Elimination of All Bad Local Minima in Deep Learning

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Kenji Kawaguchi, Leslie Kaelbling ;
Proceedings of the Twenty Third International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics, PMLR 108:853-863, 2020.

Abstract

In this paper, we theoretically prove that adding one special neuron per output unit eliminates all suboptimal local minima of any deep neural network, for multi-class classification, binary classification, and regression with an arbitrary loss function, under practical assumptions. At every local minimum of any deep neural network with these added neurons, the set of parameters of the original neural network (without added neurons) is guaranteed to be a global minimum of the original neural network. The effects of the added neurons are proven to automatically vanish at every local minimum. Moreover, we provide a novel theoretical characterization of a failure mode of eliminating suboptimal local minima via an additional theorem and several examples. This paper also introduces a novel proof technique based on the perturbable gradient basis (PGB) necessary condition of local minima, which provides new insight into the elimination of local minima and is applicable to analyze various models and transformations of objective functions beyond the elimination of local minima.

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