture is difficult to optimize, which was previously observed in the supervised learning setting but becomes especially pronounced with RL objectives. We propose architectural modifications that substantially improve the stability and learning speed of the original Transformer and XL variant. The proposed architecture, the Gated Transformer-XL (GTrXL), surpasses LSTMs on challenging memory environments and achieves state-of-the-art results on the multi-task DMLab-30 benchmark suite, exceeding the performance of an external memory architecture. We show that the GTrXL has stability and performance that consistently matches or exceeds a competitive LSTM baseline, including on more reactive tasks where memory is less critical.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/parisotto20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/parisotto20a.htmlAdversarial Mutual Information for Text GenerationRecent advances in maximizing mutual information (MI) between the source and target have demonstrated its effectiveness in text generation. However, previous works paid little attention to modeling the backward network of MI (i.e., dependency from the target to the source), which is crucial to the tightness of the variational information maximization lower bound. In this paper, we propose Adversarial Mutual Information (AMI): a text generation framework which is formed as a novel saddle point (min-max) optimization aiming to identify joint interactions between the source and target. Within this framework, the forward and backward networks are able to iteratively promote or demote each other’s generated instances by comparing the real and synthetic data distributions. We also develop a latent noise sampling strategy that leverages random variations at the high-level semantic space to enhance the long term dependency in the generation process. Extensive experiments based on different text generation tasks demonstrate that the proposed AMI framework can significantly outperform several strong baselines, and we also show that AMI has potential to lead to a tighter lower bound of maximum mutual information for the variational information maximization problem.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/pan20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/pan20a.htmlRecovery of Sparse Signals from a Mixture of Linear SamplesMixture of linear regressions is a popular learning theoretic model that is used widely to represent heterogeneous data. In the simplest form, this model assumes that the labels are generated from either of two different linear models and mixed together. Recent works of Yin et al. and Krishnamurthy et al., 2019, focus on an experimental design setting of model recovery for this problem. It is assumed that the features can be designed and queried with to obtain their label. When queried, an oracle randomly selects one of the two different sparse linear models and generates a label accordingly. How many such oracle queries are needed to recover both of the models simultaneously? This question can also be thought of as a generalization of the well-known compressed sensing problem (Candès and Tao, 2005, Donoho, 2006). In this work we address this query complexity problem and provide efficient algorithms that improves on the previously best known results.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/pal20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/pal20a.htmlNeural Clustering ProcessesProbabilistic clustering models (or equivalently, mixture models) are basic building blocks in countless statistical models and involve latent random variables over discrete spaces. For these models, posterior inference methods can be inaccurate and/or very slow. In this work we introduce deep network architectures trained with labeled samples from any generative model of clustered datasets. At test time, the networks generate approximate posterior samples of cluster labels for any new dataset of arbitrary size. We develop two complementary approaches to this task, requiring either O(N) or O(K) network forward passes per dataset, where N is the dataset size and K the number of clusters. Unlike previous approaches, our methods sample the labels of all the data points from a well-defined posterior, and can learn nonparametric Bayesian posteriors since they do not limit the number of mixture components. As a scientific application, we present a novel approach to neural spike sorting for high-density multielectrode arrays.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/pakman20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/pakman20a.htmlLearning to Score Behaviors for Guided Policy OptimizationWe introduce a new approach for comparing reinforcement learning policies, using Wasserstein distances (WDs) in a newly defined latent behavioral space. We show that by utilizing the dual formulation of the WD, we can learn score functions over policy behaviors that can in turn be used to lead policy optimization towards (or away from) (un)desired behaviors. Combined with smoothed WDs, the dual formulation allows us to devise efficient algorithms that take stochastic gradient descent steps through WD regularizers. We incorporate these regularizers into two novel on-policy algorithms, Behavior-Guided Policy Gradient and Behavior-Guided Evolution Strategies, which we demonstrate can outperform existing methods in a variety of challenging environments. We also provide an open source demo.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/pacchiano20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/pacchiano20a.htmlInterferometric Graph Transform: a Deep Unsupervised Graph RepresentationWe propose the Interferometric Graph Transform (IGT), which is a new class of deep unsupervised graph convolutional neural network for building graph representations. Our first contribution is to propose a generic, complex-valued spectral graph architecture obtained from a generalization of the Euclidean Fourier transform. We show that our learned representation consists of both discriminative and invariant features, thanks to a novel greedy concave objective. From our experiments, we conclude that our learning procedure exploits the topology of the spectral domain, which is normally a flaw of spectral methods, and in particular our method can recover an analytic operator for vision tasks. We test our algorithm on various and challenging tasks such as image classification (MNIST, CIFAR-10), community detection (Authorship, Facebook graph) and action recognition from 3D skeletons videos (SBU, NTU), exhibiting a new state-of-the-art in spectral graph unsupervised settings.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/oyallon20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/oyallon20a.htmlCan Increasing Input Dimensionality Improve Deep Reinforcement Learning?Deep reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms have recently achieved remarkable successes in various sequential decision making tasks, leveraging advances in methods for training large deep networks. However, these methods usually require large amounts of training data, which is often a big problem for real-world applications. One natural question to ask is whether learning good representations for states and using larger networks helps in learning better policies. In this paper, we try to study if increasing input dimensionality helps improve performance and sample efficiency of model-free deep RL algorithms. To do so, we propose an online feature extractor network (OFENet) that uses neural nets to produce \emph{good} representations to be used as inputs to an off-policy RL algorithm. Even though the high dimensionality of input is usually thought to make learning of RL agents more difficult, we show that the RL agents in fact learn more efficiently with the high-dimensional representation than with the lower-dimensional state observations. We believe that stronger feature propagation together with larger networks allows RL agents to learn more complex functions of states and thus improves the sample efficiency. Through numerical experiments, we show that the proposed method achieves much higher sample efficiency and better performance. Codes for the proposed method are available at http://www.merl.com/research/license/OFENetSat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ota20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ota20a.htmlOn the (In)tractability of Computing Normalizing Constants for the Product of Determinantal Point ProcessesWe consider the product of determinantal point processes (DPPs), a point process whose probability mass is proportional to the product of principal minors of multiple matrices as a natural, promising generalization of DPPs. We study the computational complexity of computing its normalizing constant, which is among the most essential probabilistic inference tasks. Our complexity-theoretic results (almost) rule out the existence of efficient algorithms for this task, unless input matrices are forced to have favorable structures. In particular, we prove the following: (1) Computing $\sum_{S} \det(\mathbf{A}_{S,S})^p$ exactly for every (fixed) positive even integer $p$ is $\textsf{UP}$-hard and $\textsf{Mod}_3\textsf{P}$-hard, which gives a negative answer to an open question posed by Kulesza and Taskar (2012). (2) $\sum_{S} \det(\mathbf{A}_{S,S}) \det(\mathbf{B}_{S,S}) \det(\mathbf{C}_{S,S})$ is $\textsf{NP}$-hard to approximate within a factor of $ 2^{\mathcal{O}(|\mathcal{I}|^{1-\epsilon})} $ for any $\epsilon > 0$, where $|\mathcal{I}|$ is the input size. This result is stronger than $\sharp\textsf{P}$-hardness for the case of two matrices by Gillenwater (2014). (3) There exists a $ k^{\mathcal{O}(k)} |\mathcal{I}|^{\mathcal{O}(1)} $-time algorithm for computing $\sum_{S} \det(\mathbf{A}_{S,S}) \det(\mathbf{B}_{S,S})$, where $k$ is “the maximum rank of $\mathbf{A}$ and $\mathbf{B}$” or “the treewidth of the graph formed by nonzero entries of $\mathbf{A}$ and $\mathbf{B}$.” Such parameterized algorithms are said to be fixed-parameter tractable.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ohsaka20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ohsaka20a.htmlEliminating the Invariance on the Loss Landscape of Linear AutoencodersThis paper proposes a new loss function for linear autoencoders (LAEs) and analytically identifies the structure of the associated loss surface. Optimizing the conventional Mean Square Error (MSE) loss results in a decoder matrix that spans the principal subspace of the sample covariance of the data, but, owing to an invariance that cancels out in the global map, it will fail to identify the exact eigenvectors. We show here that our proposed loss function eliminates this issue, so the decoder converges to the exact ordered unnormalized eigenvectors of the sample covariance matrix. We characterize the full structure of the new loss landscape by establishing an analytical expression for the set of all critical points, showing that it is a subset of critical points of MSE, and that all local minima are still global. Specifically, the invariant global minima under MSE are shown to become saddle points under the new loss. Additionally, the computational complexity of the loss and its gradients are the same as MSE and, thus, the new loss is not only of theoretical importance but is of practical value, e.g., for low-rank approximation.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/oftadeh20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/oftadeh20a.htmlT-Basis: a Compact Representation for Neural NetworksWe introduce T-Basis, a novel concept for a compact representation of a set of tensors, each of an arbitrary shape, which is often seen in Neural Networks. Each of the tensors in the set is modeled using Tensor Rings, though the concept applies to other Tensor Networks. Owing its name to the T-shape of nodes in diagram notation of Tensor Rings, T-Basis is simply a list of equally shaped three-dimensional tensors, used to represent Tensor Ring nodes. Such representation allows us to parameterize the tensor set with a small number of parameters (coefficients of the T-Basis tensors), scaling logarithmically with each tensor’s size in the set and linearly with the dimensionality of T-Basis. We evaluate the proposed approach on the task of neural network compression and demonstrate that it reaches high compression rates at acceptable performance drops. Finally, we analyze memory and operation requirements of the compressed networks and conclude that T-Basis networks are equally well suited for training and inference in resource-constrained environments and usage on the edge devices. Project website: obukhov.ai/tbasis.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/obukhov20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/obukhov20a.htmlConsistent Structured Prediction with Max-Min Margin Markov NetworksMax-margin methods for binary classification such as the support vector machine (SVM) have been extended to the structured prediction setting under the name of max-margin Markov networks ($M^3N$), or more generally structural SVMs. Unfortunately, these methods are statistically inconsistent when the relationship between inputs and labels is far from deterministic. We overcome such limitations by defining the learning problem in terms of a “max-min” margin formulation, naming the resulting method max-min margin Markov networks ($M^4N$). We prove consistency and finite sample generalization bounds for $M^4N$ and provide an explicit algorithm to compute the estimator. The algorithm achieves a generalization error of $O(1/\sqrt{n})$ for a total cost of $O(n)$ projection-oracle calls (which have at most the same cost as the max-oracle from $M^3N$). Experiments on multi-class classification, ordinal regression, sequence prediction and ranking demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/nowak20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/nowak20a.htmlSupervised learning: no loss no crySupervised learning requires the specification of a loss function to minimise. While the theory of admissible losses from both a computational and statistical perspective is well-developed, these offer a panoply of different choices. In practice, this choice is typically made in an \emph{ad hoc} manner. In hopes of making this procedure more principled, the problem of \emph{learning the loss function} for a downstream task (e.g., classification) has garnered recent interest. However, works in this area have been generally empirical in nature. In this paper, we revisit the {\sc SLIsotron} algorithm of Kakade et al. (2011) through a novel lens, derive a generalisation based on Bregman divergences, and show how it provides a principled procedure for learning the loss. In detail, we cast {\sc SLIsotron} as learning a loss from a family of composite square losses. By interpreting this through the lens of \emph{proper losses}, we derive a generalisation of {\sc SLIsotron} based on Bregman divergences. The resulting {\sc BregmanTron} algorithm jointly learns the loss along with the classifier. It comes equipped with a simple guarantee of convergence for the loss it learns, and its set of possible outputs comes with a guarantee of agnostic approximability of Bayes rule. Experiments indicate that the {\sc BregmanTron} significantly outperforms the {\sc SLIsotron}, and that the loss it learns can be minimized by other algorithms for different tasks, thereby opening the interesting problem of \emph{loss transfer} between domains.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/nock20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/nock20a.htmlSemi-Supervised StyleGAN for Disentanglement LearningDisentanglement learning is crucial for obtaining disentangled representations and controllable generation. Current disentanglement methods face several inherent limitations: difficulty with high-resolution images, primarily focusing on learning disentangled representations, and non-identifiability due to the unsupervised setting. To alleviate these limitations, we design new architectures and loss functions based on StyleGAN (Karras et al., 2019), for semi-supervised high-resolution disentanglement learning. We create two complex high-resolution synthetic datasets for systematic testing. We investigate the impact of limited supervision and find that using only 0.25% 2.5% of labeled data is sufficient for good disentanglement on both synthetic and real datasets. We propose new metrics to quantify generator controllability, and observe there may exist a crucial trade-off between disentangled representation learning and controllable generation. We also consider semantic fine-grained image editing to achieve better generalization to unseen images.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/nie20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/nie20a.htmlLP-SparseMAP: Differentiable Relaxed Optimization for Sparse Structured PredictionStructured predictors require solving a combinatorial optimization problem over a large number of structures, such as dependency trees or alignments. When embedded as structured hidden layers in a neural net, argmin differentiation and efficient gradient computation are further required. Recently, SparseMAP has been proposed as a differentiable, sparse alternative to maximum a posteriori (MAP) and marginal inference. SparseMAP returns an interpretable combination of a small number of structures; its sparsity being the key to efficient optimization. However, SparseMAP requires access to an exact MAP oracle in the structured model, excluding, e.g., loopy graphical models or logic constraints, which generally require approximate inference. In this paper, we introduce LP-SparseMAP, an extension of SparseMAP addressing this limitation via a local polytope relaxation. LP-SparseMAP uses the flexible and powerful language of factor graphs to define expressive hidden structures, supporting coarse decompositions, hard logic constraints, and higher-order correlations. We derive the forward and backward algorithms needed for using LP-SparseMAP as a structured hidden or output layer. Experiments in three structured tasks show benefits versus SparseMAP and Structured SVM.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/niculae20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/niculae20a.htmlStreaming k-Submodular Maximization under Noise subject to Size ConstraintMaximizing on k-submodular functions subject to size constraint has received extensive attention recently. In this paper, we investigate a more realistic scenario of this problem that (1) obtaining exact evaluation of an objective function is impractical, instead, its noisy version is acquired; and (2) algorithms are required to take only one single pass over dataset, producing solutions in a timely manner. We propose two novel streaming algorithms, namely DStream and RStream, with their theoretical performance guarantees. We further demonstrate the efficiency of our algorithms in two application, showing that our algorithms can return comparative results to state-of-the-art non-streaming methods while using a much fewer number of queries.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/nguyen20f.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/nguyen20f.htmlRobust Bayesian Classification Using An Optimistic Score RatioWe build a Bayesian contextual classification model using an optimistic score ratio for robust binary classification when there is limited information on the class-conditional, or contextual, distribution. The optimistic score searches for the distribution that is most plausible to explain the observed outcomes in the testing sample among all distributions belonging to the contextual ambiguity set which is prescribed using a limited structural constraint on the mean vector and the covariance matrix of the underlying contextual distribution. We show that the Bayesian classifier using the optimistic score ratio is conceptually attractive, delivers solid statistical guarantees and is computationally tractable. We showcase the power of the proposed optimistic score ratio classifier on both synthetic and empirical data.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/nguyen20e.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/nguyen20e.htmlKnowing The What But Not The Where in Bayesian OptimizationBayesian optimization has demonstrated impressive success in finding the optimum input x$\ast$ and output f$\ast$ = f(x$\ast$) = max f(x) of a black-box function f. In some applications, however, the optimum output is known in advance and the goal is to find the corresponding optimum input. Existing work in Bayesian optimization (BO) has not effectively exploited the knowledge of f$\ast$ for optimization. In this paper, we consider a new setting in BO in which the knowledge of the optimum output is available. Our goal is to exploit the knowledge about f$\ast$ to search for the input x$\ast$ efficiently. To achieve this goal, we first transform the Gaussian process surrogate using the information about the optimum output. Then, we propose two acquisition functions, called confidence bound minimization and expected regret minimization, which exploit the knowledge about the optimum output to identify the optimum input more efficient. We show that our approaches work intuitively and quantitatively better performance against standard BO methods. We demonstrate real applications in tuning a deep reinforcement learning algorithm on the CartPole problem and XGBoost on Skin Segmentation dataset in which the optimum values are publicly available.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/nguyen20d.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/nguyen20d.htmlGraph Homomorphism ConvolutionIn this paper, we study the graph classification problem from the graph homomorphism perspective. We consider the homomorphisms from $F$ to $G$, where $G$ is a graph of interest (e.g. molecules or social networks) and $F$ belongs to some family of graphs (e.g. paths or non-isomorphic trees). We show that graph homomorphism numbers provide a natural invariant (isomorphism invariant and $\mathcal{F}$-invariant) embedding maps which can be used for graph classification. Viewing the expressive power of a graph classifier by the $\mathcal{F}$-indistinguishable concept, we prove the universality property of graph homomorphism vectors in approximating $\mathcal{F}$-invariant functions. In practice, by choosing $\mathcal{F}$ whose elements have bounded tree-width, we show that the homomorphism method is efficient compared with other methods.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/nguyen20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/nguyen20c.htmlLEEP: A New Measure to Evaluate Transferability of Learned RepresentationsWe introduce a new measure to evaluate the transferability of representations learned by classifiers. Our measure, the Log Expected Empirical Prediction (LEEP), is simple and easy to compute: when given a classifier trained on a source data set, it only requires running the target data set through this classifier once. We analyze the properties of LEEP theoretically and demonstrate its effectiveness empirically. Our analysis shows that LEEP can predict the performance and convergence speed of both transfer and meta-transfer learning methods, even for small or imbalanced data. Moreover, LEEP outperforms recently proposed transferability measures such as negative conditional entropy and H scores. Notably, when transferring from ImageNet to CIFAR100, LEEP can achieve up to 30% improvement compared to the best competing method in terms of the correlations with actual transfer accuracy.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/nguyen20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/nguyen20b.htmlAggregation of Multiple KnockoffsWe develop an extension of the knockoff inference procedure, introduced by Barber & Candes (2015). This new method, called Aggregation of Multiple Knockoffs (AKO), addresses the instability inherent to the random nature of knockoff-based inference. Specifically, AKO improves both the stability and power compared with the original knockoff algorithm while still maintaining guarantees for false discovery rate control. We provide a new inference procedure, prove its core properties, and demonstrate its benefits in a set of experiments on synthetic and real datasets.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/nguyen20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/nguyen20a.htmlInvolutive MCMC: a Unifying FrameworkMarkov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is a computational approach to fundamental problems such as inference, integration, optimization, and simulation. The field has developed a broad spectrum of algorithms, varying in the way they are motivated, the way they are applied and how efficiently they sample. Despite all the differences, many of them share the same core principle, which we unify as the Involutive MCMC (iMCMC) framework. Building upon this, we describe a wide range of MCMC algorithms in terms of iMCMC, and formulate a number of “tricks” which one can use as design principles for developing new MCMC algorithms. Thus, iMCMC provides a unified view of many known MCMC algorithms, which facilitates the derivation of powerful extensions. We demonstrate the latter with two examples where we transform known reversible MCMC algorithms into more efficient irreversible ones.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/neklyudov20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/neklyudov20a.htmlIn Defense of Uniform Convergence: Generalization via Derandomization with an Application to Interpolating PredictorsWe propose to study the generalization error of a learned predictor in terms of that of a surrogate (potentially randomized) predictor that is coupled to $\hh$ and designed to trade empirical risk for control of generalization error. In the case where the learned predictor interpolates the data, it is interesting to consider theoretical surrogate classifiers that are partially derandomized or rerandomized, e.g., fit to the training data but with modified label noise. We also show that replacing the learned predictor by its conditional distribution with respect to an arbitrary $\sigma$-field is a convenient way to derandomize. We study two examples, inspired by the work of Nagarajan and Kolter (2019) and Bartlett et al. (2020), where the learned predictor interpolates the training data with high probability, has small risk, and, yet, does not belong to a nonrandom class with a tight uniform bound on two-sided generalization error. At the same time, we bound the risk of the learned predictor in terms of surrogates constructed by conditioning and denoising, respectively, and shown to belong to nonrandom classes with uniformly small generalization error.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/negrea20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/negrea20a.htmlStochastic Frank-Wolfe for Constrained Finite-Sum MinimizationWe propose a novel Stochastic Frank-Wolfe (a. k. a. conditional gradient) algorithm for constrained smooth finite-sum minimization with a generalized linear prediction/structure. This class of problems includes empirical risk minimization with sparse, low-rank, or other structured constraints. The proposed method is simple to implement, does not require step-size tuning, and has a constant per-iteration cost that is independent of the dataset size. Furthermore, as a byproduct of the method we obtain a stochastic estimator of the Frank-Wolfe gap that can be used as a stopping criterion. Depending on the setting, the proposed method matches or improves on the best computational guarantees for Stochastic Frank-Wolfe algorithms. Benchmarks on several datasets highlight different regimes in which the proposed method exhibits a faster empirical convergence than related methods. Finally, we provide an implementation of all considered methods in an open-source package.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/negiar20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/negiar20a.htmlOracle Efficient Private Non-Convex OptimizationOne of the most effective algorithms for differentially private learning and optimization is \emph{objective perturbation}. This technique augments a given optimization problem (e.g. deriving from an ERM problem) with a random linear term, and then exactly solves it. However, to date, analyses of this approach crucially rely on the convexity and smoothness of the objective function. We give two algorithms that extend this approach substantially. The first algorithm requires nothing except boundedness of the loss function, and operates over a discrete domain. Its privacy and accuracy guarantees hold even without assuming convexity. We are able to extend traditional analyses of objective perturbation by introducing a novel “normalization“ step into the algorithm, which provides enough stability to be differentially private even without second-order conditions. The second algorithm operates over a continuous domain and requires only that the loss function be bounded and Lipschitz in its continuous parameter. Its privacy analysis does not even require convexity. Its accuracy analysis does require convexity, but does not require second order conditions like smoothness. We complement our theoretical results with an empirical evaluation of the non-convex case, in which we use an integer program solver as our optimization oracle. We find that for the problem of learning linear classifiers, directly optimizing for 0/1 loss using our approach can out-perform the more standard approach of privately optimizing a convex-surrogate loss function on the Adult dataset.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/neel20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/neel20a.htmlBayesian Sparsification of Deep C-valued NetworksWith continual miniaturization ever more applications of deep learning can be found in embedded systems, where it is common to encounter data with natural representation in the complex domain. To this end we extend Sparse Variational Dropout to complex-valued neural networks and verify the proposed Bayesian technique by conducting a large numerical study of the performance-compression trade-off of C-valued networks on two tasks: image recognition on MNIST-like and CIFAR10 datasets and music transcription on MusicNet. We replicate the state-of-the-art result by Trabelsi et al. (2018) on MusicNet with a complex-valued network compressed by 50-100x at a small performance penalty.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/nazarov20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/nazarov20a.htmlPolyGen: An Autoregressive Generative Model of 3D MeshesPolygon meshes are an efficient representation of 3D geometry, and are of central importance in computer graphics, robotics and games development. Existing learning-based approaches for object synthesis have avoided the challenges of working with 3D meshes, instead using alternative object representations that are more compatible with neural architectures and training approaches. We present PolyGen, a generative model of 3D objects which models the mesh directly, predicting vertices and faces sequentially using a Transformer-based architecture. Our model can condition on a range of inputs, including object classes, voxels, and images, and because the model is probabilistic it can produce samples that capture uncertainty in ambiguous scenarios. We show that the model is capable of producing high-quality, usable meshes, and establish log-likelihood benchmarks for the mesh-modelling task. We also evaluate the conditional models on surface reconstruction metrics against alternative methods, and demonstrate competitive performance despite not training directly on this task.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/nash20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/nash20a.htmlGoal-Aware Prediction: Learning to Model What MattersLearned dynamics models combined with both planning and policy learning algorithms have shown promise in enabling artificial agents to learn to perform many diverse tasks with limited supervision. However, one of the fundamental challenges in using a learned forward dynamics model is the mismatch between the objective of the learned model (future state reconstruction), and that of the downstream planner or policy (completing a specified task). This issue is exacerbated by vision-based control tasks in diverse real-world environments, where the complexity of the real world dwarfs model capacity. In this paper, we propose to direct prediction towards task relevant information, enabling the model to be aware of the current task and encouraging it to only model relevant quantities of the state space, resulting in a learning objective that more closely matches the downstream task. Further, we do so in an entirely self-supervised manner, without the need for a reward function or image labels. We find that our method more effectively models the relevant parts of the scene conditioned on the goal, and as a result outperforms standard task-agnostic dynamics models and model-free reinforcement learning.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/nair20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/nair20a.htmlUp or Down? Adaptive Rounding for Post-Training QuantizationWhen quantizing neural networks, assigning each floating-point weight to its nearest fixed-point value is the predominant approach. We find that, perhaps surprisingly, this is not the best we can do. In this paper, we propose AdaRound, a better weight-rounding mechanism for post-training quantization that adapts to the data and the task loss. AdaRound is fast, does not require fine-tuning of the network, and only uses a small amount of unlabelled data. We start by theoretically analyzing the rounding problem for a pre-trained neural network. By approximating the task loss with a Taylor series expansion, the rounding task is posed as a quadratic unconstrained binary optimization problem. We simplify this to a layer-wise local loss and propose to optimize this loss with a soft relaxation. AdaRound not only outperforms rounding-to-nearest by a significant margin but also establishes a new state-of-the-art for post-training quantization on several networks and tasks. Without fine-tuning, we can quantize the weights of Resnet18 and Resnet50 to 4 bits while staying within an accuracy loss of 1%.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/nagel20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/nagel20a.htmlFrom Chaos to Order: Symmetry and Conservation Laws in Game DynamicsGames are an increasingly useful tool for training and testing learning algorithms. Recent examples include GANs, AlphaZero and the AlphaStar league. However, multi-agent learning can be extremely difficult to predict and control. Learning dynamics even in simple games can yield chaotic behavior. In this paper, we present basic \emph{mechanism design} tools for constructing games with predictable and controllable dynamics. We show that arbitrarily large and complex network games, encoding both cooperation (team play) and competition (zero-sum interaction), exhibit conservation laws when agents use the standard regret-minimizing dynamics known as Follow-the-Regularized-Leader. These laws persist when different agents use different dynamics and encode long-range correlations between agents’ behavior, even though the agents may not interact directly. Moreover, we provide sufficient conditions under which the dynamics have multiple, linearly independent, conservation laws. Increasing the number of conservation laws results in more predictable dynamics, eventually making chaotic behavior formally impossible in some cases.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/nagarajan20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/nagarajan20a.htmlReliable Fidelity and Diversity Metrics for Generative ModelsDevising indicative evaluation metrics for the image generation task remains an open problem. The most widely used metric for measuring the similarity between real and generated images has been the Frechet Inception Distance (FID) score. Since it does not differentiate the fidelity and diversity aspects of the generated images, recent papers have introduced variants of precision and recall metrics to diagnose those properties separately. In this paper, we show that even the latest version of the precision and recall metrics are not reliable yet. For example, they fail to detect the match between two identical distributions, they are not robust against outliers, and the evaluation hyperparameters are selected arbitrarily. We propose density and coverage metrics that solve the above issues. We analytically and experimentally show that density and coverage provide more interpretable and reliable signals for practitioners than the existing metrics.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/naeem20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/naeem20a.htmlVoice Separation with an Unknown Number of Multiple SpeakersWe present a new method for separating a mixed audio sequence, in which multiple voices speak simultaneously. The new method employs gated neural networks that are trained to separate the voices at multiple processing steps, while maintaining the speaker in each output channel fixed. A different model is trained for every number of possible speakers, and the model with the largest number of speakers is employed to select the actual number of speakers in a given sample. Our method greatly outperforms the current state of the art, which, as we show, is not competitive for more than two speakers.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/nachmani20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/nachmani20a.htmlFull Law Identification in Graphical Models of Missing Data: Completeness ResultsMissing data has the potential to affect analyses conducted in all fields of scientific study including healthcare, economics, and the social sciences. Several approaches to unbiased inference in the presence of non-ignorable missingness rely on the specification of the target distribution and its missingness process as a probability distribution that factorizes with respect to a directed acyclic graph. In this paper, we address the longstanding question of the characterization of models that are identifiable within this class of missing data distributions. We provide the first completeness result in this field of study – necessary and sufficient graphical conditions under which, the full data distribution can be recovered from the observed data distribution. We then simultaneously address issues that may arise due to the presence of both missing data and unmeasured confounding, by extending these graphical conditions and proofs of completeness, to settings where some variables are not just missing, but completely unobserved.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/nabi20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/nabi20a.htmlSemiparametric Nonlinear Bipartite Graph Representation Learning with Provable GuaranteesGraph representation learning is a ubiquitous task in machine learning where the goal is to embed each vertex into a low-dimensional vector space. We consider the bipartite graph and formalize its representation learning problem as a statistical estimation problem of parameters in a semiparametric exponential family distribution: the bipartite graph is assumed to be generated by a semiparametric exponential family distribution, whose parametric component is given by the proximity of outputs of two one-layer neural networks that take high-dimensional features as inputs, while nonparametric (nuisance) component is the base measure. In this setting, the representation learning problem is equivalent to recovering the weight matrices, and the main challenges of estimation arise from the nonlinearity of activation functions and the nonparametric nuisance component of the distribution. To overcome these challenges, we propose a pseudo-likelihood objective based on the rank-order decomposition technique and show that the proposed objective is strongly convex in a neighborhood around the ground truth, so that a gradient descent-based method achieves linear convergence rate. Moreover, we prove that the sample complexity of the problem is linear in dimensions (up to logarithmic factors), which is consistent with parametric Gaussian models. However, our estimator is robust to any model misspecification within the exponential family, which is validated in extensive experiments.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/na20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/na20a.htmlMissing Data Imputation using Optimal TransportMissing data is a crucial issue when applying machine learning algorithms to real-world datasets. Starting from the simple assumption that two batches extracted randomly from the same dataset should share the same distribution, we leverage optimal transport distances to quantify that criterion and turn it into a loss function to impute missing data values. We propose practical methods to minimize these losses using end-to-end learning, that can exploit or not parametric assumptions on the underlying distributions of values. We evaluate our methods on datasets from the UCI repository, in MCAR, MAR and MNAR settings. These experiments show that OT-based methods match or out-perform state-of-the-art imputation methods, even for high percentages of missing values.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/muzellec20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/muzellec20a.htmlFast computation of Nash Equilibria in Imperfect Information GamesWe introduce and analyze a class of algorithms, called Mirror Ascent against an Improved Opponent (MAIO), for computing Nash equilibria in two-player zero-sum games, both in normal form and in sequential form with imperfect information. These algorithms update the policy of each player with a mirror-ascent step to maximize the value of playing against an improved opponent. An improved opponent can be a best response, a greedy policy, a policy improved by policy gradient, or by any other reinforcement learning or search techniques. We establish a convergence result of the last iterate to the set of Nash equilibria and show that the speed of convergence depends on the amount of improvement offered by these improved policies. In addition, we show that under some condition, if we use a best response as improved policy, then an exponential convergence rate is achieved.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/munos20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/munos20a.htmlUnique Properties of Flat Minima in Deep NetworksIt is well known that (stochastic) gradient descent has an implicit bias towards flat minima. In deep neural network training, this mechanism serves to screen out minima. However, the precise effect that this has on the trained network is not yet fully understood. In this paper, we characterize the flat minima in linear neural networks trained with a quadratic loss. First, we show that linear ResNets with zero initialization necessarily converge to the flattest of all minima. We then prove that these minima correspond to nearly balanced networks whereby the gain from the input to any intermediate representation does not change drastically from one layer to the next. Finally, we show that consecutive layers in flat minima solutions are coupled. That is, one of the left singular vectors of each weight matrix, equals one of the right singular vectors of the next matrix. This forms a distinct path from input to output, that, as we show, is dedicated to the signal that experiences the largest gain end-to-end. Experiments indicate that these properties are characteristic of both linear and nonlinear models trained in practice.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mulayoff20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mulayoff20a.htmlTwo Simple Ways to Learn Individual Fairness Metrics from DataIndividual fairness is an intuitive definition of algorithmic fairness that addresses some of the drawbacks of group fairness. Despite its benefits, it depends on a task specific fair metric that encodes our intuition of what is fair and unfair for the ML task at hand, and the lack of a widely accepted fair metric for many ML tasks is the main barrier to broader adoption of individual fairness. In this paper, we present two simple ways to learn fair metrics from a variety of data types. We show empirically that fair training with the learned metrics leads to improved fairness on three machine learning tasks susceptible to gender and racial biases. We also provide theoretical guarantees on the statistical performance of both approaches.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mukherjee20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mukherjee20a.htmlContinuous-time Lower Bounds for Gradient-based AlgorithmsThis article derives lower bounds on the convergence rate of continuous-time gradient-based optimization algorithms. The algorithms are subjected to a time-normalization constraint that avoids a reparametrization of time in order to make the discussion of continuous-time convergence rates meaningful. We reduce the multi-dimensional problem to a single dimension, recover well-known lower bounds from the discrete-time setting, and provide insight into why these lower bounds occur. We present algorithms that achieve the proposed lower bounds, even when the function class under consideration includes certain nonconvex functions.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/muehlebach20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/muehlebach20a.htmlConsistent Estimators for Learning to Defer to an ExpertLearning algorithms are often used in conjunction with expert decision makers in practical scenarios, however this fact is largely ignored when designing these algorithms. In this paper we explore how to learn predictors that can either predict or choose to defer the decision to a downstream expert. Given only samples of the expert’s decisions, we give a procedure based on learning a classifier and a rejector and analyze it theoretically. Our approach is based on a novel reduction to cost sensitive learning where we give a consistent surrogate loss for cost sensitive learning that generalizes the cross entropy loss. We show the effectiveness of our approach on a variety of experimental tasks.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mozannar20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mozannar20b.htmlFair Learning with Private Demographic DataSensitive attributes such as race are rarely available to learners in real world settings as their collection is often restricted by laws and regulations. We give a scheme that allows individuals to release their sensitive information privately while still allowing any downstream entity to learn non-discriminatory predictors. We show how to adapt non-discriminatory learners to work with privatized protected attributes giving theoretical guarantees on performance. Finally, we highlight how the methodology could apply to learning fair predictors in settings where protected attributes are only available for a subset of the data.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mozannar20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mozannar20a.htmlExplainable k-Means and k-Medians ClusteringMany clustering algorithms lead to cluster assignments that are hard to explain, partially because they depend on all the features of the data in a complicated way. To improve interpretability, we consider using a small decision tree to partition a data set into clusters, so that clusters can be characterized in a straightforward manner. We study this problem from a theoretical viewpoint, measuring cluster quality by the k-means and k-medians objectives. In terms of negative results, we show that popular top-down decision tree algorithms may lead to clusterings with arbitrarily large cost, and any clustering based on a tree with k leaves must incur an Omega(log k) approximation factor compared to the optimal clustering. On the positive side, for two means/medians, we show that a single threshold cut can achieve a constant factor approximation, and we give nearly-matching lower bounds; for general k > 2, we design an efficient algorithm that leads to an O(k) approximation to the optimal k-medians and an O(k^2) approximation to the optimal k-means. Prior to our work, no algorithms were known with provable guarantees independent of dimension and input size.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/moshkovitz20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/moshkovitz20a.htmlTopological AutoencodersWe propose a novel approach for preserving topological structures of the input space in latent representations of autoencoders. Using persistent homology, a technique from topological data analysis, we calculate topological signatures of both the input and latent space to derive a topological loss term. Under weak theoretical assumptions, we construct this loss in a differentiable manner, such that the encoding learns to retain multi-scale connectivity information. We show that our approach is theoretically well-founded and that it exhibits favourable latent representations on a synthetic manifold as well as on real-world image data sets, while preserving low reconstruction errors.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/moor20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/moor20a.htmlConfidence-Aware Learning for Deep Neural NetworksDespite the power of deep neural networks for a wide range of tasks, an overconfident prediction issue has limited their practical use in many safety-critical applications. Many recent works have been proposed to mitigate this issue, but most of them require either additional computational costs in training and/or inference phases or customized architectures to output confidence estimates separately. In this paper, we propose a method of training deep neural networks with a novel loss function, named Correctness Ranking Loss, which regularizes class probabilities explicitly to be better confidence estimates in terms of ordinal ranking according to confidence. The proposed method is easy to implement and can be applied to the existing architectures without any modification. Also, it has almost the same computational costs for training as conventional deep classifiers and outputs reliable predictions by a single inference. Extensive experimental results on classification benchmark datasets indicate that the proposed method helps networks to produce well-ranked confidence estimates. We also demonstrate that it is effective for the tasks closely related to confidence estimation, out-of-distribution detection and active learning.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/moon20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/moon20a.htmlAn end-to-end approach for the verification problem: learning the right distanceIn this contribution, we augment the metric learning setting by introducing a parametric pseudo-distance, trained jointly with the encoder. Several interpretations are thus drawn for the learned distance-like model’s output. We first show it approximates a likelihood ratio which can be used for hypothesis tests, and that it further induces a large divergence across the joint distributions of pairs of examples from the same and from different classes. Evaluation is performed under the verification setting consisting of determining whether sets of examples belong to the same class, even if such classes are novel and were never presented to the model during training. Empirical evaluation shows such method defines an end-to-end approach for the verification problem, able to attain better performance than simple scorers such as those based on cosine similarity and further outperforming widely used downstream classifiers. We further observe training is much simplified under the proposed approach compared to metric learning with actual distances, requiring no complex scheme to harvest pairs of examples.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/monteiro20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/monteiro20a.htmlEfficiently Learning Adversarially Robust Halfspaces with NoiseWe study the problem of learning adversarially robust halfspaces in the distribution-independent setting. In the realizable setting, we provide necessary and sufficient conditions on the adversarial perturbation sets under which halfspaces are efficiently robustly learnable. In the presence of random label noise, we give a simple computationally efficient algorithm for this problem with respect to any $\ell_p$-perturbation.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/montasser20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/montasser20a.htmlTransformation of ReLU-based recurrent neural networks from discrete-time to continuous-timeRecurrent neural networks (RNN) as used in machine learning are commonly formulated in discrete time, i.e. as recursive maps. This brings a lot of advantages for training models on data, e.g. for the purpose of time series prediction or dynamical systems identification, as powerful and efficient inference algorithms exist for discrete time systems and numerical integration of differential equations is not necessary. On the other hand, mathematical analysis of dynamical systems inferred from data is often more convenient and enables additional insights if these are formulated in continuous time, i.e. as systems of ordinary or partial differential equations (ODE/ PDE). Here we show how to perform such a translation from discrete to continuous time for a particular class of ReLU-based RNN. We prove three theorems on the mathematical equivalence between the discrete and continuous time formulations under a variety of conditions, and illustrate how to use our mathematical results on different machine learning and nonlinear dynamical systems examples.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/monfared20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/monfared20a.htmlOptimizing Long-term Social Welfare in Recommender Systems: A Constrained Matching ApproachMost recommender systems (RS) research assumes that a user’s utility can be maximized independently of the utility of the other agents (e.g., other users, content providers). In realistic settings, this is often not true – the dynamics of an RS ecosystem couple the long-term utility of all agents. In this work, we explore settings in which content providers cannot remain viable unless they receive a certain level of user engagement. We formulate this problem as one of equilibrium selection in the induced dynamical system, and show that it can be solved as an optimal constrained matching problem. Our model ensures the system reaches an equilibrium with maximal social welfare supported by a sufficiently diverse set of viable providers. We demonstrate that even in a simple, stylized dynamical RS model, the standard myopic approach to recommendation - always matching a user to the best provider - performs poorly. We develop several scalable techniques to solve the matching problem, and also draw connections to various notions of user regret and fairness, arguing that these outcomes are fairer in a utilitarian sense.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mladenov20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mladenov20a.htmlLearning to Combine Top-Down and Bottom-Up Signals in Recurrent Neural Networks with Attention over ModulesRobust perception relies on both bottom-up and top-down signals. Bottom-up signals consist of what’s directly observed through sensation. Top-down signals consist of beliefs and expectations based on past experience and the current reportable short-term memory, such as how the phrase ‘peanut butter and ...’ will be completed. The optimal combination of bottom-up and top-down information remains an open question, but the manner of combination must be dynamic and both context and task dependent. To effectively utilize the wealth of potential top-down information available, and to prevent the cacophony of intermixed signals in a bidirectional architecture, mechanisms are needed to restrict information flow. We explore deep recurrent neural net architectures in which bottom-up and top-down signals are dynamically combined using attention. Modularity of the architecture further restricts the sharing and communication of information. Together, attention and modularity direct information flow, which leads to reliable performance improvements in perceptual and language tasks, and in particular improves robustness to distractions and noisy data. We demonstrate on a variety of benchmarks in language modeling, sequential image classification, video prediction and reinforcement learning that the \emph{bidirectional} information flow can improve results over strong baselines.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mittal20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mittal20a.htmlKinematic State Abstraction and Provably Efficient Rich-Observation Reinforcement LearningWe present an algorithm, HOMER, for exploration and reinforcement learning in rich observation environments that are summarizable by an unknown latent state space. The algorithm interleaves representation learning to identify a new notion of kinematic state abstraction with strategic exploration to reach new states using the learned abstraction. The algorithm provably explores the environment with sample complexity scaling polynomially in the number of latent states and the time horizon, and, crucially, with no dependence on the size of the observation space, which could be infinitely large. This exploration guarantee further enables sample-efficient global policy optimization for any reward function. On the computational side, we show that the algorithm can be implemented efficiently whenever certain supervised learning problems are tractable. Empirically, we evaluate HOMER on a challenging exploration problem, where we show that the algorithm is more sample efficient than standard reinforcement learning baselines.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/misra20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/misra20a.htmlCoresets for Data-efficient Training of Machine Learning ModelsIncremental gradient (IG) methods, such as stochastic gradient descent and its variants are commonly used for large scale optimization in machine learning. Despite the sustained effort to make IG methods more data-efficient, it remains an open question how to select a training data subset that can theoretically and practically perform on par with the full dataset. Here we develop CRAIG, a method to select a weighted subset (or coreset) of training data that closely estimates the full gradient by maximizing a submodular function. We prove that applying IG to this subset is guaranteed to converge to the (near)optimal solution with the same convergence rate as that of IG for convex optimization. As a result, CRAIG achieves a speedup that is inversely proportional to the size of the subset. To our knowledge, this is the first rigorous method for data-efficient training of general machine learning models. Our extensive set of experiments show that CRAIG, while achieving practically the same solution, speeds up various IG methods by up to 6x for logistic regression and 3x for training deep neural networks.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mirzasoleiman20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mirzasoleiman20a.htmlLearning Reasoning Strategies in End-to-End Differentiable ProvingAttempts to render deep learning models interpretable, data-efficient, and robust have seen some success through hybridisation with rule-based systems, for example, in Neural Theorem Provers (NTPs). These neuro-symbolic models can induce interpretable rules and learn representations from data via back-propagation, while providing logical explanations for their predictions. However, they are restricted by their computational complexity, as they need to consider all possible proof paths for explaining a goal, thus rendering them unfit for large-scale applications. We present Conditional Theorem Provers (CTPs), an extension to NTPs that learns an optimal rule selection strategy via gradient-based optimisation. We show that CTPs are scalable and yield state-of-the-art results on the CLUTRR dataset, which tests systematic generalisation of neural models by learning to reason over smaller graphs and evaluating on larger ones. Finally, CTPs show better link prediction results on standard benchmarks in comparison with other neural-symbolic models, while being explainable.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/minervini20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/minervini20a.htmlAutomatic Shortcut Removal for Self-Supervised Representation LearningIn self-supervised visual representation learning, a feature extractor is trained on a "pretext task" for which labels can be generated cheaply, without human annotation. A central challenge in this approach is that the feature extractor quickly learns to exploit low-level visual features such as color aberrations or watermarks and then fails to learn useful semantic representations. Much work has gone into identifying such "shortcut" features and hand-designing schemes to reduce their effect. Here, we propose a general framework for mitigating the effect shortcut features. Our key assumption is that those features which are the first to be exploited for solving the pretext task may also be the most vulnerable to an adversary trained to make the task harder. We show that this assumption holds across common pretext tasks and datasets by training a "lens" network to make small image changes that maximally reduce performance in the pretext task. Representations learned with the modified images outperform those learned without in all tested cases. Additionally, the modifications made by the lens reveal how the choice of pretext task and dataset affects the features learned by self-supervision.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/minderer20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/minderer20a.htmlStrategic Classification is Causal Modeling in DisguiseConsequential decision-making incentivizes individuals to strategically adapt their behavior to the specifics of the decision rule. While a long line of work has viewed strategic adaptation as gaming and attempted to mitigate its effects, recent work has instead sought to design classifiers that incentivize individuals to improve a desired quality. Key to both accounts is a cost function that dictates which adaptations are rational to undertake. In this work, we develop a causal framework for strategic adaptation. Our causal perspective clearly distinguishes between gaming and improvement and reveals an important obstacle to incentive design. We prove any procedure for designing classifiers that incentivize improvement must inevitably solve a non-trivial causal inference problem. We show a similar result holds for designing cost functions that satisfy the requirements of previous work. With the benefit of hindsight, our results show much of the prior work on strategic classification is causal modeling in disguise.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/miller20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/miller20b.htmlThe Effect of Natural Distribution Shift on Question Answering ModelsWe build four new test sets for the Stanford Question Answering Dataset (SQuAD) and evaluate the ability of question-answering systems to generalize to new data. Our first test set is from the original Wikipedia domain and measures the extent to which existing systems overfit the original test set. Despite several years of heavy test set re-use, we find no evidence of adaptive overfitting. The remaining three test sets are constructed from New York Times articles, Reddit posts, and Amazon product reviews and measure robustness to natural distribution shifts. Across a broad range of models, we observe average performance drops of 3.8, 14.0, and 17.4 F1 points, respectively. In contrast, a strong human baseline matches or exceeds the performance of SQuAD models on the original domain and exhibits little to no drop in new domains. Taken together, our results confirm the surprising resilience of the holdout method and emphasize the need to move towards evaluation metrics that incorporate robustness to natural distribution shifts.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/miller20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/miller20a.htmlVideoOneNet: Bidirectional Convolutional Recurrent OneNet with Trainable Data Steps for Video ProcessingDeep Neural Networks (DNNs) achieve the state-of-the-art results on a wide range of image processing tasks, however, the majority of such solutions are problem-specific, like most AI algorithms. The One Network to Solve Them All (OneNet) procedure has been suggested to resolve this issue by exploiting a DNN as the proximal operator in Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM) solvers for various imaging problems. In this work, we make two contributions, both facilitating end-to-end learning using backpropagation. First, we generalize OneNet to videos by augmenting its convolutional prior network with bidirectional recurrent connections; second, we extend the fixed fully connected linear ADMM data step with another trainable bidirectional convolutional recurrent network. In our computational experiments on the Rotated MNIST, Scanned CIFAR-10 and UCF-101 data sets, the proposed modifications improve performance by a large margin compared to end-to-end convolutional OneNet and 3D Wavelet sparsity on several video processing problems: pixelwise inpainting-denoising, blockwise inpainting, scattered inpainting, super resolution, compressive sensing, deblurring, frame interpolation, frame prediction and colorization. Our two contributions are complementary, and using them together yields the best results.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/milacski20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/milacski20a.htmlProjective Preferential Bayesian OptimizationBayesian optimization is an effective method for finding extrema of a black-box function. We propose a new type of Bayesian optimization for learning user preferences in high-dimensional spaces. The central assumption is that the underlying objective function cannot be evaluated directly, but instead a minimizer along a projection can be queried, which we call a projective preferential query. The form of the query allows for feedback that is natural for a human to give, and which enables interaction. This is demonstrated in a user experiment in which the user feedback comes in the form of optimal position and orientation of a molecule adsorbing to a surface. We demonstrate that our framework is able to find a global minimum of a high-dimensional black-box function, which is an infeasible task for existing preferential Bayesian optimization frameworks that are based on pairwise comparisons.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mikkola20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mikkola20a.htmlThe Role of Regularization in Classification of High-dimensional Noisy Gaussian MixtureWe consider a high-dimensional mixture of two Gaussians in the noisy regime where even an oracle knowing the centers of the clusters misclassifies a small but finite fraction of the points. We provide a rigorous analysis of the generalization error of regularized convex classifiers, including ridge, hinge and logistic regression, in the high-dimensional limit where the number $n$ of samples and their dimension $d$ go to infinity while their ratio is fixed to $\alpha=n/d$. We discuss surprising effects of the regularization that in some cases allows to reach the Bayes-optimal performances. We also illustrate the interpolation peak at low regularization, and analyze the role of the respective sizes of the two clusters.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mignacco20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mignacco20a.htmlControl Frequency Adaptation via Action Persistence in Batch Reinforcement LearningThe choice of the control frequency of a system has a relevant impact on the ability of reinforcement learning algorithms to learn a highly performing policy. In this paper, we introduce the notion of action persistence that consists in the repetition of an action for a fixed number of decision steps, having the effect of modifying the control frequency. We start analyzing how action persistence affects the performance of the optimal policy, and then we present a novel algorithm, Persistent Fitted Q-Iteration (PFQI), that extends FQI, with the goal of learning the optimal value function at a given persistence. After having provided a theoretical study of PFQI and a heuristic approach to identify the optimal persistence, we present an experimental campaign on benchmark domains to show the advantages of action persistence and proving the effectiveness of our persistence selection method.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/metelli20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/metelli20a.htmlTraining Binary Neural Networks using the Bayesian Learning RuleNeural networks with binary weights are computation-efficient and hardware-friendly, but their training is challenging because it involves a discrete optimization problem. Surprisingly, ignoring the discrete nature of the problem and using gradient-based methods, such as the Straight-Through Estimator, still works well in practice. This raises the question: are there principled approaches which justify such methods? In this paper, we propose such an approach using the Bayesian learning rule. The rule, when applied to estimate a Bernoulli distribution over the binary weights, results in an algorithm which justifies some of the algorithmic choices made by the previous approaches. The algorithm not only obtains state-of-the-art performance, but also enables uncertainty estimation and continual learning to avoid catastrophic forgetting. Our work provides a principled approach for training binary neural networks which also justifies and extends existing approaches.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/meng20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/meng20a.htmlRandomized Block-Diagonal Preconditioning for Parallel LearningWe study preconditioned gradient-based optimization methods where the preconditioning matrix has block-diagonal form. Such a structural constraint comes with the advantage that the update computation can be parallelized across multiple independent tasks. Our main contribution is to demonstrate that the convergence of these methods can significantly be improved by a randomization technique which corresponds to repartitioning coordinates across tasks during the optimization procedure. We provide a theoretical analysis that accurately characterizes the expected convergence gains of repartitioning and validate our findings empirically on various traditional machine learning tasks. From an implementation perspective, block-separable models are well suited for parallelization and, when shared memory is available, randomization can be implemented on top of existing methods very efficiently to improve convergence.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mendler-dunner20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mendler-dunner20a.htmlScalable Identification of Partially Observed Systems with Certainty-Equivalent EMSystem identification is a key step for model-based control, estimator design, and output prediction. This work considers the offline identification of partially observed nonlinear systems. We empirically show that the certainty-equivalent approximation to expectation-maximization can be a reliable and scalable approach for high-dimensional deterministic systems, which are common in robotics. We formulate certainty-equivalent expectation-maximization as block coordinate-ascent, and provide an efficient implementation. The algorithm is tested on a simulated system of coupled Lorenz attractors, demonstrating its ability to identify high-dimensional systems that can be intractable for particle-based approaches. Our approach is also used to identify the dynamics of an aerobatic helicopter. By augmenting the state with unobserved fluid states, a model is learned that predicts the acceleration of the helicopter better than state-of-the-art approaches. The codebase for this work is available at https://github.com/sisl/CEEM.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/menda20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/menda20a.htmlOn the Global Convergence Rates of Softmax Policy Gradient MethodsWe make three contributions toward better understanding policy gradient methods in the tabular setting. First, we show that with the true gradient, policy gradient with a softmax parametrization converges at a $O(1/t)$ rate, with constants depending on the problem and initialization. This result significantly expands the recent asymptotic convergence results. The analysis relies on two findings: that the softmax policy gradient satisfies a Ł{}ojasiewicz inequality, and the minimum probability of an optimal action during optimization can be bounded in terms of its initial value. Second, we analyze entropy regularized policy gradient and show that it enjoys a significantly faster linear convergence rate $O(e^{-t})$ toward softmax optimal policy. This result resolves an open question in the recent literature. Finally, combining the above two results and additional new $\Omega(1/t)$ lower bound results, we explain how entropy regularization improves policy optimization, even with the true gradient, from the perspective of convergence rate. The separation of rates is further explained using the notion of non-uniform Ł{}ojasiewicz degree. These results provide a theoretical understanding of the impact of entropy and corroborate existing empirical studies.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mei20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mei20b.htmlNeural Datalog Through Time: Informed Temporal Modeling via Logical SpecificationLearning how to predict future events from patterns of past events is difficult when the set of possible event types is large. Training an unrestricted neural model might overfit to spurious patterns. To exploit domain-specific knowledge of how past events might affect an event’s present probability, we propose using a temporal deductive database to track structured facts over time. Rules serve to prove facts from other facts and from past events. Each fact has a time-varying state—a vector computed by a neural net whose topology is determined by the fact’s provenance, including its experience of past events. The possible event types at any time are given by special facts, whose probabilities are neurally modeled alongside their states. In both synthetic and real-world domains, we show that neural probabilistic models derived from concise Datalog programs improve prediction by encoding appropriate domain knowledge in their architecture.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mei20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mei20a.htmlOn Approximate Thompson Sampling with Langevin AlgorithmsThompson sampling for multi-armed bandit problems is known to enjoy favorable performance in both theory and practice. However, its wider deployment is restricted due to a significant computational limitation: the need for samples from posterior distributions at every iteration. In practice, this limitation is alleviated by making use of approximate sampling methods, yet provably incorporating approximate samples into Thompson Sampling algorithms remains an open problem. In this work we address this by proposing two efficient Langevin MCMC algorithms tailored to Thompson sampling. The resulting approximate Thompson Sampling algorithms are efficiently implementable and provably achieve optimal instance-dependent regret for the Multi-Armed Bandit (MAB) problem. To prove these results we derive novel posterior concentration bounds and MCMC convergence rates for log-concave distributions which may be of independent interest.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mazumdar20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mazumdar20a.htmlFast and Consistent Learning of Hidden Markov Models by Incorporating Non-Consecutive CorrelationsCan the parameters of a hidden Markov model (HMM) be estimated from a single sweep through the observations – and additionally, without being trapped at a local optimum in the likelihood surface? That is the premise of recent method of moments algorithms devised for HMMs. In these, correlations between consecutive pair- or triplet-wise observations are empirically estimated and used to compute estimates of the HMM parameters. Albeit computationally very attractive, the main drawback is that by restricting to only low-order correlations in the data, information is being neglected which results in a loss of accuracy (compared to standard maximum likelihood schemes). In this paper, we propose extending these methods (both pair- and triplet-based) by also including non-consecutive correlations in a way which does not significantly increase the computational cost (which scales linearly with the number of additional lags included). We prove strong consistency of the new methods, and demonstrate an improved performance in numerical experiments on both synthetic and real-world financial time-series datasets.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mattila20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mattila20a.htmlAdding seemingly uninformative labels helps in low data regimesEvidence suggests that networks trained on large datasets generalize well not solely because of the numerous training examples, but also class diversity which encourages learning of enriched features. This raises the question of whether this remains true when data is scarce - is there an advantage to learning with additional labels in low-data regimes? In this work, we consider a task that requires difficult-to-obtain expert annotations: tumor segmentation in mammography images. We show that, in low-data settings, performance can be improved by complementing the expert annotations with seemingly uninformative labels from non-expert annotators, turning the task into a multi-class problem. We reveal that these gains increase when less expert data is available, and uncover several interesting properties through further studies. We demonstrate our findings on CSAW-S, a new dataset that we introduce here, and confirm them on two public datasets.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/matsoukas20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/matsoukas20a.htmlPredictive Multiplicity in ClassificationPrediction problems often admit competing models that perform almost equally well. This effect challenges key assumptions in machine learning when competing models assign conflicting predictions. In this paper, we define predictive multiplicity as the ability of a prediction problem to admit competing models with conflicting predictions. We introduce measures to evaluate the severity of predictive multiplicity, and develop integer programming tools to compute these measures exactly for linear classification problems. We apply our tools to measure predictive multiplicity in recidivism prediction problems. Our results show that real-world datasets may admit competing models that assign wildly conflicting predictions, and motivate the need to report predictive multiplicity in model development.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/marx20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/marx20a.htmlMinimax Pareto Fairness: A Multi Objective PerspectiveIn this work we formulate and formally characterize group fairness as a multi-objective optimization problem, where each sensitive group risk is a separate objective. We propose a fairness criterion where a classifier achieves minimax risk and is Pareto-efficient w.r.t. all groups, avoiding unnecessary harm, and can lead to the best zero-gap model if policy dictates so. We provide a simple optimization algorithm compatible with deep neural networks to satisfy these constraints. Since our method does not require test-time access to sensitive attributes, it can be applied to reduce worst-case classification errors between outcomes in unbalanced classification problems. We test the proposed methodology on real case-studies of predicting income, ICU patient mortality, skin lesions classification, and assessing credit risk, demonstrating how our framework compares favorably to other approaches.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/martinez20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/martinez20a.htmlStochastically Dominant Distributional Reinforcement LearningWe describe a new approach for managing aleatoric uncertainty in the Reinforcement Learning (RL) paradigm. Instead of selecting actions according to a single statistic, we propose a distributional method based on the second-order stochastic dominance (SSD) relation. This compares the inherent dispersion of random returns induced by actions, producing a comprehensive evaluation of the environment’s uncertainty. The necessary conditions for SSD require estimators to predict accurate second moments. To accommodate this, we map the distributional RL problem to a Wasserstein gradient flow, treating the distributional Bellman residual as a potential energy functional. We propose a particle-based algorithm for which we prove optimality and convergence. Our experiments characterize the algorithm’s performance and demonstrate how uncertainty and performance are better balanced using an SSD policy than with other risk measures.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/martin20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/martin20a.htmlOn Learning Sets of Symmetric ElementsLearning from unordered sets is a fundamental learning setup, recently attracting increasing attention. Research in this area has focused on the case where elements of the set are represented by feature vectors, and far less emphasis has been given to the common case where set elements themselves adhere to their own symmetries. That case is relevant to numerous applications, from deblurring image bursts to multi-view 3D shape recognition and reconstruction. In this paper, we present a principled approach to learning sets of general symmetric elements. We first characterize the space of linear layers that are equivariant both to element reordering and to the inherent symmetries of elements, like translation in the case of images. We further show that networks that are composed of these layers, called Deep Sets for Symmetric Elements layers (DSS), are universal approximators of both invariant and equivariant functions. DSS layers are also straightforward to implement. Finally, we show that they improve over existing set-learning architectures in a series of experiments with images, graphs, and point-clouds.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/maron20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/maron20a.htmlAdaptive Adversarial Multi-task Representation LearningAdversarial Multi-task Representation Learning (AMTRL) methods are able to boost the performance of Multi-task Representation Learning (MTRL) models. However, the theoretical mechanism behind AMTRL is less investigated. To fill this gap, we study the generalization error bound of AMTRL through the lens of Lagrangian duality . Based on the duality, we proposed an novel adaptive AMTRL algorithm which improves the performance of original AMTRL methods. The extensive experiments back up our theoretical analysis and validate the superiority of our proposed algorithm.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mao20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mao20a.htmlEmergence of Separable Manifolds in Deep Language RepresentationsDeep neural networks (DNNs) have shown much empirical success in solving perceptual tasks across various cognitive modalities. While they are only loosely inspired by the biological brain, recent studies report considerable similarities between representations extracted from task-optimized DNNs and neural populations in the brain. DNNs have subsequently become a popular model class to infer computational principles underlying complex cognitive functions, and in turn, they have also emerged as a natural testbed for applying methods originally developed to probe information in neural populations. In this work, we utilize mean-field theoretic manifold analysis, a recent technique from computational neuroscience that connects geometry of feature representations with linear separability of classes, to analyze language representations from large-scale contextual embedding models. We explore representations from different model families (BERT, RoBERTa, GPT, etc.) and find evidence for emergence of linguistic manifolds across layer depth (e.g., manifolds for part-of-speech tags), especially in ambiguous data (i.e, words with multiple part-of-speech tags, or part-of-speech classes including many words). In addition, we find that the emergence of linear separability in these manifolds is driven by a combined reduction of manifolds’ radius, dimensionality and inter-manifold correlations.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mamou20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mamou20a.htmlAdaptive Gradient Descent without DescentWe present a strikingly simple proof that two rules are sufficient to automate gradient descent: 1) don’t increase the stepsize too fast and 2) don’t overstep the local curvature. No need for functional values, no line search, no information about the function except for the gradients. By following these rules, you get a method adaptive to the local geometry, with convergence guarantees depending only on the smoothness in a neighborhood of a solution. Given that the problem is convex, our method converges even if the global smoothness constant is infinity. As an illustration, it can minimize arbitrary continuously twice-differentiable convex function. We examine its performance on a range of convex and nonconvex problems, including logistic regression and matrix factorization.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/malitsky20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/malitsky20a.htmlFrom Local SGD to Local Fixed-Point Methods for Federated LearningMost algorithms for solving optimization problems or finding saddle points of convex-concave functions are fixed-point algorithms. In this work we consider the generic problem of finding a fixed point of an average of operators, or an approximation thereof, in a distributed setting. Our work is motivated by the needs of federated learning. In this context, each local operator models the computations done locally on a mobile device. We investigate two strategies to achieve such a consensus: one based on a fixed number of local steps, and the other based on randomized computations. In both cases, the goal is to limit communication of the locally-computed variables, which is often the bottleneck in distributed frameworks. We perform convergence analysis of both methods and conduct a number of experiments highlighting the benefits of our approach.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/malinovskiy20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/malinovskiy20a.htmlProving the Lottery Ticket Hypothesis: Pruning is All You NeedThe lottery ticket hypothesis (Frankle and Carbin, 2018), states that a randomly-initialized network contains a small subnetwork such that, when trained in isolation, can compete with the performance of the original network. We prove an even stronger hypothesis (as was also conjectured in Ramanujan et al., 2019), showing that for every bounded distribution and every target network with bounded weights, a sufficiently over-parameterized neural network with random weights contains a subnetwork with roughly the same accuracy as the target network, without any further training.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/malach20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/malach20a.htmlOptimal transport mapping via input convex neural networksIn this paper, we present a novel and principled approach to learn the optimal transport between two distributions, from samples. Guided by the optimal transport theory, we learn the optimal Kantorovich potential which induces the optimal transport map. This involves learning two convex functions, by solving a novel minimax optimization. Building upon recent advances in the field of input convex neural networks, we propose a new framework to estimate the optimal transport mapping as the gradient of a convex function that is trained via minimax optimization. Numerical experiments confirm the accuracy of the learned transport map. Our approach can be readily used to train a deep generative model. When trained between a simple distribution in the latent space and a target distribution, the learned optimal transport map acts as a deep generative model. Although scaling this to a large dataset is challenging, we demonstrate two important strengths over standard adversarial training: robustness and discontinuity. As we seek the optimal transport, the learned generative model provides the same mapping regardless of how we initialize the neural networks. Further, a gradient of a neural network can easily represent discontinuous mappings, unlike standard neural networks that are constrained to be continuous. This allows the learned transport map to match any target distribution with many discontinuous supports and achieve sharp boundaries.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/makkuva20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/makkuva20a.htmlEstimation of Bounds on Potential Outcomes For Decision MakingEstimation of individual treatment effects is commonly used as the basis for contextual decision making in fields such as healthcare, education, and economics. However, it is often sufficient for the decision maker to have estimates of upper and lower bounds on the potential outcomes of decision alternatives to assess risks and benefits. We show that, in such cases, we can improve sample efficiency by estimating simple functions that bound these outcomes instead of estimating their conditional expectations, which may be complex and hard to estimate. Our analysis highlights a trade-off between the complexity of the learning task and the confidence with which the learned bounds hold. Guided by these findings, we develop an algorithm for learning upper and lower bounds on potential outcomes which optimize an objective function defined by the decision maker, subject to the probability that bounds are violated being small. Using a clinical dataset and a well-known causality benchmark, we demonstrate that our algorithm outperforms baselines, providing tighter, more reliable bounds.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/makar20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/makar20a.htmlEvolutionary Reinforcement Learning for Sample-Efficient Multiagent CoordinationMany cooperative multiagent reinforcement learning environments provide agents with a sparse team-based reward, as well as a dense agent-specific reward that incentivizes learning basic skills. Training policies solely on the team-based reward is often difficult due to its sparsity. Also, relying solely on the agent-specific reward is sub-optimal because it usually does not capture the team coordination objective. A common approach is to use reward shaping to construct a proxy reward by combining the individual rewards. However, this requires manual tuning for each environment. We introduce Multiagent Evolutionary Reinforcement Learning (MERL), a split-level training platform that handles the two objectives separately through two optimization processes. An evolutionary algorithm maximizes the sparse team-based objective through neuroevolution on a population of teams. Concurrently, a gradient-based optimizer trains policies to only maximize the dense agent-specific rewards. The gradient-based policies are periodically added to the evolutionary population as a way of information transfer between the two optimization processes. This enables the evolutionary algorithm to use skills learned via the agent-specific rewards toward optimizing the global objective. Results demonstrate that MERL significantly outperforms state-of-the-art methods, such as MADDPG, on a number of difficult coordination benchmarks.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/majumdar20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/majumdar20a.htmlAdversarial Robustness Against the Union of Multiple Perturbation ModelsOwing to the susceptibility of deep learning systems to adversarial attacks, there has been a great deal of work in developing (both empirically and certifiably) robust classifiers. While most work has defended against a single type of attack, recent work has looked at defending against multiple perturbation models using simple aggregations of multiple attacks. However, these methods can be difficult to tune, and can easily result in imbalanced degrees of robustness to individual perturbation models, resulting in a sub-optimal worst-case loss over the union. In this work, we develop a natural generalization of the standard PGD-based procedure to incorporate multiple perturbation models into a single attack, by taking the worst-case over all steepest descent directions. This approach has the advantage of directly converging upon a trade-off between different perturbation models which minimizes the worst-case performance over the union. With this approach, we are able to train standard architectures which are simultaneously robust against $\ell_\infty$, $\ell_2$, and $\ell_1$ attacks, outperforming past approaches on the MNIST and CIFAR10 datasets and achieving adversarial accuracy of 47.0% against the union of ($\ell_\infty$, $\ell_2$, $\ell_1$) perturbations with radius = (0.03, 0.5, 12) on the latter, improving upon previous approaches which achieve 40.6% accuracy.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/maini20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/maini20a.htmlConvergence of a Stochastic Gradient Method with Momentum for Non-Smooth Non-Convex OptimizationStochastic gradient methods with momentum are widely used in applications and at the core of optimization subroutines in many popular machine learning libraries. However, their sample complexities have not been obtained for problems beyond those that are convex or smooth. This paper establishes the convergence rate of a stochastic subgradient method with a momentum term of Polyak type for a broad class of non-smooth, non-convex, and constrained optimization problems. Our key innovation is the construction of a special Lyapunov function for which the proven complexity can be achieved without any tuning of the momentum parameter. For smooth problems, we extend the known complexity bound to the constrained case and demonstrate how the unconstrained case can be analyzed under weaker assumptions than the state-of-the-art. Numerical results confirm our theoretical developments.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mai20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mai20b.htmlAnderson Acceleration of Proximal Gradient MethodsAnderson acceleration is a well-established and simple technique for speeding up fixed-point computations with countless applications. This work introduces novel methods for adapting Anderson acceleration to proximal gradient algorithms. Under some technical conditions, we extend existing local convergence results of Anderson acceleration for smooth fixed-point mappings to the proposed non-smooth setting. We also prove analytically that it is in general, impossible to guarantee global convergence of native Anderson acceleration. We therefore propose a simple scheme for stabilization that combines the global worst-case guarantees of proximal gradient methods with the local adaptation and practical speed-up of Anderson acceleration. Finally, we provide the first applications of Anderson acceleration to non-Euclidean geometry.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mai20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mai20a.htmlHow recurrent networks implement contextual processing in sentiment analysisNeural networks have a remarkable capacity for contextual processing{—}using recent or nearby inputs to modify processing of current input. For example, in natural language, contextual processing is necessary to correctly interpret negation (e.g. phrases such as "not bad"). However, our ability to understand how networks process context is limited. Here, we propose general methods for reverse engineering recurrent neural networks (RNNs) to identify and elucidate contextual processing. We apply these methods to understand RNNs trained on sentiment classification. This analysis reveals inputs that induce contextual effects, quantifies the strength and timescale of these effects, and identifies sets of these inputs with similar properties. Additionally, we analyze contextual effects related to differential processing of the beginning and end of documents. Using the insights learned from the RNNs we improve baseline Bag-of-Words models with simple extensions that incorporate contextual modification, recovering greater than 90% of the RNN’s performance increase over the baseline. This work yields a new understanding of how RNNs process contextual information, and provides tools that should provide similar insight more broadly.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/maheswaranathan20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/maheswaranathan20a.htmlMulti-Task Learning with User Preferences: Gradient Descent with Controlled Ascent in Pareto OptimizationMulti-Task Learning (MTL) is a well established paradigm for jointly learning models for multiple correlated tasks. Often the tasks conflict, requiring trade-offs between them during optimization. In such cases, multi-objective optimization based MTL methods can be used to find one or more Pareto optimal solutions. A common requirement in MTL applications, that cannot be addressed by these methods, is to find a solution satisfying userspecified preferences with respect to task-specific losses. We advance the state-of-the-art by developing the first gradient-based multi-objective MTL algorithm to solve this problem. Our unique approach combines multiple gradient descent with carefully controlled ascent to traverse the Pareto front in a principled manner, which also makes it robust to initialization. The scalability of our algorithm enables its use in large-scale deep networks for MTL. Assuming only differentiability of the task-specific loss functions, we provide theoretical guarantees for convergence. Our experiments show that our algorithm outperforms the best competing methods on benchmark datasets.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mahapatra20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mahapatra20a.htmlIndividual Fairness for k-ClusteringWe give a local search based algorithm for $k$-median and $k$-means (and more generally for any $k$-clustering with $\ell_p$ norm cost function) from the perspective of individual fairness. More precisely, for a point $x$ in a point set $P$ of size $n$, let $r(x)$ be the minimum radius such that the ball of radius $r(x)$ centered at $x$ has at least $n/k$ points from $P$. Intuitively, if a set of $k$ random points are chosen from $P$ as centers, every point $x\in P$ expects to have a center within radius $r(x)$. In this work, we show how to get an approximately optimal such fair $k$-clustering: The $k$-median ($k$-means) cost of our solution is within a constant factor of the cost of an optimal fair $k$-clustering, and our solution approximately satisfies the fairness condition (also within a constant factor).Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mahabadi20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/mahabadi20a.htmlAdversarial Neural Pruning with Latent Vulnerability SuppressionDespite the remarkable performance of deep neural networks on various computer vision tasks, they are known to be susceptible to adversarial perturbations, which makes it challenging to deploy them in real-world safety-critical applications. In this paper, we conjecture that the leading cause of adversarial vulnerability is the distortion in the latent feature space, and provide methods to suppress them effectively. Explicitly, we define \emph{vulnerability} for each latent feature and then propose a new loss for adversarial learning, \emph{Vulnerability Suppression (VS)} loss, that aims to minimize the feature-level vulnerability during training. We further propose a Bayesian framework to prune features with high vulnerability to reduce both vulnerability and loss on adversarial samples. We validate our \emph{Adversarial Neural Pruning with Vulnerability Suppression (ANP-VS)} method on multiple benchmark datasets, on which it not only obtains state-of-the-art adversarial robustness but also improves the performance on clean examples, using only a fraction of the parameters used by the full network. Further qualitative analysis suggests that the improvements come from the suppression of feature-level vulnerability.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/madaan20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/madaan20a.htmlUnderstanding the Impact of Model Incoherence on Convergence of Incremental SGD with Random ReshuffleAlthough SGD with random reshuffle has been widely-used in machine learning applications, there is a limited understanding of how model characteristics affect the convergence of the algorithm. In this work, we introduce model incoherence to characterize the diversity of model characteristics and study its impact on convergence of SGD with random reshuffle under weak strong convexity. Specifically, minimizer incoherence measures the discrepancy between the global minimizers of a sample loss and those of the total loss and affects the convergence error of SGD with random reshuffle. In particular, we show that the variable sequence generated by SGD with random reshuffle converges to a certain global minimizer of the total loss under full minimizer coherence. The other curvature incoherence measures the quality of condition numbers of the sample losses and determines the convergence rate of SGD. With model incoherence, our results show that SGD has a faster convergence rate and smaller convergence error under random reshuffle than those under random sampling, and hence provide justifications to the superior practical performance of SGD with random reshuffle.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ma20e.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ma20e.htmlQuadratically Regularized Subgradient Methods for Weakly Convex Optimization with Weakly Convex ConstraintsOptimization models with non-convex constraints arise in many tasks in machine learning, e.g., learning with fairness constraints or Neyman-Pearson classification with non-convex loss. Although many efficient methods have been developed with theoretical convergence guarantees for non-convex unconstrained problems, it remains a challenge to design provably efficient algorithms for problems with non-convex functional constraints. This paper proposes a class of subgradient methods for constrained optimization where the objective function and the constraint functions are weakly convex and nonsmooth. Our methods solve a sequence of strongly convex subproblems, where a quadratic regularization term is added to both the objective function and each constraint function. Each subproblem can be solved by various algorithms for strongly convex optimization. Under a uniform Slater’s condition, we establish the computation complexities of our methods for finding a nearly stationary point.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ma20d.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ma20d.htmlNormalized Loss Functions for Deep Learning with Noisy LabelsRobust loss functions are essential for training accurate deep neural networks (DNNs) in the presence of noisy (incorrect) labels. It has been shown that the commonly used Cross Entropy (CE) loss is not robust to noisy labels. Whilst new loss functions have been designed, they are only partially robust. In this paper, we theoretically show by applying a simple normalization that: \emph{any loss can be made robust to noisy labels}. However, in practice, simply being robust is not sufficient for a loss function to train accurate DNNs. By investigating several robust loss functions, we find that they suffer from a problem of \emph{underfitting}. To address this, we propose a framework to build robust loss functions called \emph{Active Passive Loss} (APL). APL combines two robust loss functions that mutually boost each other. Experiments on benchmark datasets demonstrate that the family of new loss functions created by our APL framework can consistently outperform state-of-the-art methods by large margins, especially under large noise rates such as 60% or 80% incorrect labels.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ma20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ma20c.htmlConvex Representation Learning for Generalized Invariance in Semi-Inner-Product SpaceInvariance (defined in a general sense) has been one of the most effective priors for representation learning. Direct factorization of parametric models is feasible only for a small range of invariances, while regularization approaches, despite improved generality, lead to nonconvex optimization. In this work, we develop a \emph{convex} representation learning algorithm for a variety of generalized invariances that can be modeled as semi-norms. Novel Euclidean embeddings are introduced for kernel representers in a semi-inner-product space, and approximation bounds are established. This allows invariant representations to be learned efficiently and effectively as confirmed in our experiments, along with accurate predictions.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ma20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ma20b.htmlEfficient Continuous Pareto Exploration in Multi-Task LearningTasks in multi-task learning often correlate, conflict, or even compete with each other. As a result, a single solution that is optimal for all tasks rarely exists. Recent papers introduced the concept of Pareto optimality to this field and directly cast multi-task learning as multi-objective optimization problems, but solutions returned by existing methods are typically finite, sparse, and discrete. We present a novel, efficient method that generates locally continuous Pareto sets and Pareto fronts, which opens up the possibility of continuous analysis of Pareto optimal solutions in machine learning problems. We scale up theoretical results in multi-objective optimization to modern machine learning problems by proposing a sample-based sparse linear system, for which standard Hessian-free solvers in machine learning can be applied. We compare our method to the state-of-the-art algorithms and demonstrate its usage of analyzing local Pareto sets on various multi-task classification and regression problems. The experimental results confirm that our algorithm reveals the primary directions in local Pareto sets for trade-off balancing, finds more solutions with different trade-offs efficiently, and scales well to tasks with millions of parameters.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ma20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ma20a.htmlBandits with Adversarial ScalingWe study "adversarial scaling", a multi-armed bandit model where rewards have a stochastic and an adversarial component. Our model captures display advertising where the "click-through-rate" can be decomposed to a (fixed across time) arm-quality component and a non-stochastic user-relevance component (fixed across arms). Despite the relative stochasticity of our model, we demonstrate two settings where most bandit algorithms suffer. On the positive side, we show that two algorithms, one from the action elimination and one from the mirror descent family are adaptive enough to be robust to adversarial scaling. Our results shed light on the robustness of adaptive parameter selection in stochastic bandits, which may be of independent interest.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lykouris20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lykouris20a.htmlProgressive Identification of True Labels for Partial-Label LearningPartial-label learning (PLL) is a typical weakly supervised learning problem, where each training instance is equipped with a set of candidate labels among which only one is the true label. Most existing methods elaborately designed learning objectives as constrained optimizations that must be solved in specific manners, making their computational complexity a bottleneck for scaling up to big data. The goal of this paper is to propose a novel framework of PLL with flexibility on the model and optimization algorithm. More specifically, we propose a novel estimator of the classification risk, theoretically analyze the classifier-consistency, and establish an estimation error bound. Then we propose a progressive identification algorithm for approximately minimizing the proposed risk estimator, where the update of the model and identification of true labels are conducted in a seamless manner. The resulting algorithm is model-independent and loss-independent, and compatible with stochastic optimization. Thorough experiments demonstrate it sets the new state of the art.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lv20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lv20a.htmlLearning Algebraic Multigrid Using Graph Neural NetworksEfficient numerical solvers for sparse linear systems are crucial in science and engineering. One of the fastest methods for solving large-scale sparse linear systems is algebraic multigrid (AMG). The main challenge in the construction of AMG algorithms is the selection of the prolongation operator—a problem-dependent sparse matrix which governs the multiscale hierarchy of the solver and is critical to its efficiency. Over many years, numerous methods have been developed for this task, and yet there is no known single right answer except in very special cases. Here we propose a framework for learning AMG prolongation operators for linear systems with sparse symmetric positive (semi-) definite matrices. We train a single graph neural network to learn a mapping from an entire class of such matrices to prolongation operators, using an efficient unsupervised loss function. Experiments on a broad class of problems demonstrate improved convergence rates compared to classical AMG, demonstrating the potential utility of neural networks for developing sparse system solvers.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/luz20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/luz20a.htmlAdversarial Nonnegative Matrix FactorizationNonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) has become an increasingly important research topic in machine learning. Despite all the practical success, most of existing NMF models are still vulnerable to adversarial attacks. To overcome this limitation, we propose a novel Adversarial NMF (ANMF) approach in which an adversary can exercise some control over the perturbed data generation process. Different from the traditional NMF models which focus on either the regular input or certain types of noise, our model considers potential test adversaries that are beyond the pre-defined constraints, which can cope with various noises (or perturbations). We formulate the proposed model as a bilevel optimization problem and use Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM) to solve it with convergence analysis. Theoretically, the robustness analysis of ANMF is established under mild conditions dedicating asymptotically unbiased prediction. Extensive experiments verify that ANMF is robust to a broad categories of perturbations, and achieves state-of-the-art performances on distinct real-world benchmark datasets.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/luo20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/luo20c.htmlProgressive Graph Learning for Open-Set Domain AdaptationDomain shift is a fundamental problem in visual recognition which typically arises when the source and target data follow different distributions. The existing domain adaptation approaches which tackle this problem work in the "closed-set" setting with the assumption that the source and the target data share exactly the same classes of objects. In this paper, we tackle a more realistic problem of the "open-set" domain shift where the target data contains additional classes that were not present in the source data. More specifically, we introduce an end-to-end Progressive Graph Learning (PGL) framework where a graph neural network with episodic training is integrated to suppress underlying conditional shift and adversarial learning is adopted to close the gap between the source and target distributions. Compared to the existing open-set adaptation approaches, our approach guarantees to achieve a tighter upper bound of the target error. Extensive experiments on three standard open-set benchmarks evidence that our approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-arts in open-set domain adaptation.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/luo20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/luo20b.htmlImproved Communication Cost in Distributed PageRank Computation – A Theoretical StudyPageRank is a widely used approach for measuring the importance of a node in a graph. Due to the rapid growth of the graph size in the real world, the importance of computing PageRanks in a distributed environment has been increasingly recognized. However, only a few previous works can provide a provable complexity and accuracy for distributed PageRank computation. Given a constant $d\ge 1$ and a graph of $n$ nodes, the state-of-the-art approach, Radar-Push, uses $O(\log\log{n}+\log{d})$ communication rounds to approximate the PageRanks within a relative error $\Theta(\frac{1}{\log^d{n}})$ under a generalized congested clique distributed computation model. However, Radar-Push entails as large as $O(\log^{2d+3}{n})$ bits of bandwidth (e.g., the communication cost between a pair of nodes per round). In this paper, we provide a new algorithm that uses asymptotically the same communication round complexity while using only $O(d\log^3{n})$ bits of bandwidth.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/luo20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/luo20a.htmlDoes label smoothing mitigate label noise?Label smoothing is commonly used in training deep learning models, wherein one-hot training labels are mixed with uniform label vectors. Empirically, smoothing has been shown to improve both predictive performance and model calibration. In this paper, we study whether label smoothing is also effective as a means of coping with label noise. While label smoothing apparently amplifies this problem — being equivalent to injecting symmetric noise to the labels — we show how it relates to a general family of loss-correction techniques from the label noise literature. Building on this connection, we show that label smoothing is competitive with loss-correction under label noise. Further, we show that when distilling models from noisy data, label smoothing of the teacher is beneficial; this is in contrast to recent findings for noise-free problems, and sheds further light on settings where label smoothing is beneficial.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lukasik20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lukasik20a.htmlCountering Language Drift with Seeded Iterated LearningPretraining on human corpus and then finetuning in a simulator has become a standard pipeline for training a goal-oriented dialogue agent. Nevertheless, as soon as the agents are finetuned to maximize task completion, they suffer from the so-called language drift phenomenon: they slowly lose syntactic and semantic properties of language as they only focus on solving the task. In this paper, we propose a generic approach to counter language drift called Seeded iterated learning (SIL). We periodically refine a pretrained student agent by imitating data sampled from a newly generated teacher agent. At each time step, the teacher is created by copying the student agent, before being finetuned to maximize task completion. SIL does not require external syntactic constraint nor semantic knowledge, making it a valuable task-agnostic finetuning protocol. We evaluate SIL in a toy-setting Lewis Game, and then scale it up to the translation game with natural language. In both settings, SIL helps counter language drift as well as it improves the task completion compared to baselines.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lu20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lu20c.htmlA Mean Field Analysis Of Deep ResNet And Beyond: Towards Provably Optimization Via Overparameterization From DepthTraining deep neural networks with stochastic gradient descent (SGD) can often achieve zero training loss on real-world tasks although the optimization landscape is known to be highly non-convex. To understand the success of SGD for training deep neural networks, this work presents a mean-field analysis of deep residual networks, based on a line of works which interpret the continuum limit of the deep residual network as an ordinary differential equation as the the network capacity tends to infinity. Specifically, we propose a \textbf{new continuum limit} of deep residual networks, which enjoys a good landscape in the sense that \textbf{every local minimizer is global}. This characterization enables us to derive the first global convergence result for multilayer neural networks in the mean-field regime. Furthermore, our proof does not rely on the convexity of the loss landscape, but instead, an assumption on the global minimizer should achieve zero loss which can be achieved when the model shares a universal approximation property. Key to our result is the observation that a deep residual network resembles a shallow network ensemble \cite{veit2016residual}, \emph{i.e.} a two-layer network. We bound the difference between the shallow network and our ResNet model via the adjoint sensitivity method, which enables us to transfer previous mean-field analysis of two-layer networks to deep networks. Furthermore, we propose several novel training schemes based on our new continuous model, among which one new training procedure introduces the operation of switching the order of the residual blocks and results in strong empirical performance on benchmark datasets.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lu20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lu20b.htmlMoniqua: Modulo Quantized Communication in Decentralized SGDRunning Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) in a decentralized fashion has shown promising results. In this paper we propose Moniqua, a technique that allows decentralized SGD to use quantized communication. We prove in theory that Moniqua communicates a provably bounded number of bits per iteration, while converging at the same asymptotic rate as the original algorithm does with full-precision communication. Moniqua improves upon prior works in that it (1) requires zero additional memory, (2) works with 1-bit quantization, and (3) is applicable to a variety of decentralized algorithms. We demonstrate empirically that Moniqua converges faster with respect to wall clock time than other quantized decentralized algorithms. We also show that Moniqua is robust to very low bit-budgets, allowing $1$-bit-per-parameter communication without compromising validation accuracy when training ResNet20 and ResNet110 on CIFAR10.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lu20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lu20a.htmlWorking Memory GraphsTransformers have increasingly outperformed gated RNNs in obtaining new state-of-the-art results on supervised tasks involving text sequences. Inspired by this trend, we study the question of how Transformer-based models can improve the performance of sequential decision-making agents. We present the Working Memory Graph (WMG), an agent that employs multi-head self-attention to reason over a dynamic set of vectors representing observed and recurrent state. We evaluate WMG in three environments featuring factored observation spaces: a Pathfinding environment that requires complex reasoning over past observations, BabyAI gridworld levels that involve variable goals, and Sokoban which emphasizes future planning. We find that the combination of WMG’s Transformer-based architecture with factored observation spaces leads to significant gains in learning efficiency compared to baseline architectures across all tasks. WMG demonstrates how Transformer-based models can dramatically boost sample efficiency in RL environments for which observations can be factored.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/loynd20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/loynd20a.htmlDifferentiating through the Fréchet MeanRecent advances in deep representation learning on Riemannian manifolds extend classical deep learning operations to better capture the geometry of the manifold. One possible extension is the Fr{é}chet mean, the generalization of the Euclidean mean; however, it has been difficult to apply because it lacks a closed form with an easily computable derivative. In this paper, we show how to differentiate through the Fr{é}chet mean for arbitrary Riemannian manifolds. Then, focusing on hyperbolic space, we derive explicit gradient expressions and a fast, accurate, and hyperparameter-free Fr{é}chet mean solver. This fully integrates the Fr{é}chet mean into the hyperbolic neural network pipeline. To demonstrate this integration, we present two case studies. First, we apply our Fr{é}chet mean to the existing Hyperbolic Graph Convolutional Network, replacing its projected aggregation to obtain state-of-the-art results on datasets with high hyperbolicity. Second, to demonstrate the Fr{é}chet mean’s capacity to generalize Euclidean neural network operations, we develop a hyperbolic batch normalization method that gives an improvement parallel to the one observed in the Euclidean setting.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lou20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lou20a.htmlError Estimation for Sketched SVD via the BootstrapIn order to compute fast approximations to the singular value decompositions (SVD) of very large matrices, randomized sketching algorithms have become a leading approach. However, a key practical difficulty of sketching an SVD is that the user does not know how far the sketched singular vectors/values are from the exact ones. Indeed, the user may be forced to rely on analytical worst-case error bounds, which may not account for the unique structure of a given problem. As a result, the lack of tools for error estimation often leads to much more computation than is really necessary. To overcome these challenges, this paper develops a fully data-driven bootstrap method that numerically estimates the actual error of sketched singular vectors/values. Furthermore, the method is computationally inexpensive, because it operates only on sketched objects, and hence it requires no extra passes over the full matrix being factored.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lopes20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lopes20a.htmlStochastic Hamiltonian Gradient Methods for Smooth GamesThe success of adversarial formulations in machine learning has brought renewed motivation for smooth games. In this work, we focus on the class of stochastic Hamiltonian methods and provide the first convergence guarantees for certain classes of stochastic smooth games. We propose a novel unbiased estimator for the stochastic Hamiltonian gradient descent (SHGD) and highlight its benefits. Using tools from the optimization literature we show that SHGD converges linearly to the neighbourhood of a stationary point. To guarantee convergence to the exact solution, we analyze SHGD with a decreasing step-size and we also present the first stochastic variance reduced Hamiltonian method. Our results provide the first global non-asymptotic last-iterate convergence guarantees for the class of stochastic unconstrained bilinear games and for the more general class of stochastic games that satisfy a “sufficiently bilinear" condition, notably including some non-convex non-concave problems. We supplement our analysis with experiments on stochastic bilinear and sufficiently bilinear games, where our theory is shown to be tight, and on simple adversarial machine learning formulations.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/loizou20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/loizou20a.htmlToo Relaxed to Be FairWe address the problem of classification under fairness constraints. Given a notion of fairness, the goal is to learn a classifier that is not discriminatory against a group of individuals. In the literature, this problem is often formulated as a constrained optimization problem and solved using relaxations of the fairness constraints. We show that many existing relaxations are unsatisfactory: even if a model satisfies the relaxed constraint, it can be surprisingly unfair. We propose a principled framework to solve this problem. This new approach uses a strongly convex formulation and comes with theoretical guarantees on the fairness of its solution. In practice, we show that this method gives promising results on real data.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lohaus20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lohaus20a.htmlWeakly-Supervised Disentanglement Without CompromisesIntelligent agents should be able to learn useful representations by observing changes in their environment. We model such observations as pairs of non-i.i.d. images sharing at least one of the underlying factors of variation. First, we theoretically show that only knowing how many factors have changed, but not which ones, is sufficient to learn disentangled representations. Second, we provide practical algorithms that learn disentangled representations from pairs of images without requiring annotation of groups, individual factors, or the number of factors that have changed. Third, we perform a large-scale empirical study and show that such pairs of observations are sufficient to reliably learn disentangled representations on several benchmark data sets. Finally, we evaluate our learned representations and find that they are simultaneously useful on a diverse suite of tasks, including generalization under covariate shifts, fairness, and abstract reasoning. Overall, our results demonstrate that weak supervision enables learning of useful disentangled representations in realistic scenarios.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/locatello20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/locatello20a.htmlFinding trainable sparse networks through Neural Tangent TransferDeep neural networks have dramatically transformed machine learning, but their memory and energy demands are substantial. The requirements of real biological neural networks are rather modest in comparison, and one feature that might underlie this austerity is their sparse connectivity. In deep learning, trainable sparse networks that perform well on a specific task are usually constructed using label-dependent pruning criteria. In this article, we introduce Neural Tangent Transfer, a method that instead finds trainable sparse networks in a label-free manner. Specifically, we find sparse networks whose training dynamics, as characterized by the neural tangent kernel, mimic those of dense networks in function space. Finally, we evaluate our label-agnostic approach on several standard classification tasks and show that the resulting sparse networks achieve higher classification performance while converging faster.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/liu20o.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/liu20o.htmlLearning to Encode Position for Transformer with Continuous Dynamical ModelWe introduce a new way of learning to encode position information for non-recurrent models, such as Transformer models. Unlike RNN and LSTM, which contain inductive bias by loading the input tokens sequentially, non-recurrent models are less sensitive to position. The main reason is that position information among input units is not encoded inherently, i.e., they are permutation equivalent, this problem justifies why all of the existing models are accompanied by position encoding/embedding layer at the input. However, this solution has clear limitations: the sinusoidal position encoding is not flexible enough as it is manually designed and does not contain any learnable parameters, whereas the position embedding restricts the maximum length of input sequences. It is thus desirable to design a new position layer that contains learnable parameters to adjust to different datasets and different architectures. At the same time, we would also like it to extrapolate in accordance with the variable length of inputs. In our proposed solution, we borrow from the recent Neural ODE approach, which may be viewed as a versatile continuous version of a ResNet. This model is capable of modeling many kinds of dynamical systems. We model the evolution of encoded results along position index by such a dynamical system, thereby overcoming the above limitations of existing methods. We evaluate our new position layers on a variety of neural machine translation and language understanding tasks, the experimental results show consistent improvements over the baselines.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/liu20n.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/liu20n.htmlLearning Deep Kernels for Non-Parametric Two-Sample TestsWe propose a class of kernel-based two-sample tests, which aim to determine whether two sets of samples are drawn from the same distribution. Our tests are constructed from kernels parameterized by deep neural nets, trained to maximize test power. These tests adapt to variations in distribution smoothness and shape over space, and are especially suited to high dimensions and complex data. By contrast, the simpler kernels used in prior kernel testing work are spatially homogeneous, and adaptive only in lengthscale. We explain how this scheme includes popular classifier-based two-sample tests as a special case, but improves on them in general. We provide the first proof of consistency for the proposed adaptation method, which applies both to kernels on deep features and to simpler radial basis kernels or multiple kernel learning. In experiments, we establish the superior performance of our deep kernels in hypothesis testing on benchmark and real-world data. The code of our deep-kernel-based two-sample tests is available at github.com/fengliu90/DK-for-TST.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/liu20m.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/liu20m.htmlA Generic First-Order Algorithmic Framework for Bi-Level Programming Beyond Lower-Level SingletonIn recent years, a variety of gradient-based bi-level optimization methods have been developed for learning tasks. However, theoretical guarantees of these existing approaches often heavily rely on the simplification that for each fixed upper-level variable, the lower-level solution must be a singleton (a.k.a., Lower-Level Singleton, LLS). In this work, by formulating bi-level models from the optimistic viewpoint and aggregating hierarchical objective information, we establish Bi-level Descent Aggregation (BDA), a flexible and modularized algorithmic framework for bi-level programming. Theoretically, we derive a new methodology to prove the convergence of BDA without the LLS condition. Furthermore, we improve the convergence properties of conventional first-order bi-level schemes (under the LLS simplification) based on our proof recipe. Extensive experiments justify our theoretical results and demonstrate the superiority of the proposed BDA for different tasks, including hyper-parameter optimization and meta learning.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/liu20l.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/liu20l.htmlMedian Matrix Completion: from Embarrassment to OptimalityIn this paper, we consider matrix completion with absolute deviation loss and obtain an estimator of the median matrix. Despite several appealing properties of median, the non-smooth absolute deviation loss leads to computational challenge for large-scale data sets which are increasingly common among matrix completion problems. A simple solution to large-scale problems is parallel computing. However, embarrassingly parallel fashion often leads to inefficient estimators. Based on the idea of pseudo data, we propose a novel refinement step, which turns such inefficient estimators into a rate (near-)optimal matrix completion procedure. The refined estimator is an approximation of a regularized least median estimator, and therefore not an ordinary regularized empirical risk estimator. This leads to a non-standard analysis of asymptotic behaviors. Empirical results are also provided to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/liu20k.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/liu20k.htmlMin-Max Optimization without Gradients: Convergence and Applications to Black-Box Evasion and Poisoning AttacksIn this paper, we study the problem of constrained min-max optimization in a black-box setting, where the desired optimizer cannot access the gradients of the objective function but may query its values. We present a principled optimization framework, integrating a zeroth-order (ZO) gradient estimator with an alternating projected stochastic gradient descent-ascent method, where the former only requires a small number of function queries and the later needs just one-step descent/ascent update. We show that the proposed framework, referred to as ZO-Min-Max, has a sublinear convergence rate under mild conditions and scales gracefully with problem size. We also explore a promising connection between black-box min-max optimization and black-box evasion and poisoning attacks in adversarial machine learning (ML). Our empirical evaluations on these use cases demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach and its scalability to dimensions that prohibit using recent black-box solvers.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/liu20j.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/liu20j.htmlA Chance-Constrained Generative Framework for Sequence OptimizationDeep generative modeling has achieved many successes for continuous data generation, such as producing realistic images and controlling their properties (e.g., styles). However, the development of generative modeling techniques for optimizing discrete data, such as sequences or strings, still lags behind largely due to the challenges in modeling complex and long-range constraints, including both syntax and semantics, in discrete structures. In this paper, we formulate the sequence optimization task as a chance-constrained optimization problem. The key idea is to enforce a high probability of generating valid sequences and also optimize the property of interest. We propose a novel minimax algorithm to simultaneously tighten a bound of the valid chance and optimize the expected property. Extensive experimental results in three domains demonstrate the superiority of our approach over the existing sequence optimization methods.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/liu20i.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/liu20i.htmlHallucinative Topological Memory for Zero-Shot Visual PlanningIn visual planning (VP), an agent learns to plan goal-directed behavior from observations of a dynamical system obtained offline, e.g., images obtained from self-supervised robot interaction. Most previous works on VP approached the problem by planning in a learned latent space, resulting in low-quality visual plans, and difficult training algorithms. Here, instead, we propose a simple VP method that plans directly in image space and displays competitive performance. We build on the semi-parametric topological memory (SPTM) method: image samples are treated as nodes in a graph, the graph connectivity is learned from image sequence data, and planning can be performed using conventional graph search methods. We propose two modifications on SPTM. First, we train an energy-based graph connectivity function using contrastive predictive coding that admits stable training. Second, to allow zero-shot planning in new domains, we learn a conditional VAE model that generates images given a context describing the domain, and use these hallucinated samples for building the connectivity graph and planning. We show that this simple approach significantly outperform the SOTA VP methods, in terms of both plan interpretability and success rate when using the plan to guide a trajectory-following controller. Interestingly, our method can pick up non-trivial visual properties of objects, such as their geometry, and account for it in the plans.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/liu20h.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/liu20h.htmlExploration Through Reward Biasing: Reward-Biased Maximum Likelihood Estimation for Stochastic Multi-Armed BanditsInspired by the Reward-Biased Maximum Likelihood Estimate method of adaptive control, we propose RBMLE – a novel family of learning algorithms for stochastic multi-armed bandits (SMABs). For a broad range of SMABs including both the parametric Exponential Family as well as the non-parametric sub-Gaussian/Exponential family, we show that RBMLE yields an index policy. To choose the bias-growth rate $\alpha(t)$ in RBMLE, we reveal the nontrivial interplay between $\alpha(t)$ and the regret bound that generally applies in both the Exponential Family as well as the sub-Gaussian/Exponential family bandits. To quantify the finite-time performance, we prove that RBMLE attains order-optimality by adaptively estimating the unknown constants in the expression of $\alpha(t)$ for Gaussian and sub-Gaussian bandits. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed RBMLE achieves empirical regret performance competitive with the state-of-the-art methods, while being more computationally efficient and scalable in comparison to the best-performing ones among them.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/liu20g.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/liu20g.htmlAn Imitation Learning Approach for Cache ReplacementProgram execution speed critically depends on increasing cache hits, as cache hits are orders of magnitude faster than misses. To increase cache hits, we focus on the problem of cache replacement: choosing which cache line to evict upon inserting a new line. This is challenging because it requires planning far ahead and currently there is no known practical solution. As a result, current replacement policies typically resort to heuristics designed for specific common access patterns, which fail on more diverse and complex access patterns. In contrast, we propose an imitation learning approach to automatically learn cache access patterns by leveraging Belady’s, an oracle policy that computes the optimal eviction decision given the future cache accesses. While directly applying Belady’s is infeasible since the future is unknown, we train a policy conditioned only on past accesses that accurately approximates Belady’s even on diverse and complex access patterns, and call this approach Parrot. When evaluated on 13 of the most memory-intensive SPEC applications, Parrot increases cache miss rates by 20% over the current state of the art. In addition, on a large-scale web search benchmark, Parrot increases cache hit rates by 61% over a conventional LRU policy. We release a Gym environment to facilitate research in this area, as data is plentiful, and further advancements can have significant real-world impact.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/liu20f.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/liu20f.htmlPeer Loss Functions: Learning from Noisy Labels without Knowing Noise RatesLearning with noisy labels is a common challenge in supervised learning. Existing approaches often require practitioners to specify noise rates, i.e., a set of parameters controlling the severity of label noises in the problem, and the specifications are either assumed to be given or estimated using additional steps. In this work, we introduce a new family of loss functions that we name as peer loss functions, which enables learning from noisy labels and does not require a priori specification of the noise rates. Peer loss functions work within the standard empirical risk minimization (ERM) framework. We show that, under mild conditions, performing ERM with peer loss functions on the noisy data leads to the optimal or a near-optimal classifier as if performing ERM over the clean training data, which we do not have access to. We pair our results with an extensive set of experiments. Peer loss provides a way to simplify model development when facing potentially noisy training labels, and can be promoted as a robust candidate loss function in such situations.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/liu20e.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/liu20e.htmlSample Complexity Bounds for 1-bit Compressive Sensing and Binary Stable Embeddings with Generative PriorsThe goal of standard 1-bit compressive sensing is to accurately recover an unknown sparse vector from binary-valued measurements, each indicating the sign of a linear function of the vector. Motivated by recent advances in compressive sensing with generative models, where a generative modeling assumption replaces the usual sparsity assumption, we study the problem of 1-bit compressive sensing with generative models. We first consider noiseless 1-bit measurements, and provide sample complexity bounds for approximate recovery under i.i.d. Gaussian measurements and a Lipschitz continuous generative prior, as well as a near-matching algorithm-independent lower bound. Moreover, we demonstrate that the Binary $\epsilon$-Stable Embedding property, which characterizes the robustness of the reconstruction to measurement errors and noise, also holds for 1-bit compressive sensing with Lipschitz continuous generative models with sufficiently many Gaussian measurements. In addition, we apply our results to neural network generative models, and provide a proof-of-concept numerical experiment demonstrating significant improvements over sparsity-based approaches.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/liu20d.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/liu20d.htmlBoosting Deep Neural Network Efficiency with Dual-Module InferenceUsing deep neural networks (DNNs) in machine learning tasks is promising in delivering high-quality results but challenging to meet stringent latency requirements and energy constraints because of the memory-bound and the compute-bound execution pattern of DNNs. We propose a big-little dual-module inference to dynamically skip unnecessary memory accesses and computations to accelerate DNN inference. Leveraging the noise-resilient feature of nonlinear activation functions, we propose to use a lightweight little module that approximates the original DNN layer, termed as the big module, to compute activations of the insensitive region that are more noise-resilient. Hence, the expensive memory accesses and computations of the big module can be reduced as the results are only calculated in the sensitive region. For memory-bound models such as recurrent neural networks (RNNs), our method can reduce the overall memory accesses by 40% on average and achieve 1.54x to 1.75x speedup on a commodity CPU-based server platform with a negligible impact on model quality. In addition, our method can reduce the operations of the compute-bound models such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs) by 3.02x, with only a 0.5% accuracy drop.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/liu20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/liu20c.htmlSparse Shrunk Additive ModelsMost existing feature selection methods in literature are linear models, so that the nonlinear relations between features and response variables are not considered. Meanwhile, in these feature selection models, the interactions between features are often ignored or just discussed under prior structure information. To address these challenging issues, we consider the problem of sparse additive models for high-dimensional nonparametric regression with the allowance of the flexible interactions between features. A new method, called as sparse shrunk additive models (SSAM), is proposed to explore the structure information among features. This method bridges sparse kernel regression and sparse feature selection. Theoretical results on the convergence rate and sparsity characteristics of SSAM are established by the novel analysis techniques with integral operator and concentration estimate. In particular, our algorithm and theoretical analysis only require the component functions to be continuous and bounded, which are not necessary to be in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces. Experiments on both synthetic and real-world data demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/liu20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/liu20b.htmlUnderstanding the Curse of Horizon in Off-Policy Evaluation via Conditional Importance SamplingOff-policy policy estimators that use importance sampling (IS) can suffer from high variance in long-horizon domains, and there has been particular excitement over new IS methods that leverage the structure of Markov decision processes. We analyze the variance of the most popular approaches through the viewpoint of conditional Monte Carlo. Surprisingly, we find that in finite horizon MDPs there is no strict variance reduction of per-decision importance sampling or marginalized importance sampling, comparing with vanilla importance sampling. We then provide sufficient conditions under which the per-decision or marginalized estimators will provably reduce the variance over importance sampling with finite horizons. For the asymptotic (in terms of horizon $T$) case, we develop upper and lower bounds on the variance of those estimators which yields sufficient conditions under which there exists an exponential v.s. polynomial gap between the variance of importance sampling and that of the per-decision or stationary/marginalized estimators. These results help advance our understanding of if and when new types of IS estimators will improve the accuracy of off-policy estimation.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/liu20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/liu20a.htmlTime-aware Large Kernel ConvolutionsTo date, most state-of-the-art sequence modeling architectures use attention to build generative models for language based tasks. Some of these models use all the available sequence tokens to generate an attention distribution which results in time complexity of $O(n^2)$. Alternatively, they utilize depthwise convolutions with softmax normalized kernels of size $k$ acting as a limited-window self-attention, resulting in time complexity of $O(k{\cdot}n)$. In this paper, we introduce Time-aware Large Kernel (TaLK) Convolutions, a novel adaptive convolution operation that learns to predict the size of a summation kernel instead of using a fixed-sized kernel matrix. This method yields a time complexity of $O(n)$, effectively making the sequence encoding process linear to the number of tokens. We evaluate the proposed method on large-scale standard machine translation, abstractive summarization and language modeling datasets and show that TaLK Convolutions constitute an efficient improvement over other attention/convolution based approaches.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lioutas20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lioutas20a.htmlFinite-Time Last-Iterate Convergence for Multi-Agent Learning in GamesIn this paper, we consider multi-agent learning via online gradient descent in a class of games called $\lambda$-cocoercive games, a fairly broad class of games that admits many Nash equilibria and that properly includes unconstrained strongly monotone games. We characterize the finite-time last-iterate convergence rate for joint OGD learning on $\lambda$-cocoercive games; further, building on this result, we develop a fully adaptive OGD learning algorithm that does not require any knowledge of problem parameter (e.g. cocoercive constant $\lambda$) and show, via a novel double-stopping time technique, that this adaptive algorithm achieves same finite-time last-iterate convergence rate as non-adaptive counterpart. Subsequently, we extend OGD learning to the noisy gradient feedback case and establish last-iterate convergence results–first qualitative almost sure convergence, then quantitative finite-time convergence rates– all under non-decreasing step-sizes. To our knowledge, we provide the first set of results that fill in several gaps of the existing multi-agent online learning literature, where three aspects–finite-time convergence rates, non-decreasing step-sizes, and fully adaptive algorithms have been unexplored before.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lin20h.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lin20h.htmlGeneralized and Scalable Optimal Sparse Decision TreesDecision tree optimization is notoriously difficult from a computational perspective but essential for the field of interpretable machine learning. Despite efforts over the past 40 years, only recently have optimization breakthroughs been made that have allowed practical algorithms to find optimal decision trees. These new techniques have the potential to trigger a paradigm shift, where, it is possible to construct sparse decision trees to efficiently optimize a variety of objective functions, without relying on greedy splitting and pruning heuristics that often lead to suboptimal solutions. The contribution in this work is to provide a general framework for decision tree optimization that addresses the two significant open problems in the area: treatment of imbalanced data and fully optimizing over continuous variables. We present techniques that produce optimal decision trees over variety of objectives including F-score, AUC, and partial area under the ROC convex hull. We also introduce a scalable algorithm that produces provably optimal results in the presence of continuous variables and speeds up decision tree construction by several order of magnitude relative to the state-of-the art.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lin20g.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lin20g.htmlImproving Generative Imagination in Object-Centric World ModelsThe remarkable recent advances in object-centric generative world models raise a few questions. First, while many of the recent achievements are indispensable for making a general and versatile world model, it is quite unclear how these ingredients can be integrated into a unified framework. Second, despite using generative objectives, abilities for object detection and tracking are mainly investigated, leaving the crucial ability of temporal imagination largely under question. Third, a few key abilities for more faithful temporal imagination such as multimodal uncertainty and situation-awareness are missing. In this paper, we introduce Generative Structured World Models (G-SWM). The G-SWM achieves the versatile world modeling not only by unifying the key properties of previous models in a principled framework but also by achieving two crucial new abilities, multimodal uncertainty and situation-awareness. Our thorough investigation on the temporal generation ability in comparison to the previous models demonstrates that G-SWM achieves the versatility with the best or comparable performance for all experiment settings including a few complex settings that have not been tested before. https://sites.google.com/view/gswmSat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lin20f.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lin20f.htmlInfoGAN-CR and ModelCentrality: Self-supervised Model Training and Selection for Disentangling GANsDisentangled generative models map a latent code vector to a target space, while enforcing that a subset of the learned latent codes are interpretable and associated with distinct properties of the target distribution. Recent advances have been dominated by Variational AutoEncoder (VAE)-based methods, while training disentangled generative adversarial networks (GANs) remains challenging. In this work, we show that the dominant challenges facing disentangled GANs can be mitigated through the use of self-supervision. We make two main contributions: first, we design a novel approach for training disentangled GANs with self-supervision. We propose contrastive regularizer, which is inspired by a natural notion of disentanglement: latent traversal. This achieves higher disentanglement scores than state-of-the-art VAE- and GAN-based approaches. Second, we propose an unsupervised model selection scheme called ModelCentrality, which uses generated synthetic samples to compute the medoid (multi-dimensional generalization of median) of a collection of models. The current common practice of hyper-parameter tuning requires using ground-truths samples, each labelled with known perfect disentangled latent codes. As real datasets are not equipped with such labels, we propose an unsupervised model selection scheme and show that it finds a model close to the best one, for both VAEs and GANs. Combining contrastive regularization with ModelCentrality, we improve upon the state-of-the-art disentanglement scores significantly, without accessing the supervised data.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lin20e.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lin20e.htmlHandling the Positive-Definite Constraint in the Bayesian Learning RuleThe Bayesian learning rule is a natural-gradient variational inference method, which not only contains many existing learning algorithms as special cases but also enables the design of new algorithms. Unfortunately, when variational parameters lie in an open constraint set, the rule may not satisfy the constraint and requires line-searches which could slow down the algorithm. In this work, we address this issue for positive-definite constraints by proposing an improved rule that naturally handles the constraints. Our modification is obtained by using Riemannian gradient methods, and is valid when the approximation attains a block-coordinate natural parameterization (e.g., Gaussian distributions and their mixtures). Our method outperforms existing methods without any significant increase in computation. Our work makes it easier to apply the rule in the presence of positive-definite constraints in parameter spaces.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lin20d.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lin20d.htmlOn the Theoretical Properties of the Network JackknifeWe study the properties of a leave-node-out jackknife procedure for network data. Under the sparse graphon model, we prove an Efron-Stein-type inequality, showing that the network jackknife leads to conservative estimates of the variance (in expectation) for any network functional that is invariant to node permutation. For a general class of count functionals, we also establish consistency of the network jackknife. We complement our theoretical analysis with a range of simulated and real-data examples and show that the network jackknife offers competitive performance in cases where other resampling methods are known to be valid. In fact, for several network statistics, we see that the jackknife provides more accurate inferences compared to related methods such as subsampling.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lin20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lin20c.htmlExtrapolation for Large-batch Training in Deep LearningDeep learning networks are typically trained by Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) methods that iteratively improve the model parameters by estimating a gradient on a very small fraction of the training data. A major roadblock faced when increasing the batch size to a substantial fraction of the training data for reducing training time is the persistent degradation in performance (generalization gap). To address this issue, recent work propose to add small perturbations to the model parameters when computing the stochastic gradients and report improved generalization performance due to smoothing effects. However, this approach is poorly understood; it requires often model-specific noise and fine-tuning. To alleviate these drawbacks, we propose to use instead computationally efficient extrapolation (extragradient) to stabilize the optimization trajectory while still benefiting from smoothing to avoid sharp minima. This principled approach is well grounded from an optimization perspective and we show that a host of variations can be covered in a unified framework that we propose. We prove the convergence of this novel scheme and rigorously evaluate its empirical performance on ResNet, LSTM, and Transformer. We demonstrate that in a variety of experiments the scheme allows scaling to much larger batch sizes than before whilst reaching or surpassing SOTA accuracy.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lin20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lin20b.htmlOn Gradient Descent Ascent for Nonconvex-Concave Minimax ProblemsWe consider nonconvex-concave minimax problems, $\min_{\mathbf{x}} \max_{\mathbf{y} \in \mathcal{Y}} f(\mathbf{x}, \mathbf{y})$, where $f$ is nonconvex in $\mathbf{x}$ but concave in $\mathbf{y}$ and $\mathcal{Y}$ is a convex and bounded set. One of the most popular algorithms for solving this problem is the celebrated gradient descent ascent (GDA) algorithm, which has been widely used in machine learning, control theory and economics. Despite the extensive convergence results for the convex-concave setting, GDA with equal stepsize can converge to limit cycles or even diverge in a general setting. In this paper, we present the complexity results on two-time-scale GDA for solving nonconvex-concave minimax problems, showing that the algorithm can find a stationary point of the function $\Phi(\cdot) := \max_{\mathbf{y} \in \mathcal{Y}} f(\cdot, \mathbf{y})$ efficiently. To the best our knowledge, this is the first nonasymptotic analysis for two-time-scale GDA in this setting, shedding light on its superior practical performance in training generative adversarial networks (GANs) and other real applications.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lin20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lin20a.htmlHierarchical Verification for Adversarial RobustnessWe introduce a new framework for the exact point-wise ℓp robustness verification problem that exploits the layer-wise geometric structure of deep feed-forward networks with rectified linear activations (ReLU networks). The activation regions of the network partition the input space, and one can verify the ℓp robustness around a point by checking all the activation regions within the desired radius. The GeoCert algorithm (Jordan et al., NeurIPS 2019) treats this partition as a generic polyhedral complex in order to detect which region to check next. In contrast, our LayerCert framework considers the nested hyperplane arrangement structure induced by the layers of the ReLU network and explores regions in a hierarchical manner. We show that, under certain conditions on the algorithm parameters, LayerCert provably reduces the number and size of the convex programs that one needs to solve compared to GeoCert. Furthermore, our LayerCert framework allows the incorporation of lower bounding routines based on convex relaxations to further improve performance. Experimental results demonstrate that LayerCert can significantly reduce both the number of convex programs solved and the running time over the state-of-the-art.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lim20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lim20b.htmlAR-DAE: Towards Unbiased Neural Entropy Gradient EstimationEntropy is ubiquitous in machine learning, but it is in general intractable to compute the entropy of the distribution of an arbitrary continuous random variable. In this paper, we propose the amortized residual denoising autoencoder (AR-DAE) to approximate the gradient of the log density function, which can be used to estimate the gradient of entropy. Amortization allows us to significantly reduce the error of the gradient approximator by approaching asymptotic optimality of a regular DAE, in which case the estimation is in theory unbiased. We conduct theoretical and experimental analyses on the approximation error of the proposed method, as well as extensive studies on heuristics to ensure its robustness. Finally, using the proposed gradient approximator to estimate the gradient of entropy, we demonstrate state-of-the-art performance on density estimation with variational autoencoders and continuous control with soft actor-critic.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lim20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lim20a.htmlAdaptive Droplet Routing in Digital Microfluidic Biochips Using Deep Reinforcement LearningWe present and investigate a novel application domain for deep reinforcement learning (RL): droplet routing on digital microfluidic biochips (DMFBs). A DMFB, composed of a two-dimensional electrode array, manipulates discrete fluid droplets to automatically execute biochemical protocols such as point-of-care clinical diagnosis. However, a major concern associated with the use of DMFBs is that electrodes in a biochip can degrade over time. Droplet-transportation operations associated with the degraded electrodes can fail, thereby compromising the integrity of the bioassay outcome. We show that casting droplet transportation as an RL problem enables the training of deep network policies to capture the underlying health conditions of electrodes and to provide reliable fluidic operations. We propose a new RL-based droplet-routing flow that can be used for various sizes of DMFBs, and demonstrate reliable execution of an epigenetic bioassay with the RL droplet router on a fabricated DMFB. To facilitate further research, we also present a simulation environment based on the OpenAI Gym Interface for RL-guided droplet-routing problems on DMFBs.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/liang20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/liang20c.htmlVariable Skipping for Autoregressive Range Density EstimationDeep autoregressive models compute point likelihood estimates of individual data points. However, many applications (i.e., database cardinality estimation), require estimating range densities, a capability that is under-explored by current neural density estimation literature. In these applications, fast and accurate range density estimates over high-dimensional data directly impact user-perceived performance. In this paper, we explore a technique for accelerating range density estimation over deep autoregressive models. This technique, called variable skipping, exploits the sparse structure of range density queries to avoid sampling unnecessary variables during approximate inference. We show that variable skipping provides 10-100x efficiency improvements when targeting challenging high-quantile error metrics, enables complex applications such as text pattern matching, and can be realized via a simple data augmentation procedure without changing the usual maximum likelihood objective.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/liang20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/liang20b.htmlDo We Really Need to Access the Source Data? Source Hypothesis Transfer for Unsupervised Domain AdaptationUnsupervised domain adaptation (UDA) aims to leverage the knowledge learned from a labeled source dataset to solve similar tasks in a new unlabeled domain. Prior UDA methods typically require to access the source data when learning to adapt the model, making them risky and inefficient for decentralized private data. This work tackles a practical setting where only a trained source model is available and investigates how we can effectively utilize such a model without source data to solve UDA problems. We propose a simple yet generic representation learning framework, named \emph{Source HypOthesis Transfer} (SHOT). SHOT freezes the classifier module (hypothesis) of the source model and learns the target-specific feature extraction module by exploiting both information maximization and self-supervised pseudo-labeling to implicitly align representations from the target domains to the source hypothesis. To verify its versatility, we evaluate SHOT in a variety of adaptation cases including closed-set, partial-set, and open-set domain adaptation. Experiments indicate that SHOT yields state-of-the-art results among multiple domain adaptation benchmarks.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/liang20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/liang20a.htmlOn a projective ensemble approach to two sample test for equality of distributionsIn this work, we propose a robust test for the multivariate two-sample problem through projective ensemble, which is a generalization of the Cramer-von Mises statistic. The proposed test statistic has a simple closed-form expression without any tuning parameters involved, it is easy to implement can be computed in quadratic time. Moreover, our test is insensitive to the dimension and consistent against all fixed alternatives, it does not require the moment assumption and is robust to the presence of outliers. We study the asymptotic behaviors of the test statistic under the null and two kinds of alternative hypotheses. We also suggest a permutation procedure to approximate critical values and employ its consistency. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our test through extensive simulation studies and a real data application.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20s.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20s.htmlRIFLE: Backpropagation in Depth for Deep Transfer Learning through Re-Initializing the Fully-connected LayErFine-tuning the deep convolution neural network (CNN) using a pre-trained model helps transfer knowledge learned from larger datasets to the target task. While the accuracy could be largely improved even when the training dataset is small, the transfer learning outcome is similar with the pre-trained one with closed CNN weights[17], as the backpropagation here brings less updates to deeper CNN layers. In this work, we propose RIFLE - a simple yet effective strategy that deepens backpropagation in transfer learning settings, through periodically ReInitializing the Fully-connected LayEr with random scratch during the fine-tuning procedure. RIFLE brings significant perturbation to the backpropagation process and leads to deep CNN weights update, while the affects of perturbation can be easily converged throughout the overall learning procedure. The experiments show that the use of RIFLE significantly improves deep transfer learning accuracy on a wide range of datasets, outperforming known tricks for the similar purpose, such as dropout, dropconnect, stochastic depth, and cyclic learning rate, under the same settings with 0.5%-2% higher testing accuracy. Empirical cases and ablation studies further indicate RIFLE brings meaningful updates to deep CNN layers with accuracy improved.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20r.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20r.htmlInput-Sparsity Low Rank Approximation in Schatten NormWe give the first input-sparsity time algorithms for the rank-$k$ low rank approximation problem in every Schatten norm. Specifically, for a given $n\times n$ matrix $A$, our algorithm computes $Y,Z\in \R^{n\times k}$, which, with high probability, satisfy $\|A-YZ^T\|_p \leq (1+\eps)\|A-A_k\|_p$, where $\|M\|_p = \left (\sum_{i=1}^n \sigma_i(M)^p \right )^{1/p}$ is the Schatten $p$-norm of a matrix $M$ with singular values $\sigma_1(M), \ldots, \sigma_n(M)$, and where $A_k$ is the best rank-$k$ approximation to $A$. Our algorithm runs in time $\tilde{O}(\nnz(A) + n^{\alpha_p}\poly(k/\eps))$, where $\alpha_p = 1$ for $p\in [1,2)$ and $\alpha_p = 1 + (\omega-1)(1-2/p)$ for $p>2$ and $\omega \approx 2.374$ is the exponent of matrix multiplication. For the important case of $p = 1$, which corresponds to the more “robust” nuclear norm, we obtain $\tilde{O}(\nnz(A) + n \cdot \poly(k/\epsilon))$ time, which was previously only known for the Frobenius norm $(p = 2)$. Moreover, since $\alpha_p < \omega$ for every $p$, our algorithm has a better dependence on $n$ than that in the singular value decomposition for every $p$. Crucial to our analysis is the use of dimensionality reduction for Ky-Fan $p$-norms.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20q.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20q.htmlTemporal Logic Point ProcessesWe propose a modeling framework for event data and aim to answer questions such as \emph{when} and \emph{why} the next event would happen. Our proposed model excels in small data regime with the ability to incorporate domain knowledge in terms of logic rules. We model the dynamics of the event starts and ends via intensity function with the structures informed by a set of first-order temporal logic rules. Using the softened representation of temporal relations, and a weighted combination of logic rules, our probabilistic model can deal with uncertainty in events. Furthermore, many well-known point processes (e.g., Hawkes process, self-correcting point process) can be interpreted as special cases of our model given simple temporal logic rules. Our model, therefore, riches the family of point processes. We derive a maximum likelihood estimation procedure for our model and show that it can lead to accurate predictions when data are sparse and domain knowledge is critical.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20p.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20p.htmlNearly Linear Row Sampling Algorithm for Quantile RegressionWe give a row sampling algorithm for the quantile loss function with sample complexity nearly linear in the dimensionality of the data, improving upon the previous best algorithm whose sampling complexity has at least cubic dependence on the dimensionality. Based upon our row sampling algorithm, we give the fastest known algorithm for quantile regression and a graph sparsification algorithm for balanced directed graphs. Our main technical contribution is to show that Lewis weights sampling, which has been used in row sampling algorithms for $\ell_p$ norms, can also be applied in row sampling algorithms for a variety of loss functions. We complement our theoretical results by experiments to demonstrate the practicality of our approach.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20o.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20o.htmlAlmost Tune-Free Variance ReductionThe variance reduction class of algorithms including the representative ones, SVRG and SARAH, have well documented merits for empirical risk minimization problems. However, they require grid search to tune parameters (step size and the number of iterations per inner loop) for optimal performance. This work introduces ‘almost tune-free’ SVRG and SARAH schemes equipped with i) Barzilai-Borwein (BB) step sizes; ii) averaging; and, iii) the inner loop length adjusted to the BB step sizes. In particular, SVRG, SARAH, and their BB variants are first reexamined through an ‘estimate sequence’ lens to enable new averaging methods that tighten their convergence rates theoretically, and improve their performance empirically when the step size or the inner loop length is chosen large. Then a simple yet effective means to adjust the number of iterations per inner loop is developed to enhance the merits of the proposed averaging schemes and BB step sizes. Numerical tests corroborate the proposed methods.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20n.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20n.htmlTrain Big, Then Compress: Rethinking Model Size for Efficient Training and Inference of TransformersSince hardware resources are limited, the objective of training deep learning models is typically to maximize accuracy subject to the time and memory constraints of training and inference. We study the impact of model size in this setting, focusing on Transformer models for NLP tasks that are limited by compute: self-supervised pretraining and high-resource machine translation. We first show that even though smaller Transformer models execute faster per iteration, wider and deeper models converge in significantly fewer steps. Moreover, this acceleration in convergence typically outpaces the additional computational overhead of using larger models. Therefore, the most compute-efficient training strategy is to counterintuitively train extremely large models but stop after a small number of iterations. This leads to an apparent trade-off between the training efficiency of large Transformer models and the inference efficiency of small Transformer models. However, we show that large models are more robust to compression techniques such as quantization and pruning than small models. Consequently, one can get the best of both worlds: heavily compressed, large models achieve higher accuracy than lightly compressed, small models.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20m.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20m.htmlEvolutionary Topology Search for Tensor Network DecompositionTensor network (TN) decomposition is a promising framework to represent extremely high-dimensional problems with few parameters. However, it is challenging to search the (near-)optimal topological structures for TN decomposition, since the number of candidate solutions exponentially grows with increasing the order of a tensor. In this paper, we claim that the issue can be practically tackled by evolutionary algorithms in an affordable manner. We encode the complex topological structures into binary strings, and develop a simple genetic meta-algorithm to search the optimal topology on Hamming space. The experimental results by both synthetic and real-world data demonstrate that our method can effectively discover the ground-truth topology or even better structures with a small number of generations, and significantly boost the representational power of TN decomposition compared with well-known tensor-train (TT) or tensor-ring (TR) models.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20l.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20l.htmlLearning from Irregularly-Sampled Time Series: A Missing Data PerspectiveIrregularly-sampled time series occur in many domains including healthcare. They can be challenging to model because they do not naturally yield a fixed-dimensional representation as required by many standard machine learning models. In this paper, we consider irregular sampling from the perspective of missing data. We model observed irregularly-sampled time series data as a sequence of index-value pairs sampled from a continuous but unobserved function. We introduce an encoder-decoder framework for learning from such generic indexed sequences. We propose learning methods for this framework based on variational autoencoders and generative adversarial networks. For continuous irregularly-sampled time series, we introduce continuous convolutional layers that can efficiently interface with existing neural network architectures. Experiments show that our models are able to achieve competitive or better classification results on irregularly-sampled multivariate time series compared to recent RNN models while offering significantly faster training times.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20k.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20k.htmlVisual Grounding of Learned Physical ModelsHumans intuitively recognize objects’ physical properties and predict their motion, even when the objects are engaged in complicated interactions. The abilities to perform physical reasoning and to adapt to new environments, while intrinsic to humans, remain challenging to state-of-the-art computational models. In this work, we present a neural model that simultaneously reasons about physics and makes future predictions based on visual and dynamics priors. The visual prior predicts a particle-based representation of the system from visual observations. An inference module operates on those particles, predicting and refining estimates of particle locations, object states, and physical parameters, subject to the constraints imposed by the dynamics prior, which we refer to as visual grounding. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method in environments involving rigid objects, deformable materials, and fluids. Experiments show that our model can infer the physical properties within a few observations, which allows the model to quickly adapt to unseen scenarios and make accurate predictions into the future.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20j.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20j.htmlLatent Space Factorisation and Manipulation via Matrix Subspace ProjectionWe tackle the problem disentangling the latent space of an autoencoder in order to separate labelled attribute information from other characteristic information. This then allows us to change selected attributes while preserving other information. Our method, matrix subspace projection, is much simpler than previous approaches to latent space factorisation, for example not requiring multiple discriminators or a careful weighting among their loss functions. Furthermore our new model can be applied to autoencoders as a plugin, and works across diverse domains such as images or text. We demonstrate the utility of our method for attribute manipulation in autoencoders trained across varied domains, using both human evaluation and automated methods. The quality of generation of our new model (e.g. reconstruction, conditional generation) is highly competitive to a number of strong baselines.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20i.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20i.htmlOn the Relation between Quality-Diversity Evaluation and Distribution-Fitting Goal in Text GenerationThe goal of text generation models is to fit the underlying real probability distribution of text. For performance evaluation, quality and diversity metrics are usually applied. However, it is still not clear to what extend can the quality-diversity evaluation reflect the distribution-fitting goal. In this paper, we try to reveal such relation in a theoretical approach. We prove that under certain conditions, a linear combination of quality and diversity constitutes a divergence metric between the generated distribution and the real distribution. We also show that the commonly used BLEU/Self-BLEU metric pair fails to match any divergence metric, thus propose CR/NRR as a substitute for quality/diversity metric pair.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20h.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20h.htmlAcceleration for Compressed Gradient Descent in Distributed and Federated OptimizationDue to the high communication cost in distributed and federated learning problems, methods relying on compression of communicated messages are becoming increasingly popular. While in other contexts the best performing gradient-type methods invariably rely on some form of acceleration/momentum to reduce the number of iterations, there are no methods which combine the benefits of both gradient compression and acceleration. In this paper, we remedy this situation and propose the first \emph{accelerated compressed gradient descent (ACGD)} methods. In the single machine regime, we prove that ACGD enjoys the rate $O\Big((1+\omega)\sqrt{\frac{L}{\mu}}\log \frac{1}{\epsilon}\Big)$ for $\mu$-strongly convex problems and $O\Big((1+\omega)\sqrt{\frac{L}{\epsilon}}\Big)$ for convex problems, respectively, where $\omega$ is the compression parameter. Our results improve upon the existing non-accelerated rates $O\Big((1+\omega)\frac{L}{\mu}\log \frac{1}{\epsilon}\Big)$ and $O\Big((1+\omega)\frac{L}{\epsilon}\Big)$, respectively, and recover the optimal rates of accelerated gradient descent as a special case when no compression ($\omega=0$) is applied. We further propose a distributed variant of ACGD (called ADIANA) and prove the convergence rate $\widetilde{O}\Big(\omega+\sqrt{\frac{L}{\mu}}+\sqrt{\big(\frac{\omega}{n}+\sqrt{\frac{\omega}{n}}\big)\frac{\omega L}{\mu}}\Big)$, where $n$ is the number of devices/workers and $\widetilde{O}$ hides the logarithmic factor $\log \frac{1}{\epsilon}$. This improves upon the previous best result $\widetilde{O}\Big(\omega + \frac{L}{\mu}+\frac{\omega L}{n\mu} \Big)$ achieved by the DIANA method of Mishchenko et al. (2019). Finally, we conduct several experiments on real-world datasets which corroborate our theoretical results and confirm the practical superiority of our accelerated methods.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20g.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20g.htmlClosed Loop Neural-Symbolic Learning via Integrating Neural Perception, Grammar Parsing, and Symbolic ReasoningThe goal of neural-symbolic computation is to integrate the connectionist and symbolist paradigms. Prior methods learn the neural-symbolic models using reinforcement learning (RL) approaches, which ignore the error propagation in the symbolic reasoning module and thus converge slowly with sparse rewards. In this paper, we address these issues and close the loop of neural-symbolic learning by (1) introducing the grammar model as a symbolic prior to bridge neural perception and symbolic reasoning, and (2) proposing a novel back-search algorithm which mimics the top-down human-like learning procedure to propagate the error through the symbolic reasoning module efficiently. We further interpret the proposed learning framework as maximum likelihood estimation using Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling and the back-search algorithm as a Metropolis-Hastings sampler. The experiments are conducted on two weakly-supervised neural-symbolic tasks: (1) handwritten formula recognition on the newly introduced HWF dataset; (2) visual question answering on the CLEVR dataset. The results show that our approach significantly outperforms the RL methods in terms of performance, converging speed, and data efficiency. Our code and data are released at https://liqing-ustc.github.io/NGS.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20f.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20f.htmlImplicit Euler Skip Connections: Enhancing Adversarial Robustness via Numerical StabilityDeep neural networks have achieved great success in various areas, but recent works have found that neural networks are vulnerable to adversarial attacks, which leads to a hot topic nowadays. Although many approaches have been proposed to enhance the robustness of neural networks, few of them explored robust architectures for neural networks. On this account, we try to address such an issue from the perspective of dynamic system in this work. By viewing ResNet as an explicit Euler discretization of an ordinary differential equation (ODE), for the first time, we find that the adversarial robustness of ResNet is connected to the numerical stability of the corresponding dynamic system, i.e., more stable numerical schemes may correspond to more robust deep networks. Furthermore, inspired by the implicit Euler method for solving numerical ODE problems, we propose Implicit Euler skip connections (IE-Skips) by modifying the original skip connection in ResNet or its variants. Then we theoretically prove its advantages under the adversarial attack and the experimental results show that our ResNet with IE-Skips can largely improve the robustness and the generalization ability under adversarial attacks when compared with the vanilla ResNet of the same parameter size.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20e.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20e.htmlPENNI: Pruned Kernel Sharing for Efficient CNN InferenceAlthough state-of-the-art (SOTA) CNNs achieve outstanding performance on various tasks, their high computation demand and massive number of parameters make it difficult to deploy these SOTA CNNs onto resource-constrained devices. Previous works on CNN acceleration utilize low-rank approximation of the original convolution layers to reduce computation cost. However, these methods are very difficult to conduct upon sparse models, which limits execution speedup since redundancies within the CNN model are not fully exploited. We argue that kernel granularity decomposition can be conducted with low-rank assumption while exploiting the redundancy within the remaining compact coefficients. Based on this observation, we propose PENNI, a CNN model compression framework that is able to achieve model compactness and hardware efficiency simultaneously by (1) implementing kernel sharing in convolution layers via a small number of basis kernels and (2) alternately adjusting bases and coefficients with sparse constraints. Experiments show that we can prune 97% parameters and 92% FLOPs on ResNet18 CIFAR10 with no accuracy loss, and achieve a 44% reduction in run-time memory consumption and a 53% reduction in inference latency.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20d.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20d.htmlNeural Architecture Search in A Proxy Validation Loss LandscapeThis paper searches for the optimal neural architecture by minimizing a proxy of validation loss. Existing neural architecture search (NAS) methods used to discover the optimal neural architecture that best fits the validation examples given the up-to-date network weights. However, back propagation with a number of validation examples could be time consuming, especially when it needs to be repeated many times in NAS. Though these intermediate validation results are invaluable, they would be wasted if we cannot use them to predict the future from the past. In this paper, we propose to approximate the validation loss landscape by learning a mapping from neural architectures to their corresponding validate losses. The optimal neural architecture thus can be easily identified as the minimum of this proxy validation loss landscape. A novel sampling strategy is further developed for an efficient approximation of the loss landscape. Theoretical analysis indicates that the validation loss estimator learnt with our sampling strategy can reach a lower error rate and a lower label complexity compared with a uniform sampling. Experimental results on benchmarks demonstrate that the architecture searched by the proposed algorithm can achieve a satisfactory accuracy with less time cost.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20c.htmlManifold Identification for Ultimately Communication-Efficient Distributed OptimizationThis work proposes a progressive manifold identification approach for distributed optimization with sound theoretical justifications to greatly reduce both the rounds of communication and the bytes communicated per round for partly-smooth regularized problems such as the $\ell_1$- and group-LASSO-regularized ones. Our two-stage method first uses an inexact proximal quasi-Newton method to iteratively identify a sequence of low-dimensional manifolds in which the final solution would lie, and restricts the model update within the current manifold to gradually lower the order of the per-round communication cost from the problem dimension to the dimension of the manifold that contains a solution and makes the problem within it smooth. After identifying this manifold, we take superlinear-convergent truncated semismooth Newton steps computed by preconditioned conjugate gradient to largely reduce the communication rounds by improving the convergence rate from the existing linear or sublinear ones to a superlinear rate. Experiments show that our method can be orders of magnitudes lower in the communication cost and an order of magnitude faster in the running time than the state of the art.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20b.htmlACFlow: Flow Models for Arbitrary Conditional LikelihoodsUnderstanding the dependencies among features of a dataset is at the core of most unsupervised learning tasks. However, a majority of generative modeling approaches are focused solely on the joint distribution $p(x)$ and utilize models where it is intractable to obtain the conditional distribution of some arbitrary subset of features $x_u$ given the rest of the observed covariates $x_o$: $p(x_u \mid x_o)$. Traditional conditional approaches provide a model for a \emph{fixed} set of covariates conditioned on another \emph{fixed} set of observed covariates. Instead, in this work we develop a model that is capable of yielding \emph{all} conditional distributions $p(x_u \mid x_o)$ (for arbitrary $x_u$) via tractable conditional likelihoods. We propose a novel extension of (change of variables based) flow generative models, arbitrary conditioning flow models (ACFlow). ACFlow can be conditioned on arbitrary subsets of observed covariates, which was previously infeasible. We further extend ACFlow to model the joint distributions $p(x)$ and arbitrary marginal distributions $p(x_u)$. We also apply ACFlow to the imputation of features, and develop a unified platform for both multiple and single imputation by introducing an auxiliary objective that provides a principled single “best guess” for flow models. Extensive empirical evaluations show that our model achieves state-of-the-art performance in modeling arbitrary conditional likelihoods in addition to both single and multiple imputation in synthetic and real-world datasets.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20a.htmlLearning Quadratic Games on NetworksIndividuals, or organizations, cooperate with or compete against one another in a wide range of practical situations. Such strategic interactions are often modeled as games played on networks, where an individual’s payoff depends not only on her action but also on that of her neighbors. The current literature has largely focused on analyzing the characteristics of network games in the scenario where the structure of the network, which is represented by a graph, is known beforehand. It is often the case, however, that the actions of the players are readily observable while the underlying interaction network remains hidden. In this paper, we propose two novel frameworks for learning, from the observations on individual actions, network games with linear-quadratic payoffs, and in particular, the structure of the interaction network. Our frameworks are based on the Nash equilibrium of such games and involve solving a joint optimization problem for the graph structure and the individual marginal benefits. Both synthetic and real-world experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed frameworks, which have theoretical as well as practical implications for understanding strategic interactions in a network environment.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/leng20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/leng20a.htmlFine-Grained Analysis of Stability and Generalization for Stochastic Gradient DescentRecently there are a considerable amount of work devoted to the study of the algorithmic stability and generalization for stochastic gradient descent (SGD). However, the existing stability analysis requires to impose restrictive assumptions on the boundedness of gradients, smoothness and convexity of loss functions. In this paper, we provide a fine-grained analysis of stability and generalization for SGD by substantially relaxing these assumptions. Firstly, we establish stability and generalization for SGD by removing the existing bounded gradient assumptions. The key idea is the introduction of a new stability measure called on-average model stability, for which we develop novel bounds controlled by the risks of SGD iterates. This yields generalization bounds depending on the behavior of the best model, and leads to the first-ever-known fast bounds in the low-noise setting using stability approach. Secondly, the smoothness assumption is relaxed by considering loss functions with Holder continuous (sub)gradients for which we show that optimal bounds are still achieved by balancing computation and stability. To our best knowledge, this gives the first-ever-known stability and generalization bounds for SGD with non-smooth loss functions (e.g., hinge loss). Finally, we study learning problems with (strongly) convex objectives but non-convex loss functions.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lei20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lei20c.htmlSGD Learns One-Layer Networks in WGANsGenerative adversarial networks (GANs) are a widely used framework for learning generative models. Wasserstein GANs (WGANs), one of the most successful variants of GANs, require solving a minmax optimization problem to global optimality, but are in practice successfully trained using stochastic gradient descent-ascent. In this paper, we show that, when the generator is a one-layer network, stochastic gradient descent-ascent converges to a global solution with polynomial time and sample complexity.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lei20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lei20b.htmlAnalytic Marching: An Analytic Meshing Solution from Deep Implicit Surface NetworksThis paper studies a problem of learning surface mesh via implicit functions in an emerging field of deep learning surface reconstruction, where implicit functions are popularly implemented as multi-layer perceptrons (MLPs) with rectified linear units (ReLU). To achieve meshing from the learned implicit functions, existing methods adopt the de-facto standard algorithm of marching cubes; while promising, they suffer from loss of precision learned in the MLPs, due to the discretization nature of marching cubes. Motivated by the knowledge that a ReLU based MLP partitions its input space into a number of linear regions, we identify from these regions analytic cells and faces that are associated with zero-level isosurface of the implicit function, and characterize the conditions under which the identified faces are guaranteed to connect and form a closed, piecewise planar surface. We propose a naturally parallelizable algorithm of analytic marching to exactly recover the mesh captured by a learned MLP. Experiments on deep learning mesh reconstruction verify the advantages of our algorithm over existing ones.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lei20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lei20a.htmlTensor denoising and completion based on ordinal observationsHigher-order tensors arise frequently in applications such as neuroimaging, recommendation system, and social network analysis. We consider the problem of low-rank tensor estimation from possibly incomplete, ordinal-valued observations. Two related problems are studied, one on tensor denoising and another on tensor completion. We propose a multi-linear cumulative link model, develop a rank-constrained M-estimator, and obtain theoretical accuracy guarantees. Our mean squared error bound enjoys a faster convergence rate than previous results, and we show that the proposed estimator is minimax optimal under the class of low-rank models. Furthermore, the procedure developed serves as an efficient completion method which guarantees consistent recovery of an order-K (d,...,d)-dimensional low-rank tensor using only O(Kd) noisy, quantized observations. We demonstrate the outperformance of our approach over previous methods on the tasks of clustering and collaborative filtering.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lee20i.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lee20i.htmlTemporal Phenotyping using Deep Predictive Clustering of Disease ProgressionDue to the wider availability of modern electronic health records, patient care data is often being stored in the form of time-series. Clustering such time-series data is crucial for patient phenotyping, anticipating patients’ prognoses by identifying “similar” patients, and designing treatment guidelines that are tailored to homogeneous patient subgroups. In this paper, we develop a deep learning approach for clustering time-series data, where each cluster comprises patients who share similar future outcomes of interest (e.g., adverse events, the onset of comorbidities). To encourage each cluster to have homogeneous future outcomes, the clustering is carried out by learning discrete representations that best describe the future outcome distribution based on novel loss functions. Experiments on two real-world datasets show that our model achieves superior clustering performance over state-of-the-art benchmarks and identifies meaningful clusters that can be translated into actionable information for clinical decision-making.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lee20h.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lee20h.htmlContext-aware Dynamics Model for Generalization in Model-Based Reinforcement LearningModel-based reinforcement learning (RL) enjoys several benefits, such as data-efficiency and planning, by learning a model of the environment’s dynamics. However, learning a global model that can generalize across different dynamics remains a challenge. To tackle this problem, we decompose the task of learning a global dynamics model into two stages: (a) learning a context latent vector that captures the local dynamics, then (b) predicting the next state conditioned on it. In order to encode dynamics-specific information into the context latent vector, we introduce a novel loss function that encourages the context latent vector to be useful for predicting both forward and backward dynamics. The proposed method achieves superior generalization ability across various simulated robotics and control tasks, compared to existing RL schemes.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lee20g.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lee20g.htmlLearning Compound Tasks without Task-specific Knowledge via Imitation and Self-supervised LearningMost real-world tasks are compound tasks that consist of multiple simpler sub-tasks. The main challenge of learning compound tasks is that we have no explicit supervision to learn the hierarchical structure of compound tasks. To address this challenge, previous imitation learning methods exploit task-specific knowledge, e.g., labeling demonstrations manually or specifying termination conditions for each sub-task. However, the need for task-specific knowledge makes it difficult to scale imitation learning to real-world tasks. In this paper, we propose an imitation learning method that can learn compound tasks without task-specific knowledge. The key idea behind our method is to leverage a self-supervised learning framework to learn the hierarchical structure of compound tasks. Our work also proposes a task-agnostic regularization technique to prevent unstable switching between sub-tasks, which has been a common degenerate case in previous works. We evaluate our method against several baselines on compound tasks. The results show that our method achieves state-of-the-art performance on compound tasks, outperforming prior imitation learning methods.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lee20f.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lee20f.htmlAccelerated Message Passing for Entropy-Regularized MAP InferenceMaximum a posteriori (MAP) inference in discrete-valued Markov random fields is a fundamental problem in machine learning that involves identifying the most likely configuration of random variables given a distribution. Due to the difficulty of this combinatorial problem, linear programming (LP) relaxations are commonly used to derive specialized message passing algorithms that are often interpreted as coordinate descent on the dual LP. To achieve more desirable computational properties, a number of methods regularize the LP with an entropy term, leading to a class of smooth message passing algorithms with convergence guarantees. In this paper, we present randomized methods for accelerating these algorithms by leveraging techniques that underlie classical accelerated gradient methods. The proposed algorithms incorporate the familiar steps of standard smooth message passing algorithms, which can be viewed as coordinate minimization steps. We show that these accelerated variants achieve faster rates for finding $\epsilon$-optimal points of the unregularized problem, and, when the LP is tight, we prove that the proposed algorithms recover the true MAP solution in fewer iterations than standard message passing algorithms.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lee20e.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lee20e.htmlBatch Reinforcement Learning with Hyperparameter GradientsWe consider the batch reinforcement learning problem where the agent needs to learn only from a fixed batch of data, without further interaction with the environment. In such a scenario, we want to prevent the optimized policy from deviating too much from the data collection policy since the estimation becomes highly unstable otherwise due to the off-policy nature of the problem. However, imposing this requirement too strongly will result in a policy that merely follows the data collection policy. Unlike prior work where this trade-off is controlled by hand-tuned hyperparameters, we propose a novel batch reinforcement learning approach, batch optimization of policy and hyperparameter (BOPAH), that uses a gradient-based optimization of the hyperparameter using held-out data. We show that BOPAH outperforms other batch reinforcement learning algorithms in tabular and continuous control tasks, by finding a good balance to the trade-off between adhering to the data collection policy and pursuing the possible policy improvement.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lee20d.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lee20d.htmlSelf-supervised Label Augmentation via Input TransformationsSelf-supervised learning, which learns by constructing artificial labels given only the input signals, has recently gained considerable attention for learning representations with unlabeled datasets, i.e., learning without any human-annotated supervision. In this paper, we show that such a technique can be used to significantly improve the model accuracy even under fully-labeled datasets. Our scheme trains the model to learn both original and self-supervised tasks, but is different from conventional multi-task learning frameworks that optimize the summation of their corresponding losses. Our main idea is to learn a single unified task with respect to the joint distribution of the original and self-supervised labels, i.e., we augment original labels via self-supervision. This simple, yet effective approach allows to train models easier by relaxing a certain invariant constraint during learning the original and self-supervised tasks simultaneously. It also enables an aggregated inference which combines the predictions from different augmentations to improve the prediction accuracy. Furthermore, we propose a novel knowledge transfer technique, which we refer to as self-distillation, that has the effect of the aggregated inference in a single (faster) inference. We demonstrate the large accuracy improvement and wide applicability of our framework on various fully-supervised settings, e.g., the few-shot and imbalanced classification scenarios.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lee20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lee20c.htmlEstimating Model Uncertainty of Neural Networks in Sparse Information FormWe present a sparse representation of model uncertainty for Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) where the parameter posterior is approximated with an inverse formulation of the Multivariate Normal Distribution (MND), also known as the information form. The key insight of our work is that the information matrix, i.e. the inverse of the covariance matrix tends to be sparse in its spectrum. Therefore, dimensionality reduction techniques such as low rank approximations (LRA) can be effectively exploited. To achieve this, we develop a novel sparsification algorithm and derive a cost-effective analytical sampler. As a result, we show that the information form can be scalably applied to represent model uncertainty in DNNs. Our exhaustive theoretical analysis and empirical evaluations on various benchmarks show the competitiveness of our approach over the current methods.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lee20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lee20b.htmlCausal Effect Identifiability under Partial-ObservabilityCausal effect identifiability is concerned with establishing the effect of intervening on a set of variables on another set of variables from observational or interventional distributions under causal assumptions that are usually encoded in the form of a causal graph. Most of the results of this literature implicitly assume that every variable modeled in the graph is measured in the available distributions. In practice, however, the data collections of the different studies considered do not measure the same variables, consistently. In this paper, we study the causal effect identifiability problem when the available distributions encompass different sets of variables, which we refer to as identification under partial-observability. We study a number of properties of the factors that comprise a causal effect under various levels of abstraction, and then characterize the relationship between them with respect to their status relative to the identification of a targeted intervention. We establish a sufficient graphical criterion for determining whether the effects are identifiable from partially-observed distributions. Finally, building on these graphical properties, we develop an algorithm that returns a formula for a causal effect in terms of the available distributions.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lee20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lee20a.htmlSelf-Attentive Associative MemoryHeretofore, neural networks with external memory are restricted to single memory with lossy representations of memory interactions. A rich representation of relationships between memory pieces urges a high-order and segregated relational memory. In this paper, we propose to separate the storage of individual experiences (item memory) and their occurring relationships (relational memory). The idea is implemented through a novel Self-attentive Associative Memory (SAM) operator. Found upon outer product, SAM forms a set of associative memories that represent the hypothetical high-order relationships between arbitrary pairs of memory elements, through which a relational memory is constructed from an item memory. The two memories are wired into a single sequential model capable of both memorization and relational reasoning. We achieve competitive results with our proposed two-memory model in a diversity of machine learning tasks, from challenging synthetic problems to practical testbeds such as geometry, graph, reinforcement learning, and question answering.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/le20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/le20b.htmlInertial Block Proximal Methods for Non-Convex Non-Smooth OptimizationWe propose inertial versions of block coordinate descent methods for solving non-convex non-smooth composite optimization problems. Our methods possess three main advantages compared to current state-of-the-art accelerated first-order methods: (1) they allow using two different extrapolation points to evaluate the gradients and to add the inertial force (we will empirically show that it is more efficient than using a single extrapolation point), (2) they allow to randomly select the block of variables to update, and (3) they do not require a restarting step. We prove the subsequential convergence of the generated sequence under mild assumptions, prove the global convergence under some additional assumptions, and provide convergence rates. We deploy the proposed methods to solve non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) and show that they compete favorably with the state-of-the-art NMF algorithms. Additional experiments on non-negative approximate canonical polyadic decomposition, also known as nonnegative tensor factorization, are also provided.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/le20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/le20a.htmlLearning with Good Feature Representations in Bandits and in RL with a Generative ModelThe construction in the recent paper by Du et al. [2019] implies that searching for a near-optimal action in a bandit sometimes requires examining essentially all the actions, even if the learner is given linear features in R^d that approximate the rewards with a small uniform error. We use the Kiefer-Wolfowitz theorem to prove a positive result that by checking only a few actions, a learner can always find an action that is suboptimal with an error of at most O($\epsilon$$\sqrt{}$d) where $\epsilon$ is the approximation error of the features. Thus, features are useful when the approximation error is small relative to the dimensionality of the features. The idea is applied to stochastic bandits and reinforcement learning with a generative model where the learner has access to d-dimensional linear features that approximate the action-value functions for all policies to an accuracy of $\epsilon$. For linear bandits, we prove a bound on the regret of order d$\sqrt{}$(n log(k)) + $\epsilon$n$\sqrt{}$d log(n) with k the number of actions and n the horizon. For RL we show that approximate policy iteration can learn a policy that is optimal up to an additive error of order $\epsilon$$\sqrt{}$d/(1 − $\gamma$)^2 and using about d/($\epsilon$^2(1 − $\gamma$)^4) samples from the generative model. These bounds are independent of the finer details of the features. We also investigate how the structure of the feature set impacts the tradeoff between sample complexity and estimation error.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lattimore20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lattimore20a.htmlEfficient Proximal Mapping of the 1-path-norm of Shallow NetworksWe demonstrate two new important properties of the 1-path-norm of shallow neural networks. First, despite its non-smoothness and non-convexity it allows a closed form proximal operator which can be efficiently computed, allowing the use of stochastic proximal-gradient-type methods for regularized empirical risk minimization. Second, when the activation functions is differentiable, it provides an upper bound on the Lipschitz constant of the network. Such bound is tighter than the trivial layer-wise product of Lipschitz constants, motivating its use for training networks robust to adversarial perturbations. In practical experiments we illustrate the advantages of using the proximal mapping and we compare the robustness-accuracy trade-off induced by the 1-path-norm, L1-norm and layer-wise constraints on the Lipschitz constant (Parseval networks).Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/latorre20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/latorre20a.htmlCURL: Contrastive Unsupervised Representations for Reinforcement LearningWe present CURL: Contrastive Unsupervised Representations for Reinforcement Learning. CURL extracts high-level features from raw pixels using contrastive learning and performs off-policy control on top of the extracted features. CURL outperforms prior pixel-based methods, both model-based and model-free, on complex tasks in the DeepMind Control Suite and Atari Games showing 1.9x and 1.2x performance gains at the 100K environment and interaction steps benchmarks respectively. On the DeepMind Control Suite, CURL is the first image-based algorithm to nearly match the sample-efficiency of methods that use state-based features. Our code is open-sourced and available at https://www.github.com/MishaLaskin/curl.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/laskin20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/laskin20a.htmlRobust and Stable Black Box ExplanationsAs machine learning black boxes are increasingly being deployed in real-world applications, there has been a growing interest in developing post hoc explanations that summarize the behaviors of these black boxes. However, existing algorithms for generating such explanations have been shown to lack stability and robustness to distribution shifts. We propose a novel framework for generating robust and stable explanations of black box models based on adversarial training. Our framework optimizes a minimax objective that aims to construct the highest fidelity explanation with respect to the worst-case over a set of adversarial perturbations. We instantiate this algorithm for explanations in the form of linear models and decision sets by devising the required optimization procedures. To the best of our knowledge, this work makes the first attempt at generating post hoc explanations that are robust to a general class of adversarial perturbations that are of practical interest. Experimental evaluation with real-world and synthetic datasets demonstrates that our approach substantially improves robustness of explanations without sacrificing their fidelity on the original data distribution.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lakkaraju20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lakkaraju20a.htmlBidirectional Model-based Policy OptimizationModel-based reinforcement learning approaches leverage a forward dynamics model to support planning and decision making, which, however, may fail catastrophically if the model is inaccurate. Although there are several existing methods dedicated to combating the model error, the potential of the single forward model is still limited. In this paper, we propose to additionally construct a backward dynamics model to reduce the reliance on accuracy in forward model predictions. We develop a novel method, called Bidirectional Model-based Policy Optimization (BMPO) to utilize both the forward model and backward model to generate short branched rollouts for policy optimization. Furthermore, we theoretically derive a tighter bound of return discrepancy, which shows the superiority of BMPO against the one using merely the forward model. Extensive experiments demonstrate that BMPO outperforms state-of-the-art model-based methods in terms of sample efficiency and asymptotic performance.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lai20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lai20b.htmlRecht-Re Noncommutative Arithmetic-Geometric Mean Conjecture is FalseStochastic optimization algorithms have become indispensable in modern machine learning. An unresolved foundational question in this area is the difference between with-replacement sampling and without-replacement sampling — does the latter have superior convergence rate compared to the former? A groundbreaking result of Recht and Ré reduces the problem to a noncommutative analogue of the arithmetic-geometric mean inequality where $n$ positive numbers are replaced by $n$ positive definite matrices. If this inequality holds for all $n$, then without-replacement sampling (also known as random reshuffling) indeed outperforms with-replacement sampling in some important optimization problems. The conjectured Recht–Ré inequality has so far only been established for $n = 2$ and a special case of $n = 3$. We will show that the Recht–Ré conjecture is false for general $n$. Our approach relies on the noncommutative Positivstellensatz, which allows us to reduce the conjectured inequality to a semidefinite program and the validity of the conjecture to certain bounds for the optimum values, which we show are false as soon as $n = 5$.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lai20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lai20a.htmlDuality in RKHSs with Infinite Dimensional Outputs: Application to Robust LossesOperator-Valued Kernels (OVKs) and associated vector-valued Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces provide an elegant way to extend scalar kernel methods when the output space is a Hilbert space. Although primarily used in finite dimension for problems like multi-task regression, the ability of this framework to deal with infinite dimensional output spaces unlocks many more applications, such as functional regression, structured output prediction, and structured data representation. However, these sophisticated schemes crucially rely on the kernel trick in the output space, so that most of previous works have focused on the square norm loss function, completely neglecting robustness issues that may arise in such surrogate problems. To overcome this limitation, this paper develops a duality approach that allows to solve OVK machines for a wide range of loss functions. The infinite dimensional Lagrange multipliers are handled through a Double Representer Theorem, and algorithms for \epsilon-insensitive losses and the Huber loss are thoroughly detailed. Robustness benefits are emphasized by a theoretical stability analysis, as well as empirical improvements on structured data applications.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/laforgue20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/laforgue20a.htmlOptimal Randomized First-Order Methods for Least-Squares ProblemsWe provide an exact analysis of a class of randomized algorithms for solving overdetermined least-squares problems. We consider first-order methods, where the gradients are pre-conditioned by an approximation of the Hessian, based on a subspace embedding of the data matrix. This class of algorithms encompasses several randomized methods among the fastest solvers for least-squares problems. We focus on two classical embeddings, namely, Gaussian projections and subsampled randomized Hadamard transforms (SRHT). Our key technical innovation is the derivation of the limiting spectral density of SRHT embeddings. Leveraging this novel result, we derive the family of normalized orthogonal polynomials of the SRHT density and we find the optimal pre-conditioned first-order method along with its rate of convergence. Our analysis of Gaussian embeddings proceeds similarly, and leverages classical random matrix theory results. In particular, we show that for a given sketch size, SRHT embeddings exhibits a faster rate of convergence than Gaussian embeddings. Then, we propose a new algorithm by optimizing the computational complexity over the choice of the sketching dimension. To our knowledge, our resulting algorithm yields the best known complexity for solving least-squares problems with no condition number dependence.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lacotte20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/lacotte20a.htmlConcentration bounds for CVaR estimation: The cases of light-tailed and heavy-tailed distributionsConditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR) is a widely used risk metric in applications such as finance. We derive concentration bounds for CVaR estimates, considering separately the cases of sub-Gaussian, light-tailed and heavy-tailed distributions. For the sub-Gaussian and light-tailed cases, we use a classical CVaR estimator based on the empirical distribution constructed from the samples. For heavy-tailed random variables, we assume a mild ‘bounded moment’ condition, and derive a concentration bound for a truncation-based estimator. Our concentration bounds exhibit exponential decay in the sample size, and are tighter than those available in the literature for the above distribution classes. To demonstrate the applicability of our concentration results, we consider the CVaR optimization problem in a multi-armed bandit setting. Specifically, we address the best CVaR-arm identification problem under a fixed budget. Using our CVaR concentration results, we derive an upper-bound on the probability of incorrect arm identification.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/l-a-20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/l-a-20a.htmlPrincipled learning method for Wasserstein distributionally robust optimization with local perturbationsWasserstein distributionally robust optimization (WDRO) attempts to learn a model that minimizes the local worst-case risk in the vicinity of the empirical data distribution defined by Wasserstein ball. While WDRO has received attention as a promising tool for inference since its introduction, its theoretical understanding has not been fully matured. Gao et al. (2017) proposed a minimizer based on a tractable approximation of the local worst-case risk, but without showing risk consistency. In this paper, we propose a minimizer based on a novel approximation theorem and provide the corresponding risk consistency results. Furthermore, we develop WDRO inference for locally perturbed data that include the Mixup (Zhang et al., 2017) as a special case. We show that our approximation and risk consistency results naturally extend to the cases when data are locally perturbed. Numerical experiments demonstrate robustness of the proposed method using image classification datasets. Our results show that the proposed method achieves significantly higher accuracy than baseline models on noisy datasets.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kwon20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kwon20a.htmlControlling Overestimation Bias with Truncated Mixture of Continuous Distributional Quantile CriticsThe overestimation bias is one of the major impediments to accurate off-policy learning. This paper investigates a novel way to alleviate the overestimation bias in a continuous control setting. Our method—Truncated Quantile Critics, TQC,—blends three ideas: distributional representation of a critic, truncation of critics prediction, and ensembling of multiple critics. Distributional representation and truncation allow for arbitrary granular overestimation control, while ensembling provides additional score improvements. TQC outperforms the current state of the art on all environments from the continuous control benchmark suite, demonstrating 25% improvement on the most challenging Humanoid environment.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kuznetsov20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kuznetsov20a.htmlSoft Threshold Weight Reparameterization for Learnable SparsitySparsity in Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) is studied extensively with the focus of maximizing prediction accuracy given an overall parameter budget. Existing methods rely on uniform or heuristic non-uniform sparsity budgets which have sub-optimal layer-wise parameter allocation resulting in a) lower prediction accuracy or b) higher inference cost (FLOPs). This work proposes Soft Threshold Reparameterization (STR), a novel use of the soft-threshold operator on DNN weights. STR smoothly induces sparsity while learning pruning thresholds thereby obtaining a non-uniform sparsity budget. Our method achieves state-of-the-art accuracy for unstructured sparsity in CNNs (ResNet50 and MobileNetV1 on ImageNet-1K), and, additionally, learns non-uniform budgets that empirically reduce the FLOPs by up to 50%. Notably, STR boosts the accuracy over existing results by up to 10% in the ultra sparse (99%) regime and can also be used to induce low-rank (structured sparsity) in RNNs. In short, STR is a simple mechanism which learns effective sparsity budgets that contrast with popular heuristics. Code, pretrained models and sparsity budgets are at https://github.com/RAIVNLab/STR.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kusupati20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kusupati20a.htmlInducing and Exploiting Activation Sparsity for Fast Inference on Deep Neural NetworksOptimizing convolutional neural networks for fast inference has recently become an extremely active area of research. One of the go-to solutions in this context is weight pruning, which aims to reduce computational and memory footprint by removing large subsets of the connections in a neural network. Surprisingly, much less attention has been given to exploiting sparsity in the activation maps, which tend to be naturally sparse in many settings thanks to the structure of rectified linear (ReLU) activation functions. In this paper, we present an in-depth analysis of methods for maximizing the sparsity of the activations in a trained neural network, and show that, when coupled with an efficient sparse-input convolution algorithm, we can leverage this sparsity for significant performance gains. To induce highly sparse activation maps without accuracy loss, we introduce a new regularization technique, coupled with a new threshold-based sparsification method based on a parameterized activation function called Forced-Activation-Threshold Rectified Linear Unit (FATReLU). We examine the impact of our methods on popular image classification models, showing that most architectures can adapt to significantly sparser activation maps without any accuracy loss. Our second contribution is showing that these these compression gains can be translated into inference speedups: we provide a new algorithm to enable fast convolution operations over networks with sparse activations, and show that it can enable significant speedups for end-to-end inference on a range of popular models on the large-scale ImageNet image classification task on modern Intel CPUs, with little or no retraining cost.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kurtz20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kurtz20a.htmlOnline Dense Subgraph Discovery via Blurred-Graph FeedbackDense subgraph discovery aims to find a dense component in edge-weighted graphs. This is a fundamental graph-mining task with a variety of applications and thus has received much attention recently. Although most existing methods assume that each individual edge weight is easily obtained, such an assumption is not necessarily valid in practice. In this paper, we introduce a novel learning problem for dense subgraph discovery in which a learner queries edge subsets rather than only single edges and observes a noisy sum of edge weights in a queried subset. For this problem, we first propose a polynomial-time algorithm that obtains a nearly-optimal solution with high probability. Moreover, to deal with large-sized graphs, we design a more scalable algorithm with a theoretical guarantee. Computational experiments using real-world graphs demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithms.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kuroki20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kuroki20a.htmlTwo Routes to Scalable Credit Assignment without Weight SymmetryThe neural plausibility of backpropagation has long been disputed, primarily for its use of non-local weight transport — the biologically dubious requirement that one neuron instantaneously measure the synaptic weights of another. Until recently, attempts to create local learning rules that avoid weight transport have typically failed in the large-scale learning scenarios where backpropagation shines, e.g. ImageNet categorization with deep convolutional networks. Here, we investigate a recently proposed local learning rule that yields competitive performance with backpropagation and find that it is highly sensitive to metaparameter choices, requiring laborious tuning that does not transfer across network architecture. Our analysis indicates the underlying mathematical reason for this instability, allowing us to identify a more robust local learning rule that better transfers without metaparameter tuning. Nonetheless, we find a performance and stability gap between this local rule and backpropagation that widens with increasing model depth. We then investigate several non-local learning rules that relax the need for instantaneous weight transport into a more biologically-plausible "weight estimation" process, showing that these rules match state-of-the-art performance on deep networks and operate effectively in the presence of noisy updates. Taken together, our results suggest two routes towards the discovery of neural implementations for credit assignment without weight symmetry: further improvement of local rules so that they perform consistently across architectures and the identification of biological implementations for non-local learning mechanisms.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kunin20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kunin20a.htmlEfficient Identification in Linear Structural Causal Models with Auxiliary CutsetsWe develop a polynomial-time algorithm for identification of structural coefficients in linear causal models that subsumes previous efficient state-of-the-art methods, unifying several disparate approaches to identification in this setting. Building on these results, we develop a procedure for identifying total causal effects in linear systems.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kumor20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kumor20a.htmlProblems with Shapley-value-based explanations as feature importance measuresGame-theoretic formulations of feature importance have become popular as a way to "explain" machine learning models. These methods define a cooperative game between the features of a model and distribute influence among these input elements using some form of the game’s unique Shapley values. Justification for these methods rests on two pillars: their desirable mathematical properties, and their applicability to specific motivations for explanations. We show that mathematical problems arise when Shapley values are used for feature importance and that the solutions to mitigate these necessarily induce further complexity, such as the need for causal reasoning. We also draw on additional literature to argue that Shapley values do not provide explanations which suit human-centric goals of explainability.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kumar20e.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kumar20e.htmlOn Implicit Regularization in $β$-VAEsWhile the impact of variational inference (VI) on posterior inference in a fixed generative model is well-characterized, its role in regularizing a learned generative model when used in variational autoencoders (VAEs) is poorly understood. We study the regularizing effects of variational distributions on learning in generative models from two perspectives. First, we analyze the role that the choice of variational family plays in imparting uniqueness to the learned model by restricting the set of optimal generative models. Second, we study the regularization effect of the variational family on the local geometry of the decoding model. This analysis uncovers the regularizer implicit in the $\beta$-VAE objective, and leads to an approximation consisting of a deterministic autoencoding objective plus analytic regularizers that depend on the Hessian or Jacobian of the decoding model, unifying VAEs with recent heuristics proposed for training regularized autoencoders. We empirically verify these findings, observing that the proposed deterministic objective exhibits similar behavior to the $\beta$-VAE in terms of objective value and sample quality.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kumar20d.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kumar20d.htmlUnderstanding Self-Training for Gradual Domain AdaptationMachine learning systems must adapt to data distributions that evolve over time, in applications ranging from sensor networks and self-driving car perception modules to brain-machine interfaces. Traditional domain adaptation is only guaranteed to work when the distribution shift is small; empirical methods combine several heuristics for larger shifts but can be dataset specific. To adapt to larger shifts we consider gradual domain adaptation, where the goal is to adapt an initial classifier trained on a source domain given only unlabeled data that shifts gradually in distribution towards a target domain. We prove the first non-vacuous upper bound on the error of self-training with gradual shifts, under settings where directly adapting to the target domain can result in unbounded error. The theoretical analysis leads to algorithmic insights, highlighting that regularization and label sharpening are essential even when we have infinite data. Leveraging the gradual shift structure leads to higher accuracies on a rotating MNIST dataset, a forest Cover Type dataset, and a realistic Portraits dataset.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kumar20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kumar20c.htmlCurse of Dimensionality on Randomized Smoothing for Certifiable RobustnessRandomized smoothing, using just a simple isotropic Gaussian distribution, has been shown to produce good robustness guarantees against $\ell_2$-norm bounded adversaries. In this work, we show that extending the smoothing technique to defend against other attack models can be challenging, especially in the high-dimensional regime. In particular, for a vast class of i.i.d. smoothing distributions, we prove that the largest $\ell_p$-radius that can be certified decreases as $O(1/d^{\frac{1}{2} - \frac{1}{p}})$ with dimension $d$ for $p > 2$. Notably, for $p \geq 2$, this dependence on $d$ is no better than that of the $\ell_p$-radius that can be certified using isotropic Gaussian smoothing, essentially putting a matching lower bound on the robustness radius. When restricted to \emph{generalized} Gaussian smoothing, these two bounds can be shown to be within a constant factor of each other in an asymptotic sense, establishing that Gaussian smoothing provides the best possible results, up to a constant factor, when $p \geq 2$. We present experimental results on CIFAR to validate our theory. For other smoothing distributions, such as, a uniform distribution within an $\ell_1$ or an $\ell_\infty$-norm ball, we show upper bounds of the form $O(1 / d)$ and $O(1 / d^{1 - \frac{1}{p}})$ respectively, which have an even worse dependence on $d$.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kumar20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kumar20b.htmlA Sequential Self Teaching Approach for Improving Generalization in Sound Event RecognitionAn important problem in machine auditory perception is to recognize and detect sound events. In this paper, we propose a sequential self-teaching approach to learning sounds. Our main proposition is that it is harder to learn sounds in adverse situations such as from weakly labeled and/or noisy labeled data, and in these situations a single stage of learning is not sufficient. Our proposal is a sequential stage-wise learning process that improves generalization capabilities of a given modeling system. We justify this method via technical results and on Audioset, the largest sound events dataset, our sequential learning approach can lead to up to 9% improvement in performance. A comprehensive evaluation also shows that the method leads to improved transferability of knowledge from previously trained models, thereby leading to improved generalization capabilities on transfer learning tasks.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kumar20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kumar20a.htmlBeing Bayesian, Even Just a Bit, Fixes Overconfidence in ReLU NetworksThe point estimates of ReLU classification networks—arguably the most widely used neural network architecture—have been shown to yield arbitrarily high confidence far away from the training data. This architecture, in conjunction with a maximum a posteriori estimation scheme, is thus not calibrated nor robust. Approximate Bayesian inference has been empirically demonstrated to improve predictive uncertainty in neural networks, although the theoretical analysis of such Bayesian approximations is limited. We theoretically analyze approximate Gaussian distributions on the weights of ReLU networks and show that they fix the overconfidence problem. Furthermore, we show that even a simplistic, thus cheap, Bayesian approximation, also fixes these issues. This indicates that a sufficient condition for a calibrated uncertainty on a ReLU network is “to be a bit Bayesian”. These theoretical results validate the usage of last-layer Bayesian approximation and motivate a range of a fidelity-cost trade-off. We further validate these findings empirically via various standard experiments using common deep ReLU networks and Laplace approximations.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kristiadi20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kristiadi20a.htmlAsynchronous Coagent NetworksCoagent policy gradient algorithms (CPGAs) are reinforcement learning algorithms for training a class of stochastic neural networks called coagent networks. In this work, we prove that CPGAs converge to locally optimal policies. Additionally, we extend prior theory to encompass asynchronous and recurrent coagent networks. These extensions facilitate the straightforward design and analysis of hierarchical reinforcement learning algorithms like the option-critic, and eliminate the need for complex derivations of customized learning rules for these algorithms.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kostas20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kostas20a.htmlOn the Sample Complexity of Adversarial Multi-Source PAC LearningWe study the problem of learning from multiple untrusted data sources, a scenario of increasing practical relevance given the recent emergence of crowdsourcing and collaborative learning paradigms. Specifically, we analyze the situation in which a learning system obtains datasets from multiple sources, some of which might be biased or even adversarially perturbed. It is known that in the single-source case, an adversary with the power to corrupt a fixed fraction of the training data can prevent PAC-learnability, that is, even in the limit of infinitely much training data, no learning system can approach the optimal test error. In this work we show that, surprisingly, the same is not true in the multi-source setting, where the adversary can arbitrarily corrupt a fixed fraction of the data sources. Our main results are a generalization bound that provides finite-sample guarantees for this learning setting, as well as corresponding lower bounds. Besides establishing PAC-learnability our results also show that in a cooperative learning setting sharing data with other parties has provable benefits, even if some participants are malicious.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/konstantinov20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/konstantinov20a.htmlSDE-Net: Equipping Deep Neural Networks with Uncertainty EstimatesUncertainty quantification is a fundamental yet unsolved problem for deep learning. The Bayesian framework provides a principled way of uncertainty estimation but is often not scalable to modern deep neural nets (DNNs) that have a large number of parameters. Non-Bayesian methods are simple to implement but often conflate different sources of uncertainties and require huge computing resources. We propose a new method for quantifying uncertainties of DNNs from a dynamical system perspective. The core of our method is to view DNN transformations as state evolution of a stochastic dynamical system and introduce a Brownian motion term for capturing epistemic uncertainty. Based on this perspective, we propose a neural stochastic differential equation model (SDE-Net) which consists of (1) a drift net that controls the system to fit the predictive function; and (2) a diffusion net that captures epistemic uncertainty. We theoretically analyze the existence and uniqueness of the solution to SDE-Net. Our experiments demonstrate that the SDE-Net model can outperform existing uncertainty estimation methods across a series of tasks where uncertainty plays a fundamental role.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kong20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kong20b.htmlMeta-learning for Mixed Linear RegressionIn modern supervised learning, there are a large number of tasks, but many of them are associated with only a small amount of labelled data. These include data from medical image processing and robotic interaction. Even though each individual task cannot be meaningfully trained in isolation, one seeks to meta-learn across the tasks from past experiences by exploiting some similarities. We study a fundamental question of interest: When can abundant tasks with small data compensate for lack of tasks with big data? We focus on a canonical scenario where each task is drawn from a mixture of $k$ linear regressions, and identify sufficient conditions for such a graceful exchange to hold; there is little loss in sample complexity even when we only have access to small data tasks. To this end, we introduce a novel spectral approach and show that we can efficiently utilize small data tasks with the help of $\tilde\Omega(k^{3/2})$ medium data tasks each with $\tilde\Omega(k^{1/2})$ examples.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kong20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kong20a.htmlA Unified Theory of Decentralized SGD with Changing Topology and Local UpdatesDecentralized stochastic optimization methods have gained a lot of attention recently, mainly because of their cheap per iteration cost, data locality, and their communication-efficiency. In this paper we introduce a unified convergence analysis that covers a large variety of decentralized SGD methods which so far have required different intuitions, have different applications, and which have been developed separately in various communities. Our algorithmic framework covers local SGD updates and synchronous and pairwise gossip updates on adaptive network topology. We derive universal convergence rates for smooth (convex and non-convex) problems and the rates interpolate between the heterogeneous (non-identically distributed data) and iid-data settings, recovering linear convergence rates in many special cases, for instance for over-parametrized models. Our proofs rely on weak assumptions (typically improving over prior work in several aspects) and recover (and improve) the best known complexity results for a host of important scenarios, such as for instance coorperative SGD and federated averaging (local SGD).Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/koloskova20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/koloskova20a.htmlOnline Learning for Active Cache SynchronizationExisting multi-armed bandit (MAB) models make two implicit assumptions: an arm generates a payoff only when it is played, and the agent observes every payoff that is generated. This paper introduces synchronization bandits, a MAB variant where all arms generate costs at all times, but the agent observes an arm’s instantaneous cost only when the arm is played. Synchronization MABs are inspired by online caching scenarios such as Web crawling, where an arm corresponds to a cached item and playing the arm means downloading its fresh copy from a server. We present MirrorSync, an online learning algorithm for synchronization bandits, establish an adversarial regret of $O(T^{2/3})$ for it, and show how to make it practical.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kolobov20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kolobov20a.htmlEquivariant Flows: Exact Likelihood Generative Learning for Symmetric DensitiesNormalizing flows are exact-likelihood generative neural networks which approximately transform samples from a simple prior distribution to samples of the probability distribution of interest. Recent work showed that such generative models can be utilized in statistical mechanics to sample equilibrium states of many-body systems in physics and chemistry. To scale and generalize these results, it is essential that the natural symmetries in the probability density – in physics defined by the invariances of the target potential – are built into the flow. We provide a theoretical sufficient criterion showing that the distribution generated by equivariant normalizing flows is invariant with respect to these symmetries by design. Furthermore, we propose building blocks for flows which preserve symmetries which are usually found in physical/chemical many-body particle systems. Using benchmark systems motivated from molecular physics, we demonstrate that those symmetry preserving flows can provide better generalization capabilities and sampling efficiency.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kohler20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kohler20a.htmlLearning Similarity Metrics for Numerical SimulationsWe propose a neural network-based approach that computes a stable and generalizing metric (LSiM) to compare data from a variety of numerical simulation sources. We focus on scalar time-dependent 2D data that commonly arises from motion and transport-based partial differential equations (PDEs). Our method employs a Siamese network architecture that is motivated by the mathematical properties of a metric. We leverage a controllable data generation setup with PDE solvers to create increasingly different outputs from a reference simulation in a controlled environment. A central component of our learned metric is a specialized loss function that introduces knowledge about the correlation between single data samples into the training process. To demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms existing metrics for vector spaces and other learned, image-based metrics, we evaluate the different methods on a large range of test data. Additionally, we analyze generalization benefits of an adjustable training data difficulty and demonstrate the robustness of LSiM via an evaluation on three real-world data sets.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kohl20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kohl20a.htmlConcept Bottleneck ModelsWe seek to learn models that we can interact with using high-level concepts: if the model did not think there was a bone spur in the x-ray, would it still predict severe arthritis? State-of-the-art models today do not typically support the manipulation of concepts like "the existence of bone spurs", as they are trained end-to-end to go directly from raw input (e.g., pixels) to output (e.g., arthritis severity). We revisit the classic idea of first predicting concepts that are provided at training time, and then using these concepts to predict the label. By construction, we can intervene on these concept bottleneck models by editing their predicted concept values and propagating these changes to the final prediction. On x-ray grading and bird identification, concept bottleneck models achieve competitive accuracy with standard end-to-end models, while enabling interpretation in terms of high-level clinical concepts ("bone spurs") or bird attributes ("wing color"). These models also allow for richer human-model interaction: accuracy improves significantly if we can correct model mistakes on concepts at test time.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/koh20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/koh20a.htmlOptimal Continual Learning has Perfect Memory and is NP-hardContinual Learning (CL) algorithms incrementally learn a predictor or representation across multiple sequentially observed tasks. Designing CL algorithms that perform reliably and avoid so-called catastrophic forgetting has proven a persistent challenge. The current paper develops a theoretical approach that explains why. In particular, we derive the computational properties which CL algorithms would have to possess in order to avoid catastrophic forgetting. Our main finding is that such optimal CL algorithms generally solve an NP-hard problem and will require perfect memory to do so. The findings are of theoretical interest, but also explain the excellent performance of CL algorithms using experience replay, episodic memory and core sets relative to regularization-based approaches.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/knoblauch20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/knoblauch20a.htmlBayesian Experimental Design for Implicit Models by Mutual Information Neural EstimationImplicit stochastic models, where the data-generation distribution is intractable but sampling is possible, are ubiquitous in the natural sciences. The models typically have free parameters that need to be inferred from data collected in scientific experiments. A fundamental question is how to design the experiments so that the collected data are most useful. The field of Bayesian experimental design advocates that, ideally, we should choose designs that maximise the mutual information (MI) between the data and the parameters. For implicit models, however, this approach is severely hampered by the high computational cost of computing posteriors and maximising MI, in particular when we have more than a handful of design variables to optimise. In this paper, we propose a new approach to Bayesian experimental design for implicit models that leverages recent advances in neural MI estimation to deal with these issues. We show that training a neural network to maximise a lower bound on MI allows us to jointly determine the optimal design and the posterior. Simulation studies illustrate that this gracefully extends Bayesian experimental design for implicit models to higher design dimensions.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kleinegesse20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kleinegesse20a.htmlActive World Model Learning with Progress CuriosityWorld models are self-supervised predictive models of how the world evolves. Humans learn world models by curiously exploring their environment, in the process acquiring compact abstractions of high bandwidth sensory inputs, the ability to plan across long temporal horizons, and an understanding of the behavioral patterns of other agents. In this work, we study how to design such a curiosity-driven Active World Model Learning (AWML) system. To do so, we construct a curious agent building world models while visually exploring a 3D physical environment rich with distillations of representative real-world agents. We propose an AWML system driven by $\gamma$-Progress: a scalable and effective learning progress-based curiosity signal and show that $\gamma$-Progress naturally gives rise to an exploration policy that directs attention to complex but learnable dynamics in a balanced manner, as a result overcoming the “white noise problem”. As a result, our $\gamma$-Progress-driven controller achieves significantly higher AWML performance than baseline controllers equipped with state-of-the-art exploration strategies such as Random Network Distillation and Model Disagreement.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kim20e.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kim20e.htmlVariational Inference for Sequential Data with Future Likelihood EstimatesThe recent development of flexible and scalable variational inference algorithms has popularized the use of deep probabilistic models in a wide range of applications. However, learning and reasoning about high-dimensional models with nondifferentiable densities are still a challenge. For such a model, inference algorithms struggle to estimate the gradients of variational objectives accurately, due to high variance in their estimates. To tackle this challenge, we present a novel variational inference algorithm for sequential data, which performs well even when the density from the model is not differentiable, for instance, due to the use of discrete random variables. The key feature of our algorithm is that it estimates future likelihoods at all time steps. The estimated future likelihoods form the core of our new low-variance gradient estimator. We formally analyze our gradient estimator from the perspective of variational objective, and show the effectiveness of our algorithm with synthetic and real datasets.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kim20d.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kim20d.htmlDomain Adaptive Imitation LearningWe study the question of how to imitate tasks across domains with discrepancies such as embodiment, viewpoint, and dynamics mismatch. Many prior works require paired, aligned demonstrations and an additional RL step that requires environment interactions. However, paired, aligned demonstrations are seldom obtainable and RL procedures are expensive. In this work, we formalize the Domain Adaptive Imitation Learning (DAIL) problem - a unified framework for imitation learning in the presence of viewpoint, embodiment, and/or dynamics mismatch. Informally, DAIL is the process of learning how to perform a task optimally, given demonstrations of the task in a distinct domain. We propose a two step approach to DAIL: alignment followed by adaptation. In the alignment step we execute a novel unsupervised MDP alignment algorithm, Generative Adversarial MDP Alignment (GAMA), to learn state and action correspondences from \emph{unpaired, unaligned} demonstrations. In the adaptation step we leverage the correspondences to zero-shot imitate tasks across domains. To describe when DAIL is feasible via alignment and adaptation, we introduce a theory of MDP alignability. We experimentally evaluate GAMA against baselines in embodiment, viewpoint, and dynamics mismatch scenarios where aligned demonstrations don’t exist and show the effectiveness of our approachSat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kim20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kim20c.htmlPuzzle Mix: Exploiting Saliency and Local Statistics for Optimal MixupWhile deep neural networks achieve great performance on fitting the training distribution, the learned networks are prone to overfitting and are susceptible to adversarial attacks. In this regard, a number of mixup based augmentation methods have been recently proposed. However, these approaches mainly focus on creating previously unseen virtual examples and can sometimes provide misleading supervisory signal to the network. To this end, we propose Puzzle Mix, a mixup method for explicitly utilizing the saliency information and the underlying statistics of the natural examples. This leads to an interesting optimization problem alternating between the multi-label objective for optimal mixing mask and saliency discounted optimal transport objective. Our experiments show Puzzle Mix achieves the state of the art generalization and the adversarial robustness results compared to other mixup methods on CIFAR-100, Tiny-ImageNet, and ImageNet datasets, and the source code is available at https://github.com/snu-mllab/PuzzleMix.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kim20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kim20b.htmlFACT: A Diagnostic for Group Fairness Trade-offsGroup fairness, a class of fairness notions that measure how different groups of individuals are treated differently according to their protected attributes, has been shown to conflict with one another, often with a necessary cost in loss of model’s predictive performance. We propose a general diagnostic that enables systematic characterization of these trade-offs in group fairness. We observe that the majority of group fairness notions can be expressed via the fairness-confusion tensor, which is the confusion matrix split according to the protected attribute values. We frame several optimization problems that directly optimize both accuracy and fairness objectives over the elements of this tensor, which yield a general perspective for understanding multiple trade-offs including group fairness incompatibilities. It also suggests an alternate post-processing method for designing fair classifiers. On synthetic and real datasets, we demonstrate the use cases of our diagnostic, particularly on understanding the trade-off landscape between accuracy and fairness.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kim20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kim20a.htmlUniform Convergence of Rank-weighted LearningThe decision-theoretic foundations of classical machine learning models have largely focused on estimating model parameters that minimize the expectation of a given loss function. However, as machine learning models are deployed in varied contexts, such as in high-stakes decision-making and societal settings, it is clear that these models are not just evaluated by their average performances. In this work, we study a novel notion of L-Risk based on the classical idea of rank-weighted learning. These L-Risks, induced by rank-dependent weighting functions with bounded variation, is a unification of popular risk measures such as conditional value-at-risk and those defined by cumulative prospect theory. We give uniform convergence bounds of this broad class of risk measures and study their consequences on a logistic regression example.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/khim20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/khim20a.htmlWhat can I do here? A Theory of Affordances in Reinforcement LearningReinforcement learning algorithms usually assume that all actions are always available to an agent. However, both people and animals understand the general link between the features of their environment and the actions that are feasible. Gibson (1977) coined the term "affordances" to describe the fact that certain states enable an agent to do certain actions, in the context of embodied agents. In this paper, we develop a theory of affordances for agents who learn and plan in Markov Decision Processes. Affordances play a dual role in this case. On one hand, they allow faster planning, by reducing the number of actions available in any given situation. On the other hand, they facilitate more efficient and precise learning of transition models from data, especially when such models require function approximation. We establish these properties through theoretical results as well as illustrative examples. We also propose an approach to learn affordances and use it to estimate transition models that are simpler and generalize better.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/khetarpal20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/khetarpal20a.htmlPrivate Outsourced Bayesian OptimizationThis paper presents the private-outsourced-Gaussian process-upper confidence bound (PO-GP-UCB) algorithm, which is the first algorithm for privacy-preserving Bayesian optimization (BO) in the outsourced setting with a provable performance guarantee. We consider the outsourced setting where the entity holding the dataset and the entity performing BO are represented by different parties, and the dataset cannot be released non-privately. For example, a hospital holds a dataset of sensitive medical records and outsources the BO task on this dataset to an industrial AI company. The key idea of our approach is to make the BO performance of our algorithm similar to that of non-private GP-UCB run using the original dataset, which is achieved by using a random projection-based transformation that preserves both privacy and the pairwise distances between inputs. Our main theoretical contribution is to show that a regret bound similar to that of the standard GP-UCB algorithm can be established for our PO-GP-UCB algorithm. We empirically evaluate the performance of our PO-GP-UCB algorithm with synthetic and real-world datasets.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kharkovskii20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kharkovskii20a.htmlEntropy Minimization In Emergent LanguagesThere is growing interest in studying the languages that emerge when neural agents are jointly trained to solve tasks requiring communication through a discrete channel. We investigate here the information-theoretic complexity of such languages, focusing on the basic two-agent, one-exchange setup. We find that, under common training procedures, the emergent languages are subject to an entropy minimization pressure that has also been detected in human language, whereby the mutual information between the communicating agent’s inputs and the messages is minimized, within the range afforded by the need for successful communication. That is, emergent languages are (nearly) as simple as the task they are developed for allow them to be. This pressure is amplified as we increase communication channel discreteness. Further, we observe that stronger discrete-channel-driven entropy minimization leads to representations with increased robustness to overfitting and adversarial attacks. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings for the study of natural and artificial communication systems.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kharitonov20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kharitonov20a.htmlFeature Noise Induces Loss Discrepancy Across GroupsThe performance of standard learning procedures has been observed to differ widely across groups. Recent studies usually attribute this loss discrepancy to an information deficiency for one group (e.g., one group has less data). In this work, we point to a more subtle source of loss discrepancy—feature noise. Our main result is that even when there is no information deficiency specific to one group (e.g., both groups have infinite data), adding the same amount of feature noise to all individuals leads to loss discrepancy. For linear regression, we thoroughly characterize the effect of feature noise on loss discrepancy in terms of the amount of noise, the difference between moments of the two groups, and whether group information is used or not. We then show this loss discrepancy does not vanish immediately if a shift in distribution causes the groups to have similar moments. On three real-world datasets, we show feature noise increases the loss discrepancy if groups have different distributions, while it does not affect the loss discrepancy on datasets where groups have similar distributions.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/khani20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/khani20a.htmlDifferentiable Likelihoods for Fast Inversion of ’Likelihood-Free’ Dynamical SystemsLikelihood-free (a.k.a. simulation-based) inference problems are inverse problems with expensive, or intractable, forward models. ODE inverse problems are commonly treated as likelihood-free, as their forward map has to be numerically approximated by an ODE solver. This, however, is not a fundamental constraint but just a lack of functionality in classic ODE solvers, which do not return a likelihood but a point estimate. To address this shortcoming, we employ Gaussian ODE filtering (a probabilistic numerical method for ODEs) to construct a local Gaussian approximation to the likelihood. This approximation yields tractable estimators for the gradient and Hessian of the (log-)likelihood. Insertion of these estimators into existing gradient-based optimization and sampling methods engenders new solvers for ODE inverse problems. We demonstrate that these methods outperform standard likelihood-free approaches on three benchmark-systems.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kersting20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kersting20a.htmlQuantum Expectation-Maximization for Gaussian mixture modelsWe define a quantum version of Expectation-Maximization (QEM), a fundamental tool in unsupervised machine learning, often used to solve Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) estimation problems. We use QEM to fit a Gaussian Mixture Model, and show how to generalize it to fit mixture models with base distributions in the exponential family. Given quantum access to a dataset, our algorithm has convergence and precision guarantees similar to the classical algorithm, while the runtime is polylogarithmic in the number of elements in the training set and polynomial in other parameters, such as the dimension of the feature space and the number of components in the mixture. We discuss the performance of the algorithm on a dataset that is expected to be classified successfully by classical EM and provide guarantees for its runtime.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kerenidis20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kerenidis20a.htmlEfficient Non-conjugate Gaussian Process Factor Models for Spike Count Data using Polynomial ApproximationsGaussian Process Factor Analysis (GPFA) has been broadly applied to the problem of identifying smooth, low-dimensional temporal structure underlying large-scale neural recordings. However, spike trains are non-Gaussian, which motivates combining GPFA with discrete observation models for binned spike count data. The drawback to this approach is that GPFA priors are not conjugate to count model likelihoods, which makes inference challenging. Here we address this obstacle by introducing a fast, approximate inference method for non-conjugate GPFA models. Our approach uses orthogonal second-order polynomials to approximate the nonlinear terms in the non-conjugate log-likelihood, resulting in a method we refer to as polynomial approximate log-likelihood (PAL) estimators. This approximation allows for accurate closed-form evaluation of marginal likelihoods and fast numerical optimization for parameters and hyperparameters. We derive PAL estimators for GPFA models with binomial, Poisson, and negative binomial observations and find the PAL estimation is highly accurate, and achieves faster convergence times compared to existing state-of-the-art inference methods. We also find that PAL hyperparameters can provide sensible initialization for black box variational inference (BBVI), which improves BBVI accuracy. We demonstrate that PAL estimators achieve fast and accurate extraction of latent structure from multi-neuron spike train data.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/keeley20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/keeley20a.htmlRate-distortion optimization guided autoencoder for isometric embedding in Euclidean latent spaceTo analyze high-dimensional and complex data in the real world, deep generative models, such as variational autoencoder (VAE) embed data in a low-dimensional space (latent space) and learn a probabilistic model in the latent space. However, they struggle to accurately reproduce the probability distribution function (PDF) in the input space from that in the latent space. If the embedding were isometric, this issue can be solved, because the relation of PDFs can become tractable. To achieve isometric property, we propose Rate-Distortion Optimization guided autoencoder inspired by orthonormal transform coding. We show our method has the following properties: (i) the Jacobian matrix between the input space and a Euclidean latent space forms a constantly-scaled orthonormal system and enables isometric data embedding; (ii) the relation of PDFs in both spaces can become tractable one such as proportional relation. Furthermore, our method outperforms state-of-the-art methods in unsupervised anomaly detection with four public datasets.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kato20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kato20a.htmlTransformers are RNNs: Fast Autoregressive Transformers with Linear AttentionTransformers achieve remarkable performance in several tasks but due to their quadratic complexity, with respect to the input’s length, they are prohibitively slow for very long sequences. To address this limitation, we express the self-attention as a linear dot-product of kernel feature maps and make use of the associativity property of matrix products to reduce the complexity from $\bigO{N^2}$ to $\bigO{N}$, where $N$ is the sequence length. We show that this formulation permits an iterative implementation that dramatically accelerates autoregressive transformers and reveals their relationship to recurrent neural networks. Our \emph{Linear Transformers} achieve similar performance to vanilla Transformers and they are up to 4000x faster on autoregressive prediction of very long sequences.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/katharopoulos20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/katharopoulos20a.htmlNon-autoregressive Machine Translation with Disentangled Context TransformerState-of-the-art neural machine translation models generate a translation from left to right and every step is conditioned on the previously generated tokens. The sequential nature of this generation process causes fundamental latency in inference since we cannot generate multiple tokens in each sentence in parallel. We propose an attention-masking based model, called Disentangled Context (DisCo) transformer, that simultaneously generates all tokens given different contexts. The DisCo transformer is trained to predict every output token given an arbitrary subset of the other reference tokens. We also develop the parallel easy-first inference algorithm, which iteratively refines every token in parallel and reduces the number of required iterations. Our extensive experiments on 7 translation directions with varying data sizes demonstrate that our model achieves competitive, if not better, performance compared to the state of the art in non-autoregressive machine translation while significantly reducing decoding time on average.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kasai20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kasai20a.htmlSCAFFOLD: Stochastic Controlled Averaging for Federated LearningFederated learning is a key scenario in modern large-scale machine learning where the data remains distributed over a large number of clients and the task is to learn a centralized model without transmitting the client data. The standard optimization algorithm used in this setting is Federated Averaging (FedAvg) due to its low communication cost. We obtain a tight characterization of the convergence of FedAvg and prove that heterogeneity (non-iid-ness) in the client’s data results in a ‘drift’ in the local updates resulting in poor performance. As a solution, we propose a new algorithm (SCAFFOLD) which uses control variates (variance reduction) to correct for the ‘client drift’. We prove that SCAFFOLD requires significantly fewer communication rounds and is not affected by data heterogeneity or client sampling. Further, we show that (for quadratics) SCAFFOLD can take advantage of similarity in the client’s data yielding even faster convergence. The latter is the first result to quantify the usefulness of local-steps in distributed optimization.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/karimireddy20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/karimireddy20a.htmlOperation-Aware Soft Channel Pruning using Differentiable MasksWe propose a simple but effective data-driven channel pruning algorithm, which compresses deep neural networks in a differentiable way by exploiting the characteristics of operations. The proposed approach makes a joint consideration of batch normalization (BN) and rectified linear unit (ReLU) for channel pruning; it estimates how likely the two successive operations deactivate each feature map and prunes the channels with high probabilities. To this end, we learn differentiable masks for individual channels and make soft decisions throughout the optimization procedure, which facilitates to explore larger search space and train more stable networks. The proposed framework enables us to identify compressed models via a joint learning of model parameters and channel pruning without an extra procedure of fine-tuning. We perform extensive experiments and achieve outstanding performance in terms of the accuracy of output networks given the same amount of resources when compared with the state-of-the-art methods.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kang20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kang20a.htmlLearning and Evaluating Contextual Embedding of Source CodeRecent research has achieved impressive results on understanding and improving source code by building up on machine-learning techniques developed for natural languages. A significant advancement in natural-language understanding has come with the development of pre-trained contextual embeddings, such as BERT, which can be fine-tuned for downstream tasks with less labeled data and training budget, while achieving better accuracies. However, there is no attempt yet to obtain a high-quality contextual embedding of source code, and to evaluate it on multiple program-understanding tasks simultaneously; that is the gap that this paper aims to mitigate. Specifically, first, we curate a massive, deduplicated corpus of 7.4M Python files from GitHub, which we use to pre-train CuBERT, an open-sourced code-understanding BERT model; and, second, we create an open-sourced benchmark that comprises five classification tasks and one program-repair task, akin to code-understanding tasks proposed in the literature before. We fine-tune CuBERT on our benchmark tasks, and compare the resulting models to different variants of Word2Vec token embeddings, BiLSTM and Transformer models, as well as published state-of-the-art models, showing that CuBERT outperforms them all, even with shorter training, and with fewer labeled examples. Future work on source-code embedding can benefit from reusing our benchmark, and from comparing against CuBERT models as a strong baseline.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kanade20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kanade20a.htmlOn the Power of Compressed Sensing with Generative ModelsThe goal of compressed sensing is to learn a structured signal $x$ from a limited number of noisy linear measurements $y \approx Ax$. In traditional compressed sensing, “structure” is represented by sparsity in some known basis. Inspired by the success of deep learning in modeling images, recent work starting with Bora-Jalal-Price-Dimakis’17 has instead considered structure to come from a generative model $G: \mathbb{R}^k \to \mathbb{R}^n$. We present two results establishing the difficulty and strength of this latter task, showing that existing bounds are tight: First, we provide a lower bound matching the Bora et.al upper bound for compressed sensing with $L$-Lipschitz generative models $G$ which holds even for the more relaxed goal of \emph{non-uniform} recovery. Second, we show that generative models generalize sparsity as a representation of structure by constructing a ReLU-based neural network with $2$ hidden layers and $O(n)$ activations per layer whose range is precisely the set of all $k$-sparse vectors.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kamath20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kamath20a.htmlStatistically Efficient Off-Policy Policy GradientsPolicy gradient methods in reinforcement learning update policy parameters by taking steps in the direction of an estimated gradient of policy value. In this paper, we consider the efficient estimation of policy gradients from off-policy data, where the estimation is particularly non-trivial. We derive the asymptotic lower bound on the feasible mean-squared error in both Markov and non-Markov decision processes and show that existing estimators fail to achieve it in general settings. We propose a meta-algorithm that achieves the lower bound without any parametric assumptions and exhibits a unique 4-way double robustness property. We discuss how to estimate nuisances that the algorithm relies on. Finally, we establish guarantees at the rate at which we approach a stationary point when we take steps in the direction of our new estimated policy gradient.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kallus20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kallus20c.htmlDouble Reinforcement Learning for Efficient and Robust Off-Policy EvaluationOff-policy evaluation (OPE) in reinforcement learning allows one to evaluate novel decision policies without needing to conduct exploration, which is often costly or otherwise infeasible. We consider for the first time the semiparametric efficiency limits of OPE in Markov decision processes (MDPs), where actions, rewards, and states are memoryless. We show existing OPE estimators may fail to be efficient in this setting. We develop a new estimator based on cross-fold estimation of $q$-functions and marginalized density ratios, which we term double reinforcement learning (DRL). We show that DRL is efficient when both components are estimated at fourth-root rates and is also doubly robust when only one component is consistent. We investigate these properties empirically and demonstrate the performance benefits due to harnessing memorylessness.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kallus20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kallus20b.htmlDeepMatch: Balancing Deep Covariate Representations for Causal Inference Using Adversarial TrainingWe study optimal covariate balance for causal inferences from observational data when rich covariates and complex relationships necessitate flexible modeling with neural networks. Standard approaches such as propensity weighting and matching/balancing fail in such settings due to miscalibrated propensity nets and inappropriate covariate representations, respectively. We propose a new method based on adversarial training of a weighting and a discriminator network that effectively addresses this methodological gap. This is demonstrated through new theoretical characterizations and empirical results on both synthetic and clinical data showing how causal analyses can be salvaged in such challenging settings.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kallus20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kallus20a.htmlVariational Autoencoders with Riemannian Brownian Motion PriorsVariational Autoencoders (VAEs) represent the given data in a low-dimensional latent space, which is generally assumed to be Euclidean. This assumption naturally leads to the common choice of a standard Gaussian prior over continuous latent variables. Recent work has, however, shown that this prior has a detrimental effect on model capacity, leading to subpar performance. We propose that the Euclidean assumption lies at the heart of this failure mode. To counter this, we assume a Riemannian structure over the latent space, which constitutes a more principled geometric view of the latent codes, and replace the standard Gaussian prior with a Riemannian Brownian motion prior. We propose an efficient inference scheme that does not rely on the unknown normalizing factor of this prior. Finally, we demonstrate that this prior significantly increases model capacity using only one additional scalar parameter.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kalatzis20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kalatzis20a.htmlStrategyproof Mean Estimation from Multiple-Choice QuestionsGiven n values possessed by n agents, we study the problem of estimating the mean by truthfully eliciting agents’ answers to multiple-choice questions about their values. We consider two natural candidates for estimation error: mean squared error (MSE) and mean absolute error (MAE). We design a randomized estimator which is asymptotically optimal for both measures in the worst case. In the case where prior distributions over the agents’ values are known, we give an optimal, polynomial-time algorithm for MSE, and show that the task of computing an optimal estimate for MAE is #P-hard. Finally, we demonstrate empirically that knowledge of prior distributions gives a significant edge.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kahng20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kahng20a.htmlPartial Trace Regression and Low-Rank Kraus DecompositionThe trace regression model, a direct extension of the well-studied linear regression model, allows one to map matrices to real-valued outputs. We here introduce an even more general model, namely the partial-trace regression model, a family of linear mappings from matrix-valued inputs to matrix-valued outputs; this model subsumes the trace regression model and thus the linear regression model. Borrowing tools from quantum information theory, where partial trace operators have been extensively studied, we propose a framework for learning partial trace regression models from data by taking advantage of the so-called low-rank Kraus representation of completely positive maps. We show the relevance of our framework with synthetic and real-world experiments conducted for both i) matrix-to-matrix regression and ii) positive semidefinite matrix completion, two tasks which can be formulated as partial trace regression problems.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kadri20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kadri20a.htmlSub-Goal Trees a Framework for Goal-Based Reinforcement LearningMany AI problems, in robotics and other domains, are goal-directed, essentially seeking a trajectory leading to some goal state. Reinforcement learning (RL), building on Bellman’s optimality equation, naturally optimizes for a single goal, yet can be made goal-directed by augmenting the state with the goal. Instead, we propose a new RL framework, derived from a dynamic programming equation for the all pairs shortest path (APSP) problem, which naturally solves goal-directed queries. We show that this approach has computational benefits for both standard and approximate dynamic programming. Interestingly, our formulation prescribes a novel protocol for computing a trajectory: instead of predicting the next state given its predecessor, as in standard RL, a goal-conditioned trajectory is constructed by first predicting an intermediate state between start and goal, partitioning the trajectory into two. Then, recursively, predicting intermediate points on each sub-segment, until a complete trajectory is obtained. We call this trajectory structure a sub-goal tree. Building on it, we additionally extend the policy gradient methodology to recursively predict sub-goals, resulting in novel goal-based algorithms. Finally, we apply our method to neural motion planning, where we demonstrate significant improvements compared to standard RL on navigating a 7-DoF robot arm between obstacles.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jurgenson20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jurgenson20a.htmlDistribution Augmentation for Generative ModelingWe present distribution augmentation (DistAug), a simple and powerful method of regularizing generative models. Our approach applies augmentation functions to data and, importantly, conditions the generative model on the specific function used. Unlike typical data augmentation, DistAug allows usage of functions which modify the target density, enabling aggressive augmentations more commonly seen in supervised and self-supervised learning. We demonstrate this is a more effective regularizer than standard methods, and use it to train a 152M parameter autoregressive model on CIFAR-10 to 2.56 bits per dim (relative to the state-of-the-art 2.80). Samples from this model attain FID 12.75 and IS 8.40, outperforming the majority of GANs. We further demonstrate the technique is broadly applicable across model architectures and problem domains.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jun20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jun20a.htmlSets ClusteringThe input to the \emph{sets-$k$-means} problem is an integer $k\geq 1$ and a set $\mathcal{P}=\{P_1,\cdots,P_n\}$ of fixed sized sets in $\mathbb{R}^d$. The goal is to compute a set $C$ of $k$ centers (points) in $\mathbb{R}^d$ that minimizes the sum $\sum_{P\in \mathcal{P}} \min_{p\in P, c\in C}\left\|{p}-c \right\|^2$ of squared distances to these sets. An \emph{$\varepsilon$-core-set} for this problem is a weighted subset of $\mathcal{P}$ that approximates this sum up to $1\pm\varepsilon$ factor, for \emph{every} set $C$ of $k$ centers in $\mathbb{R}^d$. We prove that such a core-set of $O(\log^2{n})$ sets always exists, and can be computed in $O(n\log{n})$ time, for every input $\mathcal{P}$ and every fixed $d,k\geq 1$ and $\varepsilon \in (0,1)$. The result easily generalized for any metric space, distances to the power of $z>0$, and M-estimators that handle outliers. Applying an inefficient but optimal algorithm on this coreset allows us to obtain the first PTAS ($1+\varepsilon$ approximation) for the sets-$k$-means problem that takes time near linear in $n$. This is the first result even for sets-mean on the plane ($k=1$, $d=2$). Open source code and experimental results for document classification and facility locations are also provided.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jubran20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jubran20a.htmlA simpler approach to accelerated optimization: iterative averaging meets optimismRecently there have been several attempts to extend Nesterov’s accelerated algorithm to smooth stochastic and variance-reduced optimization. In this paper, we show that there is a simpler approach to acceleration: applying optimistic online learning algorithms and querying the gradient oracle at the online average of the intermediate optimization iterates. In particular, we tighten a recent result of Cutkosky (2019) to demonstrate theoretically that online iterate averaging results in a reduced optimization gap, independently of the algorithm involved. We show that carefully combining this technique with existing generic optimistic online learning algorithms yields the optimal accelerated rates for optimizing strongly-convex and non-strongly-convex, possibly composite objectives, with deterministic as well as stochastic first-order oracles. We further extend this idea to variance-reduced optimization. Finally, we also provide “universal” algorithms that achieve the optimal rate for smooth and non-smooth composite objectives simultaneously without further tuning, generalizing the results of Kavis et al. (2019) and solving a number of their open problems.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/joulani20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/joulani20a.htmlStochastic Differential Equations with Variational Wishart DiffusionsWe present a Bayesian non-parametric way of inferring stochastic differential equations for both regression tasks and continuous-time dynamical modelling. The work has high emphasis on the stochastic part of the differential equation, also known as the diffusion, and modelling it by means of Wishart processes. Further, we present a semiparametric approach that allows the framework to scale to high dimensions. This successfully leads us onto how to model both latent and autoregressive temporal systems with conditional heteroskedastic noise. We provide experimental evidence that modelling diffusion often improves performance and that this randomness in the differential equation can be essential to avoid overfitting.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jorgensen20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jorgensen20a.htmlEvaluating the Performance of Reinforcement Learning AlgorithmsPerformance evaluations are critical for quantifying algorithmic advances in reinforcement learning. Recent reproducibility analyses have shown that reported performance results are often inconsistent and difficult to replicate. In this work, we argue that the inconsistency of performance stems from the use of flawed evaluation metrics. Taking a step towards ensuring that reported results are consistent, we propose a new comprehensive evaluation methodology for reinforcement learning algorithms that produces reliable measurements of performance both on a single environment and when aggregated across environments. We demonstrate this method by evaluating a broad class of reinforcement learning algorithms on standard benchmark tasks.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jordan20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jordan20a.htmlBeing Bayesian about Categorical ProbabilityNeural networks utilize the softmax as a building block in classification tasks, which contains an overconfidence problem and lacks an uncertainty representation ability. As a Bayesian alternative to the softmax, we consider a random variable of a categorical probability over class labels. In this framework, the prior distribution explicitly models the presumed noise inherent in the observed label, which provides consistent gains in generalization performance in multiple challenging tasks. The proposed method inherits advantages of Bayesian approaches that achieve better uncertainty estimation and model calibration. Our method can be implemented as a plug-and-play loss function with negligible computational overhead compared to the softmax with the cross-entropy loss function.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/joo20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/joo20a.htmlFair k-Centers via Maximum MatchingThe field of algorithms has seen a push for fairness, or the removal of inherent bias, in recent history. In data summarization, where a much smaller subset of a data set is chosen to represent the whole of the data, fairness can be introduced by guaranteeing each "demographic group" a specific portion of the representative subset. Specifically, this paper examines this fair variant of the k-centers problem, where a subset of the data with cardinality k is chosen to minimize distance to the rest of the data. Previous papers working on this problem presented both a 3-approximation algorithm with a super-linear runtime and a linear-time algorithm whose approximation factor is exponential in the number of demographic groups. This paper combines the best of each algorithm by presenting a linear-time algorithm with a guaranteed 3-approximation factor and provides empirical evidence of both the algorithm’s runtime and effectiveness.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jones20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jones20a.htmlOn Relativistic f-DivergencesWe take a more rigorous look at Relativistic Generative Adversarial Networks (RGANs) and prove that the objective function of the discriminator is a statistical divergence for any concave function f with minimal properties. We devise additional variants of relativistic f-divergences. We show that the Wasserstein distance is weaker than f-divergences which are weaker than relativistic f-divergences. Given the good performance of RGANs, this suggests that Wasserstein GAN does not performs well primarily because of the weak metric, but rather because of regularization and the use of a relativistic discriminator. We introduce the minimum-variance unbiased estimator (MVUE) for Relativistic paired GANs (RpGANs; originally called RGANs which could bring confusion) and show that it does not perform better. We show that the estimator of Relativistic average GANs (RaGANs) is asymptotically unbiased and that the finite-sample bias is small; removing this bias does not improve performance.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jolicoeur-martineau20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jolicoeur-martineau20a.htmlGuided Learning of Nonconvex Models through Successive Functional Gradient OptimizationThis paper presents a framework of successive functional gradient optimization for training nonconvex models such as neural networks, where training is driven by mirror descent in a function space. We provide a theoretical analysis and empirical study of the training method derived from this framework. It is shown that the method leads to better performance than that of standard training techniques.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/johnson20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/johnson20b.htmlAdaScale SGD: A User-Friendly Algorithm for Distributed TrainingWhen using large-batch training to speed up stochastic gradient descent, learning rates must adapt to new batch sizes in order to maximize speed-ups and preserve model quality. Re-tuning learning rates is resource intensive, while fixed scaling rules often degrade model quality. We propose AdaScale SGD, an algorithm that reliably adapts learning rates to large-batch training. By continually adapting to the gradient’s variance, AdaScale automatically achieves speed-ups for a wide range of batch sizes. We formally describe this quality with AdaScale’s convergence bound, which maintains final objective values, even as batch sizes grow large and the number of iterations decreases. In empirical comparisons, AdaScale trains well beyond the batch size limits of popular “linear learning rate scaling” rules. This includes large-batch training with no model degradation for machine translation, image classification, object detection, and speech recognition tasks. AdaScale’s qualitative behavior is similar to that of "warm-up" heuristics, but unlike warm-up, this behavior emerges naturally from a principled mechanism. The algorithm introduces negligible computational overhead and no new hyperparameters, making AdaScale an attractive choice for large-scale training in practice.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/johnson20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/johnson20a.htmlComputational and Statistical Tradeoffs in Inferring Combinatorial Structures of Ising ModelWe study the computational and statistical tradeoffs in inferring combinatorial structures of high dimensional simple zero-field ferromagnetic Ising model. Under the framework of oracle computational model where an algorithm interacts with an oracle that discourses a randomized version of truth, we characterize the computational lower bounds of learning combinatorial structures in polynomial time, under which no algorithms within polynomial-time can distinguish between graphs with and without certain structures. This hardness of learning with limited computational budget is shown to be characterized by a novel quantity called vertex overlap ratio. Such quantity is universally valid for many specific graph structures including cliques and nearest neighbors. On the other side, we attain the optimal rates for testing these structures against empty graph by proposing the quadratic testing statistics to match the lower bounds. We also investigate the relationship between computational bounds and information-theoretic bounds for such problems, and found gaps between the two boundaries in inferring some particular structures, especially for those with dense edges.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jin20g.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jin20g.htmlEfficiently Solving MDPs with Stochastic Mirror DescentWe present a unified framework based on primal-dual stochastic mirror descent for approximately solving infinite-horizon Markov decision processes (MDPs) given a generative model. When applied to an average-reward MDP with $A_{tot}$ total actions and mixing time bound $t_{mix}$ our method computes an $\epsilon$-optimal policy with an expected $\widetilde{O}(t_{mix}^2 A_{tot} \epsilon^{-2})$ samples from the state-transition matrix, removing the ergodicity dependence of prior art. When applied to a $\gamma$-discounted MDP with $A_{tot}$ total actions our method computes an $\epsilon$-optimal policy with an expected $\widetilde{O}((1-\gamma)^{-4} A_{tot} \epsilon^{-2})$ samples, improving over the best-known primal-dual methods while matching the state-of-the-art up to a $(1-\gamma)^{-1}$ factor. Both methods are model-free, update state values and policies simultaneously, and run in time linear in the number of samples taken. We achieve these results through a more general stochastic mirror descent framework for solving bilinear saddle-point problems with simplex and box domains and we demonstrate the flexibility of this framework by providing further applications to constrained MDPs.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jin20f.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jin20f.htmlWhat is Local Optimality in Nonconvex-Nonconcave Minimax Optimization?Minimax optimization has found extensive applications in modern machine learning, in settings such as generative adversarial networks (GANs), adversarial training and multi-agent reinforcement learning. As most of these applications involve continuous nonconvex-nonconcave formulations, a very basic question arises—“what is a proper definition of local optima?” Most previous work answers this question using classical notions of equilibria from simultaneous games, where the min-player and the max-player act simultaneously. In contrast, most applications in machine learning, including GANs and adversarial training, correspond to sequential games, where the order of which player acts first is crucial (since minimax is in general not equal to maximin due to the nonconvex-nonconcave nature of the problems). The main contribution of this paper is to propose a proper mathematical definition of local optimality for this sequential setting—local minimax, as well as to present its properties and existence results. Finally, we establish a strong connection to a basic local search algorithm—gradient descent ascent (GDA): under mild conditions, all stable limit points of GDA are exactly local minimax points up to some degenerate points.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jin20e.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jin20e.htmlReward-Free Exploration for Reinforcement LearningExploration is widely regarded as one of the most challenging aspects of reinforcement learning (RL), with many naive approaches succumbing to exponential sample complexity. To isolate the challenges of exploration, we propose the following “reward-free RL” framework. In the exploration phase, the agent first collects trajectories from an MDP $M$ without a pre-specified reward function. After exploration, it is tasked with computing a near-policies under the transitions of $\mathcal{M}$ for a collection of given reward functions. This framework is particularly suitable where there are many reward functions of interest, or where the reward function is shaped by an external agent to elicit desired behavior. We give an efficient algorithm that conducts $\widetilde{O}(S^2A\mathrm{poly}(H)/\epsilon^2)$ episodes of exploration, and returns $\epsilon$-suboptimal policies for an arbitrary number of reward functions. We achieve this by finding exploratory policies that jointly visit each “significant” state with probability proportional to its maximum visitation probability under any possible policy. Moreover, our planning procedure can be instantiated by any black-box approximate planner, such as value iteration or natural policy gradient. Finally, we give a nearly-matching $\Omega(S^2AH^2/\epsilon^2)$ lower bound, demonstrating the near-optimality of our algorithm in this setting.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jin20d.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jin20d.htmlLearning Adversarial Markov Decision Processes with Bandit Feedback and Unknown TransitionWe consider the task of learning in episodic finite-horizon Markov decision processes with an unknown transition function, bandit feedback, and adversarial losses. We propose an efficient algorithm that achieves $\mathcal{\tilde{O}}(L|X|\sqrt{|A|T})$ regret with high probability, where $L$ is the horizon, $|X|$ the number of states, $|A|$ the number of actions, and T the number of episodes. To our knowledge, our algorithm is the first to ensure $\mathcal{\tilde{O}}(\sqrt{T})$ regret in this challenging setting; in fact, it achieves the same regret as (Rosenberg & Mansour, 2019a) who consider the easier setting with full-information. Our key contributions are two-fold: a tighter confidence set for the transition function; and an optimistic loss estimator that is inversely weighted by an "upper occupancy bound".Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jin20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jin20c.htmlMulti-Objective Molecule Generation using Interpretable SubstructuresDrug discovery aims to find novel compounds with specified chemical property profiles. In terms of generative modeling, the goal is to learn to sample molecules in the intersection of multiple property constraints. This task becomes increasingly challenging when there are many property constraints. We propose to offset this complexity by composing molecules from a vocabulary of substructures that we call molecular rationales. These rationales are identified from molecules as substructures that are likely responsible for each property of interest. We then learn to expand rationales into a full molecule using graph generative models. Our final generative model composes molecules as mixtures of multiple rationale completions, and this mixture is fine-tuned to preserve the properties of interest. We evaluate our model on various drug design tasks and demonstrate significant improvements over state-of-the-art baselines in terms of accuracy, diversity, and novelty of generated compounds.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jin20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jin20b.htmlHierarchical Generation of Molecular Graphs using Structural MotifsGraph generation techniques are increasingly being adopted for drug discovery. Previous graph generation approaches have utilized relatively small molecular building blocks such as atoms or simple cycles, limiting their effectiveness to smaller molecules. Indeed, as we demonstrate, their performance degrades significantly for larger molecules. In this paper, we propose a new hierarchical graph encoder-decoder that employs significantly larger and more flexible graph motifs as basic building blocks. Our encoder produces a multi-resolution representation for each molecule in a fine-to-coarse fashion, from atoms to connected motifs. Each level integrates the encoding of constituents below with the graph at that level. Our autoregressive coarse-to-fine decoder adds one motif at a time, interleaving the decision of selecting a new motif with the process of resolving its attachments to the emerging molecule. We evaluate our model on multiple molecule generation tasks, including polymers, and show that our model significantly outperforms previous state-of-the-art baselines.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jin20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jin20a.htmlAssociative Memory in Iterated Overparameterized Sigmoid AutoencodersRecent work showed that overparameterized autoencoders can be trained to implement associative memory via iterative maps, when the trained input-output Jacobian of the network has all of its eigenvalue norms strictly below one. Here, we theoretically analyze this phenomenon for sigmoid networks by leveraging recent developments in deep learning theory, especially the correspondence between training neural networks in the infinite-width limit and performing kernel regression with the Neural Tangent Kernel (NTK). We find that overparameterized sigmoid autoencoders can have attractors in the NTK limit for both training with a single example and multiple examples under certain conditions. In particular, for multiple training examples, we find that the norm of the largest Jacobian eigenvalue drops below one with increasing input norm, leading to associative memory.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jiang20e.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jiang20e.htmlImplicit Class-Conditioned Domain Alignment for Unsupervised Domain AdaptationWe present an approach for unsupervised domain adaptation{—}with a strong focus on practical considerations of within-domain class imbalance and between-domain class distribution shift{—}from a class-conditioned domain alignment perspective. Current methods for class-conditioned domain alignment aim to explicitly minimize a loss function based on pseudo-label estimations of the target domain. However, these methods suffer from pseudo-label bias in the form of error accumulation. We propose a method that removes the need for explicit optimization of model parameters from pseudo-labels. Instead, we present a sampling-based implicit alignment approach, where the sample selection is implicitly guided by the pseudo-labels. Theoretical analysis reveals the existence of a domain-discriminator shortcut in misaligned classes, which is addressed by the proposed approach to facilitate domain-adversarial learning. Empirical results and ablation studies confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach, especially in the presence of within-domain class imbalance and between-domain class distribution shift.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jiang20d.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jiang20d.htmlBeyond Synthetic Noise: Deep Learning on Controlled Noisy LabelsPerforming controlled experiments on noisy data is essential in understanding deep learning across noise levels. Due to the lack of suitable datasets, previous research has only examined deep learning on controlled synthetic label noise, and real-world label noise has never been studied in a controlled setting. This paper makes three contributions. First, we establish the first benchmark of controlled real-world label noise from the web. This new benchmark enables us to study the web label noise in a controlled setting for the first time. The second contribution is a simple but effective method to overcome both synthetic and real noisy labels. We show that our method achieves the best result on our dataset as well as on two public benchmarks (CIFAR and WebVision). Third, we conduct the largest study by far into understanding deep neural networks trained on noisy labels across different noise levels, noise types, network architectures, and training settings.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jiang20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jiang20c.htmlBINOCULARS for efficient, nonmyopic sequential experimental designFinite-horizon sequential experimental design (SED) arises naturally in many contexts, including hyperparameter tuning in machine learning among more traditional settings. Computing the optimal policy for such problems requires solving Bellman equations, which are generally intractable. Most existing work resorts to severely myopic approximations by limiting the decision horizon to only a single time-step, which can underweight exploration in favor of exploitation. We present BINOCULARS: Batch-Informed NOnmyopic Choices, Using Long-horizons for Adaptive, Rapid SED, a general framework for deriving efficient, nonmyopic approximations to the optimal experimental policy. Our key idea is simple and surprisingly effective: we first compute a one-step optimal batch of experiments, then select a single point from this batch to evaluate. We realize BINOCULARS for Bayesian optimization and Bayesian quadrature – two notable example problems with radically different objectives – and demonstrate that BINOCULARS significantly outperforms significantly outperforms myopic alternatives in real-world scenarios.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jiang20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jiang20b.htmlOptimizing Black-box Metrics with Adaptive SurrogatesWe address the problem of training models with black-box and hard-to-optimize metrics by expressing the metric as a monotonic function of a small number of easy-to-optimize surrogates. We pose the training problem as an optimization over a relaxed surrogate space, which we solve by estimating local gradients for the metric and performing inexact convex projections. We analyze gradient estimates based on finite differences and local linear interpolations, and show convergence of our approach under smoothness assumptions with respect to the surrogates. Experimental results on classification and ranking problems verify the proposal performs on par with methods that know the mathematical formulation, and adds notable value when the form of the metric is unknown.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jiang20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jiang20a.htmlInformation-Theoretic Local Minima Characterization and RegularizationRecent advances in deep learning theory have evoked the study of generalizability across different local minima of deep neural networks (DNNs). While current work focused on either discovering properties of good local minima or developing regularization techniques to induce good local minima, no approach exists that can tackle both problems. We achieve these two goals successfully in a unified manner. Specifically, based on the observed Fisher information we propose a metric both strongly indicative of generalizability of local minima and effectively applied as a practical regularizer. We provide theoretical analysis including a generalization bound and empirically demonstrate the success of our approach in both capturing and improving the generalizability of DNNs. Experiments are performed on CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100 and ImageNet for various network architectures.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jia20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jia20a.htmlHistory-Gradient Aided Batch Size Adaptation for Variance Reduced AlgorithmsVariance-reduced algorithms, although achieve great theoretical performance, can run slowly in practice due to the periodic gradient estimation with a large batch of data. Batch-size adaptation thus arises as a promising approach to accelerate such algorithms. However, existing schemes either apply prescribed batch-size adaption rule or exploit the information along optimization path via additional backtracking and condition verification steps. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme, which eliminates backtracking line search but still exploits the information along optimization path by adapting the batch size via history stochastic gradients. We further theoretically show that such a scheme substantially reduces the overall complexity for popular variance-reduced algorithms SVRG and SARAH/SPIDER for both conventional nonconvex optimization and reinforcement learning problems. To this end, we develop a new convergence analysis framework to handle the dependence of the batch size on history stochastic gradients. Extensive experiments validate the effectiveness of the proposed batch-size adaptation scheme.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ji20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ji20a.htmlT-GD: Transferable GAN-generated Images Detection FrameworkRecent advancements in Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) enable the generation of highly realistic images, raising concerns about their misuse for malicious purposes. Detecting these GAN-generated images (GAN-images) becomes increasingly challenging due to the significant reduction of underlying artifacts and specific patterns. The absence of such traces can hinder detection algorithms from identifying GAN-images and transferring knowledge to identify other types of GAN-images as well. In this work, we present the Transferable GAN-images Detection framework T-GD, a robust transferable framework for an effective detection of GAN-images. T-GD is composed of a teacher and a student model that can iteratively teach and evaluate each other to improve the detection performance. First, we train the teacher model on the source dataset and use it as a starting point for learning the target dataset. To train the student model, we inject noise by mixing up the source and target datasets, while constraining the weight variation to preserve the starting point. Our approach is a self-training method, but distinguishes itself from prior approaches by focusing on improving the transferability of GAN-image detection. T-GD achieves high performance on the source dataset by overcoming catastrophic forgetting and effectively detecting state-of-the-art GAN-images with only a small volume of data without any metadata information.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jeon20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jeon20a.htmlExtra-gradient with player sampling for faster convergence in n-player gamesData-driven modeling increasingly requires to find a Nash equilibrium in multi-player games, e.g. when training GANs. In this paper, we analyse a new extra-gradient method for Nash equilibrium finding, that performs gradient extrapolations and updates on a random subset of players at each iteration. This approach provably exhibits a better rate of convergence than full extra-gradient for non-smooth convex games with noisy gradient oracle. We propose an additional variance reduction mechanism to obtain speed-ups in smooth convex games. Our approach makes extrapolation amenable to massive multiplayer settings, and brings empirical speed-ups, in particular when using a heuristic cyclic sampling scheme. Most importantly, it allows to train faster and better GANs and mixtures of GANs.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jelassi20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jelassi20a.htmlSource Separation with Deep Generative PriorsDespite substantial progress in signal source separation, results for richly structured data continue to contain perceptible artifacts. In contrast, recent deep generative models can produce authentic samples in a variety of domains that are indistinguishable from samples of the data distribution. This paper introduces a Bayesian approach to source separation that uses deep generative models as priors over the components of a mixture of sources, and noise-annealed Langevin dynamics to sample from the posterior distribution of sources given a mixture. This decouples the source separation problem from generative modeling, enabling us to directly use cutting-edge generative models as priors. The method achieves state-of-the-art performance for MNIST digit separation. We introduce new methodology for evaluating separation quality on richer datasets, providing quantitative evaluation and qualitative discussion of results for CIFAR-10 image separation. We also provide qualitative results on LSUN.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jayaram20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jayaram20a.htmlInverse Active Sensing: Modeling and Understanding Timely Decision-MakingEvidence-based decision-making entails collecting (costly) observations about an underlying phenomenon of interest, and subsequently committing to an (informed) decision on the basis of accumulated evidence. In this setting, *active sensing* is the goal-oriented problem of efficiently selecting which acquisitions to make, and when and what decision to settle on. As its complement, *inverse active sensing* seeks to uncover an agent’s preferences and strategy given their observable decision-making behavior. In this paper, we develop an expressive, unified framework for the general setting of evidence-based decision-making under endogenous, context-dependent time pressure—which requires negotiating (subjective) tradeoffs between accuracy, speediness, and cost of information. Using this language, we demonstrate how it enables *modeling* intuitive notions of surprise, suspense, and optimality in decision strategies (the forward problem). Finally, we illustrate how this formulation enables *understanding* decision-making behavior by quantifying preferences implicit in observed decision strategies (the inverse problem).Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jarrett20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jarrett20a.htmlParametric Gaussian Process RegressorsThe combination of inducing point methods with stochastic variational inference has enabled approximate Gaussian Process (GP) inference on large datasets. Unfortunately, the resulting predictive distributions often exhibit substantially underestimated uncertainties. Notably, in the regression case the predictive variance is typically dominated by observation noise, yielding uncertainty estimates that make little use of the input-dependent function uncertainty that makes GP priors attractive. In this work we propose two simple methods for scalable GP regression that address this issue and thus yield substantially improved predictive uncertainties. The first applies variational inference to FITC (Fully Independent Training Conditional; Snelson et. al. 2006). The second bypasses posterior approximations and instead directly targets the posterior predictive distribution. In an extensive empirical comparison with a number of alternative methods for scalable GP regression, we find that the resulting predictive distributions exhibit significantly better calibrated uncertainties and higher log likelihoods–often by as much as half a nat per datapoint.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jankowiak20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jankowiak20a.htmlDebiased Sinkhorn barycentersEntropy regularization in optimal transport (OT) has been the driver of many recent interests for Wasserstein metrics and barycenters in machine learning. It allows to keep the appealing geometrical properties of the unregularized Wasserstein distance while having a significantly lower complexity thanks to Sinkhorn’s algorithm. However, entropy brings some inherent smoothing bias, resulting for example in blurred barycenters. This side effect has prompted an increasing temptation in the community to settle for a slower algorithm such as log-domain stabilized Sinkhorn which breaks the parallel structure that can be leveraged on GPUs, or even go back to unregularized OT. Here we show how this bias is tightly linked to the reference measure that defines the entropy regularizer and propose debiased Sinkhorn barycenters that preserve the best of worlds: fast Sinkhorn-like iterations without entropy smoothing. Theoretically, we prove that this debiasing is perfect for Gaussian distributions with equal variance. Empirically, we illustrate the reduced blurring and the computational advantage.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/janati20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/janati20a.htmlLearning Portable Representations for High-Level PlanningWe present a framework for autonomously learning a portable representation that describes a collection of low-level continuous environments. We show that these abstract representations can be learned in a task-independent egocentric space specific to the agent that, when grounded with problem-specific information, are provably sufficient for planning. We demonstrate transfer in two different domains, where an agent learns a portable, task-independent symbolic vocabulary, as well as operators expressed in that vocabulary, and then learns to instantiate those operators on a per-task basis. This reduces the number of samples required to learn a representation of a new task.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/james20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/james20a.htmlTails of Lipschitz Triangular FlowsWe investigate the ability of popular flow models to capture tail-properties of a target density by studying the increasing triangular maps used in these flow methods acting on a tractable source density. We show that the density quantile functions of the source and target density provide a precise characterization of the slope of transformation required to capture tails in a target density. We further show that any Lipschitz-continuous transport map acting on a source density will result in a density with similar tail properties as the source, highlighting the trade-off between the importance of choosing a complex source density and a sufficiently expressive transformation to capture desirable properties of a target density. Subsequently, we illustrate that flow models like Real-NVP, MAF, and Glow as implemented lack the ability to capture a distribution with non-Gaussian tails. We circumvent this problem by proposing tail-adaptive flows consisting of a source distribution that can be learned simultaneously with the triangular map to capture tail-properties of a target density. We perform several synthetic and real-world experiments to complement our theoretical findings.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jaini20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jaini20a.htmlGeneralization to New Actions in Reinforcement LearningA fundamental trait of intelligence is the ability to achieve goals in the face of novel circumstances, such as making decisions from new action choices. However, standard reinforcement learning assumes a fixed set of actions and requires expensive retraining when given a new action set. To make learning agents more adaptable, we introduce the problem of zero-shot generalization to new actions. We propose a two-stage framework where the agent first infers action representations from action information acquired separately from the task. A policy flexible to varying action sets is then trained with generalization objectives. We benchmark generalization on sequential tasks, such as selecting from an unseen tool-set to solve physical reasoning puzzles and stacking towers with novel 3D shapes. Videos and code are available at https://sites.google.com/view/action-generalization.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jain20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jain20b.htmlOptimal Robust Learning of Discrete Distributions from BatchesMany applications, including natural language processing, sensor networks, collaborative filtering, and federated learning, call for estimating discrete distributions from data collected in batches, some of which may be untrustworthy, erroneous, faulty, or even adversarial. Previous estimators for this setting ran in exponential time, and for some regimes required a suboptimal number of batches. We provide the first polynomial-time estimator that is optimal in the number of batches and achieves essentially the best possible estimation accuracy.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jain20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jain20a.htmlCorrelation Clustering with Asymmetric Classification ErrorsIn the Correlation Clustering problem, we are given a weighted graph $G$ with its edges labelled as "similar" or "dissimilar" by a binary classifier. The goal is to produce a clustering that minimizes the weight of "disagreements": the sum of the weights of "similar" edges across clusters and "dissimilar" edges within clusters. We study the correlation clustering problem under the following assumption: Every "similar" edge $e$ has weight $w_e \in [ \alpha w, w ]$ and every "dissimilar" edge $e$ has weight $w_e \geq \alpha w$ (where $\alpha \leq 1$ and $w > 0$ is a scaling parameter). We give a $(3 + 2 \log_e (1/\alpha))$ approximation algorithm for this problem. This assumption captures well the scenario when classification errors are asymmetric. Additionally, we show an asymptotically matching Linear Programming integrality gap of $\Omega(\log 1/\alpha)$.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jafarov20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jafarov20a.htmlImplicit Regularization of Random Feature ModelsRandom Features (RF) models are used as efficient parametric approximations of kernel methods. We investigate, by means of random matrix theory, the connection between Gaussian RF models and Kernel Ridge Regression (KRR). For a Gaussian RF model with $P$ features, $N$ data points, and a ridge $\lambda$, we show that the average (i.e. expected) RF predictor is close to a KRR predictor with an \emph{effective ridge} $\tilde{\lambda}$. We show that $\tilde{\lambda} > \lambda$ and $\tilde{\lambda} \searrow \lambda$ monotonically as $P$ grows, thus revealing the \emph{implicit regularization effect} of finite RF sampling. We then compare the risk (i.e. test error) of the $\tilde{\lambda}$-KRR predictor with the average risk of the $\lambda$-RF predictor and obtain a precise and explicit bound on their difference. Finally, we empirically find an extremely good agreement between the test errors of the average $\lambda$-RF predictor and $\tilde{\lambda}$-KRR predictor.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jacot20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/jacot20a.htmlSemi-Supervised Learning with Normalizing FlowsNormalizing flows transform a latent distribution through an invertible neural network for a flexible and pleasingly simple approach to generative modelling, while preserving an exact likelihood. We propose FlowGMM, an end-to-end approach to generative semi supervised learning with normalizing flows, using a latent Gaussian mixture model. FlowGMM is distinct in its simplicity, unified treatment of labelled and unlabelled data with an exact likelihood, interpretability, and broad applicability beyond image data. We show promising results on a wide range of applications, including AG-News and Yahoo Answers text data, tabular data, and semi-supervised image classification. We also show that FlowGMM can discover interpretable structure, provide real-time optimization-free feature visualizations, and specify well calibrated predictive distributions.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/izmailov20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/izmailov20a.htmlDo We Need Zero Training Loss After Achieving Zero Training Error?Overparameterized deep networks have the capacity to memorize training data with zero \emph{training error}. Even after memorization, the \emph{training loss} continues to approach zero, making the model overconfident and the test performance degraded. Since existing regularizers do not directly aim to avoid zero training loss, it is hard to tune their hyperparameters in order to maintain a fixed/preset level of training loss. We propose a direct solution called \emph{flooding} that intentionally prevents further reduction of the training loss when it reaches a reasonably small value, which we call the \emph{flood level}. Our approach makes the loss float around the flood level by doing mini-batched gradient descent as usual but gradient ascent if the training loss is below the flood level. This can be implemented with one line of code and is compatible with any stochastic optimizer and other regularizers. With flooding, the model will continue to “random walk” with the same non-zero training loss, and we expect it to drift into an area with a flat loss landscape that leads to better generalization. We experimentally show that flooding improves performance and, as a byproduct, induces a double descent curve of the test loss.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ishida20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ishida20a.htmlFast Deterministic CUR Matrix Decomposition with Accuracy AssuranceThe deterministic CUR matrix decomposition is a low-rank approximation method to analyze a data matrix. It has attracted considerable attention due to its high interpretability, which results from the fact that the decomposed matrices consist of subsets of the original columns and rows of the data matrix. The subset is obtained by optimizing an objective function with sparsity-inducing norms via coordinate descent. However, the existing algorithms for optimization incur high computation costs. This is because coordinate descent iteratively updates all the parameters in the objective until convergence. This paper proposes a fast deterministic CUR matrix decomposition. Our algorithm safely skips unnecessary updates by efficiently evaluating the optimality conditions for the parameters to be zeros. In addition, we preferentially update the parameters that must be nonzeros. Theoretically, our approach guarantees the same result as the original approach. Experiments demonstrate that our algorithm speeds up the deterministic CUR while achieving the same accuracy.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ida20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ida20a.htmlLinear Lower Bounds and Conditioning of Differentiable GamesRecent successes of game-theoretic formulations in ML have caused a resurgence of research interest in differentiable games. Overwhelmingly, that research focuses on methods and upper bounds on their speed of convergence. In this work, we approach the question of fundamental iteration complexity by providing lower bounds to complement the linear (i.e. geometric) upper bounds observed in the literature on a wide class of problems. We cast saddle-point and min-max problems as 2-player games. We leverage tools from single-objective convex optimisation to propose new linear lower bounds for convex-concave games. Notably, we give a linear lower bound for $n$-player differentiable games, by using the spectral properties of the update operator. We then propose a new definition of the condition number arising from our lower bound analysis. Unlike past definitions, our condition number captures the fact that linear rates are possible in games, even in the absence of strong convexity or strong concavity in the variables.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ibrahim20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/ibrahim20a.htmlMeta-Learning with Shared Amortized Variational InferenceWe propose a novel amortized variational inference scheme for an empirical Bayes meta-learning model, where model parameters are treated as latent variables. We learn the prior distribution over model parameters conditioned on limited training data using a variational autoencoder approach. Our framework proposes sharing the same amortized inference network between the conditional prior and variational posterior distributions over the model parameters. While the posterior leverages both the labeled support and query data, the conditional prior is based only on the labeled support data. We show that in earlier work, relying on Monte-Carlo approximation, the conditional prior collapses to a Dirac delta function. In contrast, our variational approach prevents this collapse and preserves uncertainty over the model parameters. We evaluate our approach on the miniImageNet, CIFAR-FS and FC100 datasets, and present results demonstrating its advantages over previous work.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/iakovleva20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/iakovleva20a.htmlMultigrid Neural MemoryWe introduce a novel approach to endowing neural networks with emergent, long-term, large-scale memory. Distinct from strategies that connect neural networks to external memory banks via intricately crafted controllers and hand-designed attentional mechanisms, our memory is internal, distributed, co-located alongside computation, and implicitly addressed, while being drastically simpler than prior efforts. Architecting networks with multigrid structure and connectivity, while distributing memory cells alongside computation throughout this topology, we observe the emergence of coherent memory subsystems. Our hierarchical spatial organization, parameterized convolutionally, permits efficient instantiation of large-capacity memories, while multigrid topology provides short internal routing pathways, allowing convolutional networks to efficiently approximate the behavior of fully connected networks. Such networks have an implicit capacity for internal attention; augmented with memory, they learn to read and write specific memory locations in a dynamic data-dependent manner. We demonstrate these capabilities on exploration and mapping tasks, where our network is able to self-organize and retain long-term memory for trajectories of thousands of time steps. On tasks decoupled from any notion of spatial geometry: sorting, associative recall, and question answering, our design functions as a truly generic memory and yields excellent results.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/huynh20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/huynh20a.htmlCurvature-corrected learning dynamics in deep neural networksDeep neural networks exhibit complex learning dynamics due to their non-convex loss landscapes. Second-order optimization methods facilitate learning dynamics by compensating for ill-conditioned curvature. In this work, we investigate how curvature correction modifies the learning dynamics in deep linear neural networks and provide analytical solutions. We derive a generalized conservation law that preserves the path of parameter dynamics from curvature correction, which shows that curvature correction only modifies the temporal profiles of dynamics along the path. We show that while curvature correction accelerates the convergence dynamics of the input-output map, it can also negatively affect the generalization performance. Our analysis also reveals an undesirable effect of curvature correction that compromises stability of parameters dynamics during learning, especially with block-diagonal approximation of natural gradient descent. We introduce fractional curvature correction that resolves this problem while retaining most of the acceleration benefits of full curvature correction.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/huh20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/huh20a.htmlDynamics of Deep Neural Networks and Neural Tangent HierarchyThe evolution of a deep neural network trained by the gradient descent in the overparametrization regime can be described by its neural tangent kernel (NTK) \cite{jacot2018neural, du2018gradient1,du2018gradient2,arora2019fine}. It was observed \cite{arora2019exact} that there is a performance gap between the kernel regression using the limiting NTK and the deep neural networks. We study the dynamic of neural networks of finite width and derive an infinite hierarchy of differential equations, the neural tangent hierarchy (NTH). We prove that the NTH hierarchy truncated at the level $p\geq 2$ approximates the dynamic of the NTK up to arbitrary precision under certain conditions on the neural network width and the data set dimension. The assumptions needed for these approximations become weaker as $p$ increases. Finally, NTH can be viewed as higher order extensions of NTK. In particular, the NTH truncated at $p=2$ recovers the NTK dynamics.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/huang20l.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/huang20l.htmlDeep Graph Random Process for Relational-Thinking-Based Speech RecognitionLying at the core of human intelligence, relational thinking is characterized by initially relying on innumerable unconscious percepts pertaining to relations between new sensory signals and prior knowledge, consequently becoming a recognizable concept or object through coupling and transformation of these percepts. Such mental processes are difficult to model in real-world problems such as in conversational automatic speech recognition (ASR), as the percepts (if they are modelled as graphs indicating relationships among utterances) are supposed to be innumerable and not directly observable. In this paper, we present a Bayesian nonparametric deep learning method called deep graph random process (DGP) that can generate an infinite number of probabilistic graphs representing percepts. We further provide a closed-form solution for coupling and transformation of these percept graphs for acoustic modeling. Our approach is able to successfully infer relations among utterances without using any relational data during training. Experimental evaluations on ASR tasks including CHiME-2 and CHiME-5 demonstrate the effectiveness and benefits of our method.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/huang20k.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/huang20k.htmlAccelerated Stochastic Gradient-free and Projection-free MethodsIn the paper, we propose a class of accelerated stochastic gradient-free and projection-free (a.k.a., zeroth-order Frank-Wolfe) methods to solve the constrained stochastic and finite-sum nonconvex optimization. Specifically, we propose an accelerated stochastic zeroth-order Frank-Wolfe (Acc-SZOFW) method based on the variance reduced technique of SPIDER/SpiderBoost and a novel momentum accelerated technique. Moreover, under some mild conditions, we prove that the Acc-SZOFW has the function query complexity of $O(d\sqrt{n}\epsilon^{-2})$ for finding an $\epsilon$-stationary point in the finite-sum problem, which improves the exiting best result by a factor of $O(\sqrt{n}\epsilon^{-2})$, and has the function query complexity of $O(d\epsilon^{-3})$ in the stochastic problem, which improves the exiting best result by a factor of $O(\epsilon^{-1})$. To relax the large batches required in the Acc-SZOFW, we further propose a novel accelerated stochastic zeroth-order Frank-Wolfe (Acc-SZOFW*) based on a new variance reduced technique of STORM, which still reaches the function query complexity of $O(d\epsilon^{-3})$ in the stochastic problem without relying on any large batches. In particular, we present an accelerated framework of the Frank-Wolfe methods based on the proposed momentum accelerated technique. The extensive experimental results on black-box adversarial attack and robust black-box classification demonstrate the efficiency of our algorithms.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/huang20j.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/huang20j.htmlInstaHide: Instance-hiding Schemes for Private Distributed LearningHow can multiple distributed entities train a shared deep net on their private data while protecting data privacy? This paper introduces InstaHide, a simple encryption of training images. Encrypted images can be used in standard deep learning pipelines (PyTorch, Federated Learning etc.) with no additional setup or infrastructure. The encryption has a minor effect on test accuracy (unlike differential privacy). Encryption consists of mixing the image with a set of other images (in the sense of Mixup data augmentation technique (Zhang et al., 2018)) followed by applying a random pixel-wise mask on the mixed image. Other contributions of this paper are: (a) Use of large public dataset of images (e.g. ImageNet) for mixing during encryption; this improves security. (b) Experiments demonstrating effectiveness in protecting privacy against known attacks while preserving model accuracy. (c) Theoretical analysis showing that successfully attacking privacy requires attackers to solve a difficult computational problem. (d) Demonstration that Mixup alone is insecure as (contrary to recent proposals), by showing some efficient attacks. (e) Release of a challenge dataset to allow design of new attacks.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/huang20i.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/huang20i.htmlGenerating Programmatic Referring Expressions via Program SynthesisIncorporating symbolic reasoning into machine learning algorithms is a promising approach to improve performance on learning tasks that require logical reasoning. We study the problem of generating a programmatic variant of referring expressions that we call referring relational programs. In particular, given a symbolic representation of an image and a target object in that image, the goal is to generate a relational program that uniquely identifies the target object in terms of its attributes and its relations to other objects in the image. We propose a neurosymbolic program synthesis algorithm that combines a policy neural network with enumerative search to generate such relational programs. The policy neural network employs a program interpreter that provides immediate feedback on the consequences of the decisions made by the policy, and also takes into account the uncertainty in the symbolic representation of the image. We evaluate our algorithm on challenging benchmarks based on the CLEVR dataset, and demonstrate that our approach significantly outperforms several baselines.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/huang20h.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/huang20h.htmlMore Information Supervised Probabilistic Deep Face Embedding LearningResearches using margin based comparison loss demonstrate the effectiveness of penalizing the distance between face feature and their corresponding class centers. Despite their popularity and excellent performance, they do not explicitly encourage the generic embedding learning for an open set recognition problem. In this paper, we analyse margin based softmax loss in probability view. With this perspective, we propose two general principles: 1) monotonically decreasing and 2) margin probability penalty, for designing new margin loss functions. Unlike methods optimized with single comparison metric, we provide a new perspective to treat open set face recognition as a problem of information transmission. And the generalization capability for face embedding is gained with more clean information. An auto-encoder architecture called Linear-Auto-TS-Encoder(LATSE) is proposed to corroborate this finding. Extensive experiments on several benchmarks demonstrate that LATSE help face embedding to gain more generalization capability and it boost the single model performance with open training dataset to more than 99% on MegaFace test.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/huang20g.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/huang20g.htmlImproving Transformer Optimization Through Better InitializationThe Transformer architecture has achieved considerable success recently; the key component of the Transformer is the attention layer that enables the model to focus on important regions within an input sequence. Gradient optimization with attention layers can be notoriously difficult requiring tricks such as learning rate warmup to prevent divergence. As Transformer models are becoming larger and more expensive to train, recent research has focused on understanding and improving optimization in these architectures. In this work our contributions are two-fold: we first investigate and empirically validate the source of optimization problems in the encoder-decoder Transformer architecture; we then propose a new weight initialization scheme with theoretical justification, that enables training without warmup or layer normalization. Empirical results on public machine translation benchmarks show that our approach achieves leading accuracy, allowing to train deep Transformer models with 200 layers in both encoder and decoder (over 1000 attention/MLP blocks) without difficulty. Code for this work is available here: \url{https://github.com/layer6ai-labs/T-Fixup}.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/huang20f.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/huang20f.htmlCommunication-Efficient Distributed PCA by Riemannian OptimizationIn this paper, we study the leading eigenvector problem in a statistically distributed setting and propose a communication-efficient algorithm based on Riemannian optimization, which trades local computation for global communication. Theoretical analysis shows that the proposed algorithm linearly converges to the centralized empirical risk minimization solution regarding the number of communication rounds. When the number of data points in local machines is sufficiently large, the proposed algorithm achieves a significant reduction of communication cost over existing distributed PCA algorithms. Superior performance in terms of communication cost of the proposed algorithm is verified on real-world and synthetic datasets.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/huang20e.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/huang20e.htmlOne Policy to Control Them All: Shared Modular Policies for Agent-Agnostic ControlReinforcement learning is typically concerned with learning control policies tailored to a particular agent. We investigate whether there exists a single global policy that can generalize to control a wide variety of agent morphologies – ones in which even dimensionality of state and action spaces changes. We propose to express this global policy as a collection of identical modular neural networks, dubbed as Shared Modular Policies (SMP), that correspond to each of the agent’s actuators. Every module is only responsible for controlling its corresponding actuator and receives information from only its local sensors. In addition, messages are passed between modules, propagating information between distant modules. We show that a single modular policy can successfully generate locomotion behaviors for several planar agents with different skeletal structures such as monopod hoppers, quadrupeds, bipeds, and generalize to variants not seen during training – a process that would normally require training and manual hyperparameter tuning for each morphology. We observe that a wide variety of drastically diverse locomotion styles across morphologies as well as centralized coordination emerges via message passing between decentralized modules purely from the reinforcement learning objective. Videos and code at https://huangwl18.github.io/modular-rl/Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/huang20d.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/huang20d.htmlEvaluating Lossy Compression Rates of Deep Generative ModelsThe field of deep generative modeling has succeeded in producing astonishingly realistic-seeming images and audio, but quantitative evaluation remains a challenge. Log-likelihood is an appealing metric due to its grounding in statistics and information theory, but it can be challenging to estimate for implicit generative models, and scalar-valued metrics give an incomplete picture of a model’s quality. In this work, we propose to use rate distortion (RD) curves to evaluate and compare deep generative models. While estimating RD curves is seemingly even more computationally demanding than log-likelihood estimation, we show that we can approximate the entire RD curve using nearly the same computations as were previously used to achieve a single log-likelihood estimate. We evaluate lossy compression rates of VAEs, GANs, and adversarial autoencoders (AAEs) on the MNIST and CIFAR10 datasets. Measuring the entire RD curve gives a more complete picture than scalar-valued metrics, and we arrive at a number of insights not obtainable from log-likelihoods alone.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/huang20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/huang20c.htmlFrom Importance Sampling to Doubly Robust Policy GradientWe show that on-policy policy gradient (PG) and its variance reduction variants can be derived by taking finite-difference of function evaluations supplied by estimators from the importance sampling (IS) family for off-policy evaluation (OPE). Starting from the doubly robust (DR) estimator (Jiang & Li, 2016), we provide a simple derivation of a very general and flexible form of PG, which subsumes the state-of-the-art variance reduction technique (Cheng et al., 2019) as its special case and immediately hints at further variance reduction opportunities overlooked by existing literature. We analyze the variance of the new DR-PG estimator, compare it to existing methods as well as the Cramer-Rao lower bound of policy gradient, and empirically show its effectiveness.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/huang20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/huang20b.htmlMomentum-Based Policy Gradient MethodsIn the paper, we propose a class of efficient momentum-based policy gradient methods for the model-free reinforcement learning, which use adaptive learning rates and do not require any large batches. Specifically, we propose a fast important-sampling momentum-based policy gradient (IS-MBPG) method based on a new momentum-based variance reduced technique and the importance sampling technique. We also propose a fast Hessian-aided momentum-based policy gradient (HA-MBPG) method based on the momentum-based variance reduced technique and the Hessian-aided technique. Moreover, we prove that both the IS-MBPG and HA-MBPG methods reach the best known sample complexity of $O(\epsilon^{-3})$ for finding an $\epsilon$-stationary point of the nonconcave performance function, which only require one trajectory at each iteration. In particular, we present a non-adaptive version of IS-MBPG method, i.e., IS-MBPG*, which also reaches the best known sample complexity of $O(\epsilon^{-3})$ without any large batches. In the experiments, we apply four benchmark tasks to demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithms.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/huang20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/huang20a.htmlXTREME: A Massively Multilingual Multi-task Benchmark for Evaluating Cross-lingual GeneralisationMuch recent progress in applications of machine learning models to NLP has been driven by benchmarks that evaluate models across a wide variety of tasks. However, these broad-coverage benchmarks have been mostly limited to English, and despite an increasing interest in multilingual models, a benchmark that enables the comprehensive evaluation of such methods on a diverse range of languages and tasks is still missing. To this end, we introduce the Cross-lingual TRansfer Evaluation of Multilingual Encoders (XTREME) benchmark, a multi-task benchmark for evaluating the cross-lingual generalization capabilities of multilingual representations across 40 languages and 9 tasks. We demonstrate that while models tested on English reach human performance on many tasks, there is still a sizable gap in the performance of cross-lingually transferred models, particularly on syntactic and sentence retrieval tasks. There is also a wide spread of results across languages. We will release the benchmark to encourage research on cross-lingual learning methods that transfer linguistic knowledge across a diverse and representative set of languages and tasks.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hu20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hu20b.html“Other-Play” for Zero-Shot CoordinationWe consider the problem of zero-shot coordination - constructing AI agents that can coordinate with novel partners they have not seen before (e.g.humans). Standard Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning (MARL) methods typically focus on the self-play (SP) setting where agents construct strategies by playing the game with themselves repeatedly. Unfortunately, applying SP naively to the zero-shot coordination problem can produce agents that establish highly specialized conventions that do not carry over to novel partners they have not been trained with. We introduce a novel learning algorithm called other-play (OP), that enhances self-play by looking for more robust strategies. We characterize OP theoretically as well as experimentally. We study the cooperative card game Hanabi and show that OP agents achieve higher scores when paired with independently trained agents as well as with human players than SP agents.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hu20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hu20a.htmlThe Non-IID Data Quagmire of Decentralized Machine LearningMany large-scale machine learning (ML) applications need to perform decentralized learning over datasets generated at different devices and locations. Such datasets pose a significant challenge to decentralized learning because their different contexts result in significant data distribution skew across devices/locations. In this paper, we take a step toward better understanding this challenge by presenting a detailed experimental study of decentralized DNN training on a common type of data skew: skewed distribution of data labels across devices/locations. Our study shows that: (i) skewed data labels are a fundamental and pervasive problem for decentralized learning, causing significant accuracy loss across many ML applications, DNN models, training datasets, and decentralized learning algorithms; (ii) the problem is particularly challenging for DNN models with batch normalization; and (iii) the degree of data skew is a key determinant of the difficulty of the problem. Based on these findings, we present SkewScout, a system-level approach that adapts the communication frequency of decentralized learning algorithms to the (skew-induced) accuracy loss between data partitions. We also show that group normalization can recover much of the accuracy loss of batch normalization.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hsieh20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hsieh20a.htmlInfinite attention: NNGP and NTK for deep attention networksThere is a growing amount of literature on the relationship between wide neural networks (NNs) and Gaussian processes (GPs), identifying an equivalence between the two for a variety of NN architectures. This equivalence enables, for instance, accurate approximation of the behaviour of wide Bayesian NNs without MCMC or variational approximations, or characterisation of the distribution of randomly initialised wide NNs optimised by gradient descent without ever running an optimiser. We provide a rigorous extension of these results to NNs involving attention layers, showing that unlike single-head attention, which induces non-Gaussian behaviour, multi-head attention architectures behave as GPs as the number of heads tends to infinity. We further discuss the effects of positional encodings and layer normalisation, and propose modifications of the attention mechanism which lead to improved results for both finite and infinitely wide NNs. We evaluate attention kernels empirically, leading to a moderate improvement upon the previous state-of-the-art on CIFAR-10 for GPs without trainable kernels and advanced data preprocessing. Finally, we introduce new features to the Neural Tangents library (Novak et al.,2020) allowing applications of NNGP/NTK models, with and without attention, to variable-length sequences, with an example on the IMDb reviews dataset.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hron20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hron20a.htmlLifted Disjoint Paths with Application in Multiple Object TrackingWe present an extension to the disjoint paths problem in which additional lifted edges are introduced to provide path connectivity priors. We call the resulting optimization problem the lifted disjoint paths problem. We show that this problem is NP-hard by reduction from integer multicommodity flow and 3-SAT. To enable practical global optimization, we propose several classes of linear inequalities that produce a high-quality LP-relaxation. Additionally, we propose efficient cutting plane algorithms for separating the proposed linear inequalities. The lifted disjoint path problem is a natural model for multiple object tracking and allows an elegant mathematical formulation for long range temporal interactions. Lifted edges help to prevent id switches and to re-identify persons. Our lifted disjoint paths tracker achieves nearly optimal assignments with respect to input detections. As a consequence, it leads on all three main benchmarks of the MOT challenge, improving significantly over state-of-the-art.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hornakova20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hornakova20a.htmlSet Functions for Time SeriesDespite the eminent successes of deep neural networks, many architectures are often hard to transfer to irregularly-sampled and asynchronous time series that commonly occur in real-world datasets, especially in healthcare applications. This paper proposes a novel approach for classifying irregularly-sampled time series with unaligned measurements, focusing on high scalability and data efficiency. Our method SeFT (Set Functions for Time Series) is based on recent advances in differentiable set function learning, extremely parallelizable with a beneficial memory footprint, thus scaling well to large datasets of long time series and online monitoring scenarios. Furthermore, our approach permits quantifying per-observation contributions to the classification outcome. We extensively compare our method with existing algorithms on multiple healthcare time series datasets and demonstrate that it performs competitively whilst significantly reducing runtime.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/horn20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/horn20a.htmlLearning Mixtures of Graphs from Epidemic CascadesWe consider the problem of learning the weighted edges of a balanced mixture of two undirected graphs from epidemic cascades. While mixture models are popular modeling tools, algorithmic development with rigorous guarantees has lagged. Graph mixtures are apparently no exception: until now, very little is known about whether this problem is solvable. To the best of our knowledge, we establish the first necessary and sufficient conditions for this problem to be solvable in polynomial time on edge-separated graphs. When the conditions are met, i.e., when the graphs are connected with at least three edges, we give an efficient algorithm for learning the weights of both graphs with optimal sample complexity (up to log factors). We give complementary results and provide sample-optimal (up to log factors) algorithms for mixtures of directed graphs of out-degree at least three, and for mixture of undirected graphs of unbalanced and/or unknown priors.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hoffmann20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hoffmann20a.htmlBlack-Box Variational Inference as a Parametric Approximation to Langevin DynamicsVariational inference (VI) and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) are approximate posterior inference algorithms that are often said to have complementary strengths, with VI being fast but biased and MCMC being slower but asymptotically unbiased. In this paper, we analyze gradient-based MCMC and VI procedures and find theoretical and empirical evidence that these procedures are not as different as one might think. In particular, a close examination of the Fokker-Planck equation that governs the Langevin dynamics (LD) MCMC procedure reveals that LD implicitly follows a gradient flow that corresponds to a variational inference procedure based on optimizing a nonparametric normalizing flow. This result suggests that the transient bias of LD (due to the Markov chain not having burned in) may track that of VI (due to the optimizer not having converged), up to differences due to VI’s asymptotic bias and parameterization. Empirically, we find that the transient biases of these algorithms (and their momentum-accelerated counterparts) do evolve similarly. This suggests that practitioners with a limited time budget may get more accurate results by running an MCMC procedure (even if it’s far from burned in) than a VI procedure, as long as the variance of the MCMC estimator can be dealt with (e.g., by running many parallel chains).Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hoffman20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hoffman20a.htmlGraph Filtration LearningWe propose an approach to learning with graph-structured data in the problem domain of graph classification. In particular, we present a novel type of readout operation to aggregate node features into a graph-level representation. To this end, we leverage persistent homology computed via a real-valued, learnable, filter function. We establish the theoretical foundation for differentiating through the persistent homology computation. Empirically, we show that this type of readout operation compares favorably to previous techniques, especially when the graph connectivity structure is informative for the learning problem.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hofer20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hofer20b.htmlTopologically Densified DistributionsWe study regularization in the context of small sample-size learning with over-parametrized neural networks. Specifically, we shift focus from architectural properties, such as norms on the network weights, to properties of the internal representations before a linear classifier. Specifically, we impose a topological constraint on samples drawn from the probability measure induced in that space. This provably leads to mass concentration effects around the representations of training instances, i.e., a property beneficial for generalization. By leveraging previous work to impose topological constrains in a neural network setting, we provide empirical evidence (across various vision benchmarks) to support our claim for better generalization.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hofer20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hofer20a.htmlParameterized Rate-Distortion Stochastic EncoderWe propose a novel gradient-based tractable approach for the Blahut-Arimoto (BA) algorithm to compute the rate-distortion function where the BA algorithm is fully parameterized. This results in a rich and flexible framework to learn a new class of stochastic encoders, termed PArameterized RAte-DIstortion Stochastic Encoder (PARADISE). The framework can be applied to a wide range of settings from semi-supervised, multi-task to supervised and robust learning. We show that the training objective of PARADISE can be seen as a form of regularization that helps improve generalization. With an emphasis on robust learning we further develop a novel posterior matching objective to encourage smoothness on the loss function and show that PARADISE can significantly improve interpretability as well as robustness to adversarial attacks on the CIFAR-10 and ImageNet datasets. In particular, on the CIFAR-10 dataset, our model reduces standard and adversarial error rates in comparison to the state-of-the-art by 50% and 41%, respectively without the expensive computational cost of adversarial training.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hoang20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hoang20c.htmlLearning Task-Agnostic Embedding of Multiple Black-Box Experts for Multi-Task Model FusionModel fusion is an emerging study in collective learning where heterogeneous experts with private data and learning architectures need to combine their black-box knowledge for better performance. Existing literature achieves this via a local knowledge distillation scheme that transfuses the predictive patterns of each pre-trained expert onto a white-box imitator model, which can be incorporated efficiently into a global model. This scheme however does not extend to multi-task scenarios where different experts were trained to solve different tasks and only part of their distilled knowledge is relevant to a new task. To address this multi-task challenge, we develop a new fusion paradigm that represents each expert as a distribution over a spectrum of predictive prototypes, which are isolated from task-specific information encoded within the prototype distribution. The task-agnostic prototypes can then be reintegrated to generate a new model that solves a new task encoded with a different prototype distribution. The fusion and adaptation performance of the proposed framework is demonstrated empirically on several real-world benchmark datasets.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hoang20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hoang20b.htmlOptimizing Dynamic Structures with Bayesian Generative SearchKernel selection for kernel-based methods is prohibitively expensive due to the NP-hard nature of discrete optimization. Since gradient-based optimizers are not applicable due to the lack of a differentiable objective function, many state-of-the-art solutions resort to heuristic search or gradient-free optimization. These approaches, however, require imposing restrictive assumptions on the explorable space of structures such as limiting the active candidate pool, thus depending heavily on the intuition of domain experts. This paper instead proposes \textbf{DTERGENS}, a novel generative search framework that constructs and optimizes a high-performance composite kernel expressions generator. \textbf{DTERGENS} does not restrict the space of candidate kernels and is capable of obtaining flexible length expressions by jointly optimizing a generative termination criterion. We demonstrate that our framework explores more diverse kernels and obtains better performance than state-of-the-art approaches on many real-world predictive tasks.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hoang20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hoang20a.htmlOptimization and Analysis of the pAp@k Metric for Recommender SystemsModern recommendation and notification systems must be robust to data imbalance, limitations on the number of recommendations/notifications, and heterogeneous engagement profiles across users. The pAp@k metric, which combines the partial-AUC and the precision@k metrics, was recently proposed to evaluate such recommendation systems and has been used in real-world deployments. Conceptually, pAp@k measures the probability of correctly ranking a top-ranked positive instance over top-ranked negative instances. Due to the combinatorial aspect surfaced by top-ranked points, little is known about the characteristics and optimization methods of pAp@k. In this paper, we analyze the learning-theoretic properties of pAp@k, particularly its benefits in evaluating modern recommender systems, and propose novel surrogates that are consistent under certain data regularity conditions. We then provide gradient descent based algorithms to optimize the surrogates directly. Our analysis and experimental evaluation suggest that pAp@k indeed exhibits a certain dual behavior with respect to partial-AUC and precision@k. Moreover, the proposed methods outperform all the baselines in various applications. Taken together, our results motivate the use of pAp@k for large-scale recommender systems with heterogeneous user-engagement.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hiranandani20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hiranandani20a.htmlTowards Non-Parametric Drift Detection via Dynamic Adapting Window Independence Drift Detection (DAWIDD)The notion of concept drift refers to the phenomenon that the distribution, which is underlying the observed data, changes over time; as a consequence machine learning models may become inaccurate and need adjustment. Many online learning schemes include drift detection to actively detect and react to observed changes. Yet, reliable drift detection constitutes a challenging problem in particular in the context of high dimensional data, varying drift characteristics, and the absence of a parametric model such as a classification scheme which reflects the drift. In this paper we present a novel concept drift detection method, Dynamic Adapting Window Independence Drift Detection (DAWIDD), which aims for non-parametric drift detection of diverse drift characteristics. For this purpose, we establish a mathematical equivalence of the presence of drift to the dependency of specific random variables in an according drift process. This allows us to rely on independence tests rather than parametric models or the classification loss, resulting in a fairly robust scheme to universally detect different types of drift, as it is also confirmed in experiments.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hinder20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hinder20a.htmlLikelihood-free MCMC with Amortized Approximate Ratio EstimatorsPosterior inference with an intractable likelihood is becoming an increasingly common task in scientific domains which rely on sophisticated computer simulations. Typically, these forward models do not admit tractable densities forcing practitioners to rely on approximations. This work introduces a novel approach to address the intractability of the likelihood and the marginal model. We achieve this by learning a flexible amortized estimator which approximates the likelihood-to-evidence ratio. We demonstrate that the learned ratio estimator can be embedded in \textsc{mcmc} samplers to approximate likelihood-ratios between consecutive states in the Markov chain, allowing us to draw samples from the intractable posterior. Techniques are presented to improve the numerical stability and to measure the quality of an approximation. The accuracy of our approach is demonstrated on a variety of benchmarks against well-established techniques. Scientific applications in physics show its applicability.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hermans20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hermans20a.htmlCost-Effective Interactive Attention Learning with Neural Attention ProcessesWe propose a novel interactive learning framework which we refer to as Interactive Attention Learning (IAL), in which the human supervisors interactively manipulate the allocated attentions, to correct the model’s behaviour by updating the attention-generating network. However, such a model is prone to overfitting due to scarcity of human annotations, and requires costly retraining. Moreover, it is almost infeasible for the human annotators to examine attentions on tons of instances and features. We tackle these challenges by proposing a sample-efficient attention mechanism and a cost-effective reranking algorithm for instances and features. First, we propose Neural Attention Processes (NAP), which is an attention generator that can update its behaviour by incorporating new attention-level supervisions without any retraining. Secondly, we propose an algorithm which prioritizes the instances and the features by their negative impacts, such that the model can yield large improvements with minimal human feedback. We validate IAL on various time-series datasets from multiple domains (healthcare, real-estate, and computer vision) on which it significantly outperforms baselines with conventional attention mechanisms, or without cost-effective reranking, with substantially less retraining and human-model interaction cost.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/heo20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/heo20a.htmlStatistically Preconditioned Accelerated Gradient Method for Distributed OptimizationWe consider the setting of distributed empirical risk minimization where multiple machines compute the gradients in parallel and a centralized server updates the model parameters. In order to reduce the number of communications required to reach a given accuracy, we propose a preconditioned accelerated gradient method where the preconditioning is done by solving a local optimization problem over a subsampled dataset at the server. The convergence rate of the method depends on the square root of the relative condition number between the global and local loss functions. We estimate the relative condition number for linear prediction models by studying uniform concentration of the Hessians over a bounded domain, which allows us to derive improved convergence rates for existing preconditioned gradient methods and our accelerated method. Experiments on real-world datasets illustrate the benefits of acceleration in the ill-conditioned regime.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hendrikx20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hendrikx20a.htmlMinimax Rate for Learning From Pairwise Comparisons in the BTL ModelWe consider the problem of learning the qualities w_1, ... , w_n of a collection of items by performing noisy comparisons among them. We assume there is a fixed “comparison graph” and every neighboring pair of items is compared k times. We will study the popular Bradley-Terry-Luce model, where the probability that item i wins a comparison against j equals w_i/(w_i + w_j). We are interested in how the expected error in estimating the vector w = (w_1, ... , w_n) behaves in the regime when the number of comparisons k is large. Our contribution is the determination of the minimax rate up to a constant factor. We show that this rate is achieved by a simple algorithm based on weighted least squares, with weights determined from the empirical outcomes of the comparisons. This algorithm can be implemented in nearly linear time in the total number of comparisons.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hendrickx20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hendrickx20a.htmlData-Efficient Image Recognition with Contrastive Predictive CodingHuman observers can learn to recognize new categories of images from a handful of examples, yet doing so with artificial ones remains an open challenge. We hypothesize that data-efficient recognition is enabled by representations which make the variability in natural signals more predictable. We therefore revisit and improve Contrastive Predictive Coding, an unsupervised objective for learning such representations. This new implementation produces features which support state-of-the-art linear classification accuracy on the ImageNet dataset. When used as input for non-linear classification with deep neural networks, this representation allows us to use 2-5x less labels than classifiers trained directly on image pixels. Finally, this unsupervised representation substantially improves transfer learning to object detection on the PASCAL VOC dataset, surpassing fully supervised pre-trained ImageNet classifiers.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/henaff20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/henaff20a.htmlGradient-free Online Learning in Continuous Games with Delayed RewardsMotivated by applications to online advertising and recommender systems, we consider a game-theoretic model with delayed rewards and asynchronous, payoff-based feedback. In contrast to previous work on delayed multi-armed bandits, we focus on games with continuous action spaces, and we examine the long-run behavior of strategic agents that follow a no-regret learning policy (but are otherwise oblivious to the game being played, the objectives of their opponents, etc.). To account for the lack of a consistent stream of information (for instance, rewards can arrive out of order and with an a priori unbounded delay), we introduce a gradient-free learning policy where payoff information is placed in a priority queue as it arrives. Somewhat surprisingly, we find that under a standard diagonal concavity assumption, the induced sequence of play converges to Nash Equilibrium (NE) with probability 1, even if the delay between choosing an action and receiving the corresponding reward is unbounded.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/heliou20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/heliou20a.htmlHierarchically Decoupled Imitation For Morphological TransferLearning long-range behaviors on complex high-dimensional agents is a fundamental problem in robot learning. For such tasks, we argue that transferring learned information from a morphologically simpler agent can massively improve the sample efficiency of a more complex one. To this end, we propose a hierarchical decoupling of policies into two parts: an independently learned low-level policy and a transferable high-level policy. To remedy poor transfer performance due to mismatch in morphologies, we contribute two key ideas. First, we show that incentivizing a complex agent’s low-level to imitate a simpler agent’s low-level significantly improves zero-shot high-level transfer. Second, we show that KL-regularized training of the high level stabilizes learning and prevents mode-collapse. Finally, on a suite of publicly released navigation and manipulation environments, we demonstrate the applicability of hierarchical transfer on long-range tasks across morphologies. Our code and videos can be found at https://sites.google.com/berkeley.edu/morphology-transfer.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hejna20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hejna20a.htmlCompressive sensing with un-trained neural networks: Gradient descent finds a smooth approximationUn-trained convolutional neural networks have emerged as highly successful tools for image recovery and restoration. They are capable of solving standard inverse problems such as denoising and compressive sensing with excellent results by simply fitting a neural network model to measurements from a single image or signal without the need for any additional training data. For some applications, this critically requires additional regularization in the form of early stopping the optimization. For signal recovery from a few measurements, however, un-trained convolutional networks have an intriguing self-regularizing property: Even though the network can perfectly fit any image, the network recovers a natural image from few measurements when trained with gradient descent until convergence. In this paper, we provide numerical evidence for this property and study it theoretically. We show that—without any further regularization—an un-trained convolutional neural network can approximately reconstruct signals and images that are sufficiently structured, from a near minimal number of random measurements.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/heckel20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/heckel20a.htmlThe Tree Ensemble Layer: Differentiability meets Conditional ComputationNeural networks and tree ensembles are state-of-the-art learners, each with its unique statistical and computational advantages. We aim to combine these advantages by introducing a new layer for neural networks, composed of an ensemble of differentiable decision trees (a.k.a. soft trees). While differentiable trees demonstrate promising results in the literature, they are typically slow in training and inference as they do not support conditional computation. We mitigate this issue by introducing a new sparse activation function for sample routing, and implement true conditional computation by developing specialized forward and backward propagation algorithms that exploit sparsity. Our efficient algorithms pave the way for jointly training over deep and wide tree ensembles using first-order methods (e.g., SGD). Experiments on 23 classification datasets indicate over 10x speed-ups compared to the differentiable trees used in the literature and over 20x reduction in the number of parameters compared to gradient boosted trees, while maintaining competitive performance. Moreover, experiments on CIFAR, MNIST, and Fashion MNIST indicate that replacing dense layers in CNNs with our tree layer reduces the test loss by 7-53% and the number of parameters by 8x. We provide an open-source TensorFlow implementation with a Keras API.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hazimeh20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hazimeh20a.htmlNested Subspace Arrangement for Representation of Relational DataStudies of acquiring appropriate continuous representations of a discrete objects such as graph and knowledge based data have been conducted by many researches in the field of machine learning. In this paper, we introduce Nested SubSpace arrangement (NSS arrangement), a comprehensive framework for representation learning. We show that existing embedding techniques can be regarded as a member of NSS arrangement. Based on the concept of the NSS arrangement, we implemented Disk-ANChor ARrangement (DANCAR), a representation learning method specializing to reproduce general graphs. Numerical experiments have shown that DANCAR has successfully embedded WordNet in ${\mathbb R}^{20}$ with the F1 score of 0.993 in the reconstruction task. DANCAR is also suitable for visualization to understand the characteristics of graph.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hata20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hata20a.htmlContrastive Multi-View Representation Learning on GraphsWe introduce a self-supervised approach for learning node and graph level representations by contrasting structural views of graphs. We show that unlike visual representation learning, increasing the number of views to more than two or contrasting multi-scale encodings do not improve performance, and the best performance is achieved by contrasting encodings from first-order neighbors and a graph diffusion. We achieve new state-of-the-art results in self-supervised learning on 8 out of 8 node and graph classification benchmarks under the linear evaluation protocol. For example, on Cora (node) and Reddit-Binary (graph) classification benchmarks, we achieve 86.8% and 84.5% accuracy, which are 5.5% and 2.4% relative improvements over previous state-of-the-art. When compared to supervised baselines, our approach outperforms them in 4 out of 8 benchmarks.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hassani20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hassani20a.htmlCoMic: Complementary Task Learning & Mimicry for Reusable SkillsLearning to control complex bodies and reuse learned behaviors is a longstanding challenge in continuous control. We study the problem of learning reusable humanoid skills by imitating motion capture data and joint training with complementary tasks. We show that it is possible to learn reusable skills through reinforcement learning on 50 times more motion capture data than prior work. We systematically compare a variety of different network architectures across different data regimes both in terms of imitation performance as well as transfer to challenging locomotion tasks. Finally we show that it is possible to interleave the motion capture tracking with training on complementary tasks, enriching the resulting skill space, and enabling the reuse of skills not well covered by the motion capture data such as getting up from the ground or catching a ball.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hasenclever20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hasenclever20a.htmlBayesian Graph Neural Networks with Adaptive Connection SamplingWe propose a unified framework for adaptive connection sampling in graph neural networks (GNNs) that generalizes existing stochastic regularization methods for training GNNs. The proposed framework not only alleviates over-smoothing and over-fitting tendencies of deep GNNs, but also enables learning with uncertainty in graph analytic tasks with GNNs. Instead of using fixed sampling rates or hand-tuning themas model hyperparameters in existing stochastic regularization methods, our adaptive connection sampling can be trained jointly with GNN model parameters in both global and local fashions. GNN training with adaptive connection sampling is shown to be mathematically equivalent to an efficient approximation of training BayesianGNNs. Experimental results with ablation studies on benchmark datasets validate that adaptively learning the sampling rate given graph training data is the key to boost the performance of GNNs in semi-supervised node classification, less prone to over-smoothing and over-fitting with more robust prediction.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hasanzadeh20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hasanzadeh20a.htmlA Natural Lottery Ticket Winner: Reinforcement Learning with Ordinary Neural CircuitsWe propose a neural information processing system obtained by re-purposing the function of a biological neural circuit model to govern simulated and real-world control tasks. Inspired by the structure of the nervous system of the soil-worm, C. elegans, we introduce ordinary neural circuits (ONCs), defined as the model of biological neural circuits reparameterized for the control of alternative tasks. We first demonstrate that ONCs realize networks with higher maximum flow compared to arbitrary wired networks. We then learn instances of ONCs to control a series of robotic tasks, including the autonomous parking of a real-world rover robot. For reconfiguration of the purpose of the neural circuit, we adopt a search-based optimization algorithm. Ordinary neural circuits perform on par and, in some cases, significantly surpass the performance of contemporary deep learning models. ONC networks are compact, 77% sparser than their counterpart neural controllers, and their neural dynamics are fully interpretable at the cell-level.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hasani20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hasani20a.htmlImproving generalization by controlling label-noise information in neural network weightsIn the presence of noisy or incorrect labels, neural networks have the undesirable tendency to memorize information about the noise. Standard regularization techniques such as dropout, weight decay or data augmentation sometimes help, but do not prevent this behavior. If one considers neural network weights as random variables that depend on the data and stochasticity of training, the amount of memorized information can be quantified with the Shannon mutual information between weights and the vector of all training labels given inputs, $I(w; \mathbf{y} \mid \mathbf{x})$. We show that for any training algorithm, low values of this term correspond to reduction in memorization of label-noise and better generalization bounds. To obtain these low values, we propose training algorithms that employ an auxiliary network that predicts gradients in the final layers of a classifier without accessing labels. We illustrate the effectiveness of our approach on versions of MNIST, CIFAR-10, and CIFAR-100 corrupted with various noise models, and on a large-scale dataset Clothing1M that has noisy labels.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/harutyunyan20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/harutyunyan20a.htmlDynamic Knapsack Optimization Towards Efficient Multi-Channel Sequential AdvertisingIn E-commerce, advertising is essential for merchants to reach their target users. The typical objective is to maximize the advertiser’s cumulative revenue over a period of time under a budget constraint. In real applications, an advertisement (ad) usually needs to be exposed to the same user multiple times until the user finally contributes revenue (e.g., places an order). However, existing advertising systems mainly focus on the immediate revenue with single ad exposures, ignoring the contribution of each exposure to the final conversion, thus usually falls into suboptimal solutions. In this paper, we formulate the sequential advertising strategy optimization as a dynamic knapsack problem. We propose a theoretically guaranteed bilevel optimization framework, which significantly reduces the solution space of the original optimization space while ensuring the solution quality. To improve the exploration efficiency of reinforcement learning, we also devise an effective action space reduction approach. Extensive offline and online experiments show the superior performance of our approaches over state-of-the-art baselines in terms of cumulative revenue.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hao20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hao20b.htmlData Amplification: Instance-Optimal Property EstimationThe best-known and most commonly used technique for distribution-property estimation uses a plug-in estimator, with empirical frequency replacing the underlying distribution. We present novel linear-time-computable estimators that significantly “amplify” the effective amount of data available. For a large variety of distribution properties including four of the most popular ones and for every underlying distribution, they achieve the accuracy that the empirical-frequency plug-in estimators would attain using a logarithmic-factor more samples. Specifically, for Shannon entropy and a broad class of Lipschitz properties including the $L_1$ distance to a fixed distribution, the new estimators use $n$ samples to achieve the accuracy attained by the empirical estimators with $n\log n$ samples. For support-size and coverage, the new estimators use $n$ samples to achieve the performance of empirical frequency with sample size $n$ times the logarithm of the property value. Significantly strengthening the traditional min-max formulation, these results hold not only for the worst distributions, but for each and every underlying distribution. Furthermore, the logarithmic amplification factors are optimal. Experiments on a wide variety of distributions show that the new estimators outperform the previous state-of-the-art estimators designed for each specific property.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hao20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hao20a.htmlVariance Reduced Coordinate Descent with Acceleration: New Method With a Surprising Application to Finite-Sum ProblemsWe propose an accelerated version of stochastic variance reduced coordinate descent – ASVRCD. As other variance reduced coordinate descent methods such as SEGA or SVRCD, our method can deal with problems that include a non-separable and non-smooth regularizer, while accessing a random block of partial derivatives in each iteration only. However, ASVRCD incorporates Nesterov’s momentum, which offers favorable iteration complexity guarantees over both SEGA and SVRCD. As a by-product of our theory, we show that a variant of Katyusha (Allen-Zhu, 2017) is a specific case of ASVRCD, recovering the optimal oracle complexity for the finite sum objective.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hanzely20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hanzely20b.htmlStochastic Subspace Cubic Newton MethodIn this paper, we propose a new randomized second-order optimization algorithm—Stochastic Subspace Cubic Newton (SSCN)—for minimizing a high dimensional convex function $f$. Our method can be seen both as a \emph{stochastic} extension of the cubically-regularized Newton method of Nesterov and Polyak (2006), and a \emph{second-order} enhancement of stochastic subspace descent of Kozak et al. (2019). We prove that as we vary the minibatch size, the global convergence rate of SSCN interpolates between the rate of stochastic coordinate descent (CD) and the rate of cubic regularized Newton, thus giving new insights into the connection between first and second-order methods. Remarkably, the local convergence rate of SSCN matches the rate of stochastic subspace descent applied to the problem of minimizing the quadratic function $\frac12 (x-x^*)^\top \nabla^2f(x^*)(x-x^*)$, where $x^*$ is the minimizer of $f$, and hence depends on the properties of $f$ at the optimum only. Our numerical experiments show that SSCN outperforms non-accelerated first-order CD algorithms while being competitive to their accelerated variants.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hanzely20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hanzely20a.htmlTraining Binary Neural Networks through Learning with Noisy SupervisionThis paper formalizes the binarization operations over neural networks from a learning perspective. In contrast to classical hand crafted rules (\eg hard thresholding) to binarize full-precision neurons, we propose to learn a mapping from full-precision neurons to the target binary ones. Each individual weight entry will not be binarized independently. Instead, they are taken as a whole to accomplish the binarization, just as they work together in generating convolution features. To help the training of the binarization mapping, the full-precision neurons after taking sign operations is regarded as some auxiliary supervision signal, which is noisy but still has valuable guidance. An unbiased estimator is therefore introduced to mitigate the influence of the supervision noise. Experimental results on benchmark datasets indicate that the proposed binarization technique attains consistent improvements over baselines.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/han20d.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/han20d.htmlSIGUA: Forgetting May Make Learning with Noisy Labels More RobustGiven data with noisy labels, over-parameterized deep networks can gradually memorize the data, and fit everything in the end. Although equipped with corrections for noisy labels, many learning methods in this area still suffer overfitting due to undesired memorization. In this paper, to relieve this issue, we propose stochastic integrated gradient underweighted ascent (SIGUA): in a mini-batch, we adopt gradient descent on good data as usual, and learning-rate-reduced gradient ascent on bad data; the proposal is a versatile approach where data goodness or badness is w.r.t. desired or undesired memorization given a base learning method. Technically, SIGUA pulls optimization back for generalization when their goals conflict with each other; philosophically, SIGUA shows forgetting undesired memorization can reinforce desired memorization. Experiments demonstrate that SIGUA successfully robustifies two typical base learning methods, so that their performance is often significantly improved.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/han20c.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/han20c.htmlDRWR: A Differentiable Renderer without Rendering for Unsupervised 3D Structure Learning from Silhouette ImagesDifferentiable renderers have been used successfully for unsupervised 3D structure learning from 2D images because they can bridge the gap between 3D and 2D. To optimize 3D shape parameters, current renderers rely on pixel-wise losses between rendered images of 3D reconstructions and ground truth images from corresponding viewpoints. Hence they require interpolation of the recovered 3D structure at each pixel, visibility handling, and optionally evaluating a shading model. In contrast, here we propose a Differentiable Renderer Without Rendering (DRWR) that omits these steps. DRWR only relies on a simple but effective loss that evaluates how well the projections of reconstructed 3D point clouds cover the ground truth object silhouette. Specifically, DRWR employs a smooth silhouette loss to pull the projection of each individual 3D point inside the object silhouette, and a structure-aware repulsion loss to push each pair of projections that fall inside the silhouette far away from each other. Although we omit surface interpolation, visibility handling, and shading, our results demonstrate that DRWR achieves state-of-the-art accuracies under widely used benchmarks, outperforming previous methods both qualitatively and quantitatively. In addition, our training times are significantly lower due to the simplicity of DRWR.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/han20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/han20b.htmlPolynomial Tensor Sketch for Element-wise Function of Low-Rank MatrixThis paper studies how to sketch element-wise functions of low-rank matrices. Formally, given low-rank matrix A = [Aij] and scalar non-linear function f, we aim for finding an approximated low-rank representation of the (possibly high-rank) matrix [f(Aij)]. To this end, we propose an efficient sketching-based algorithm whose complexity is significantly lower than the number of entries of A, i.e., it runs without accessing all entries of [f(Aij)] explicitly. The main idea underlying our method is to combine a polynomial approximation of f with the existing tensor sketch scheme for approximating monomials of entries of A. To balance the errors of the two approximation components in an optimal manner, we propose a novel regression formula to find polynomial coefficients given A and f. In particular, we utilize a coreset-based regression with a rigorous approximation guarantee. Finally, we demonstrate the applicability and superiority of the proposed scheme under various machine learning tasks.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/han20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/han20a.htmlFedBoost: A Communication-Efficient Algorithm for Federated LearningCommunication cost is often a bottleneck in federated learning and other client-based distributed learning scenarios. To overcome this, several gradient compression and model compression algorithms have been proposed. In this work, we propose an alternative approach whereby an ensemble of pre-trained base predictors is trained via federated learning. This method allows for training a model which may otherwise surpass the communication bandwidth and storage capacity of the clients to be learned with on-device data through federated learning. Motivated by language modeling, we prove the optimality of ensemble methods for density estimation for standard empirical risk minimization and agnostic risk minimization. We provide communication-efficient ensemble algorithms for federated learning, where per-round communication cost is independent of the size of the ensemble. Furthermore, unlike works on gradient compression, our proposed approach reduces the communication cost of both server-to-client and client-to-server communication.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hamer20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hamer20a.htmlOptimal approximation for unconstrained non-submodular minimizationSubmodular function minimization is well studied, and existing algorithms solve it exactly or up to arbitrary accuracy. However, in many applications, such as structured sparse learning or batch Bayesian optimization, the objective function is not exactly submodular, but close. In this case, no theoretical guarantees exist. Indeed, submodular minimization algorithms rely on intricate connections between submodularity and convexity. We show how these relations can be extended to obtain approximation guarantees for minimizing non-submodular functions, characterized by how close the function is to submodular. We also extend this result to noisy function evaluations. Our approximation results are the first for minimizing non-submodular functions, and are optimal, as established by our matching lower bound.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/halabi20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/halabi20a.htmlLet’s Agree to Agree: Neural Networks Share Classification Order on Real DatasetsWe report a series of robust empirical observations, demonstrating that deep Neural Networks learn the examples in both the training and test sets in a similar order. This phenomenon is observed in all the commonly used benchmarks we evaluated, including many image classification benchmarks, and one text classification benchmark. While this phenomenon is strongest for models of the same architecture, it also crosses architectural boundaries – models of different architectures start by learning the same examples, after which the more powerful model may continue to learn additional examples. We further show that this pattern of results reflects the interplay between the way neural networks learn benchmark datasets. Specifically, when fixing the architecture, we describe synthetic datasets for which this pattern is no longer observed. When fixing the dataset, we show that other learning paradigms may learn the data in a different order. We hypothesize that our results reflect how neural networks discover structure in natural datasets.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hacohen20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/hacohen20a.htmlStreaming Submodular Maximization under a k-Set System ConstraintIn this paper, we propose a novel framework that converts streaming algorithms for monotone submodular maximization into streaming algorithms for non-monotone submodular maximization. This reduction readily leads to the currently tightest deterministic approximation ratio for submodular maximization subject to a $k$-matchoid constraint. Moreover, we propose the first streaming algorithm for monotone submodular maximization subject to $k$-extendible and $k$-set system constraints. Together with our proposed reduction, we obtain $O(k\log k)$ and $O(k^2\log k)$ approximation ratio for submodular maximization subject to the above constraints, respectively. We extensively evaluate the empirical performance of our algorithm against the existing work in a series of experiments including finding the maximum independent set in randomly generated graphs, maximizing linear functions over social networks, movie recommendation, Yelp location summarization, and Twitter data summarization.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/haba20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/haba20a.htmlRetrieval Augmented Language Model Pre-TrainingLanguage model pre-training has been shown to capture a surprising amount of world knowledge, crucial for NLP tasks such as question answering. However, this knowledge is stored implicitly in the parameters of a neural network, requiring ever-larger networks to cover more facts. To capture knowledge in a more modular and interpretable way, we augment language model pre-training with a latent knowledge retriever, which allows the model to retrieve and attend over documents from a large corpus such as Wikipedia, used during pre-training, fine-tuning and inference. For the first time, we show how to pre-train such a knowledge retriever in an unsupervised manner, using masked language modeling as the learning signal and backpropagating through a retrieval step that considers millions of documents. We demonstrate the effectiveness of Retrieval-Augmented Language Model pre-training (REALM) by fine-tuning on the challenging task of Open-domain Question Answering (Open-QA). We compare against state-of-the-art models for both explicit and implicit knowledge storage on three popular Open-QA benchmarks, and find that we outperform all previous methods by a significant margin (4-16% absolute accuracy), while also providing qualitative benefits such as interpretability and modularity.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/guu20a.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/guu20a.htmlMultidimensional Shape ConstraintsWe propose new multi-input shape constraints across four intuitive categories: complements, diminishers, dominance, and unimodality constraints. We show these shape constraints can be checked and even enforced when training machine-learned models for linear models, generalized additive models, and the nonlinear function class of multi-layer lattice models. Real-world experiments illustrate how the different shape constraints can be used to increase explainability and improve regularization, especially for non-IID train-test distribution shift.Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/gupta20b.html
http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/gupta20b.htmlNeural Topic Modeling with Continual Lifelong LearningLifelong learning has recently attracted attention in building machine learning systems that continually accumulate and transfer knowledge to help future learning. Unsupervised topic modeling has been popularly used to discover topics from document collections. However, the application of topic modeling is challenging due to data sparsity, e.g., in a small collection of (short) documents and thus, generate incoherent topics and sub-optimal document representations. To add