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# Towards a Better Understanding and Regularization of GAN Training Dynamics

*Proceedings of The 35th Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence Conference*, PMLR 115:281-291, 2020.

#### Abstract

Generative adversarial networks (GANs) are notoriously difficult to train and the reasons underlying their (non-)convergence behaviors are still not completely understood. By first considering a simple yet representative GAN example, we mathematically analyze its local convergence behavior in a non-asymptotic way. Furthermore, the analysis is extended to general GANs under certain assumptions. We find that in order to ensure a good convergence rate, two factors of the Jacobian in the GAN training dynamics should be simultaneously avoided, which are (i) the Phase Factor, i.e., the Jacobian has complex eigenvalues with a large imaginary-to-real ratio, and (ii) the Conditioning Factor, i.e., the Jacobian is ill-conditioned. Previous methods of regularizing the Jacobian can only alleviate one of these two factors, while making the other more severe. Thus we propose a new JAcobian REgularization (JARE) for GANs, which simultaneously addresses both factors by construction. Finally, we conduct experiments that confirm our theoretical analysis and demonstrate the advantages of JARE over previous methods in stabilizing GANs.