Graph Optimal Transport for Cross-Domain Alignment

Liqun Chen, Zhe Gan, Yu Cheng, Linjie Li, Lawrence Carin, Jingjing Liu
Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning, PMLR 119:1542-1553, 2020.

Abstract

Cross-domain alignment between two sets of entities (e.g., objects in an image, words in a sentence) is fundamental to both computer vision and natural language processing. Existing methods mainly focus on designing advanced attention mechanisms to simulate soft alignment, where no training signals are provided to explicitly encourage alignment. Plus, the learned attention matrices are often dense and difficult to interpret. We propose Graph Optimal Transport (GOT), a principled framework that builds upon recent advances in Optimal Transport (OT). In GOT, cross-domain alignment is formulated as a graph matching problem, by representing entities as a dynamically-constructed graph. Two types of OT distances are considered: (i) Wasserstein distance (WD) for node (entity) matching; and (ii) Gromov-Wasserstein distance (GWD) for edge (structure) matching. Both WD and GWD can be incorporated into existing neural network models, effectively acting as a drop-in regularizer. The inferred transport plan also yields sparse and self-normalized alignment, enhancing the interpretability of the learned model. Experiments show consistent outperformance of GOT over baselines across a wide range of tasks, including image-text retrieval, visual question answering, image captioning, machine translation, and text summarization.

Cite this Paper


BibTeX
@InProceedings{pmlr-v119-chen20e, title = {Graph Optimal Transport for Cross-Domain Alignment}, author = {Chen, Liqun and Gan, Zhe and Cheng, Yu and Li, Linjie and Carin, Lawrence and Liu, Jingjing}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning}, pages = {1542--1553}, year = {2020}, editor = {Hal Daumé III and Aarti Singh}, volume = {119}, series = {Proceedings of Machine Learning Research}, month = {13--18 Jul}, publisher = {PMLR}, pdf = {http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/chen20e/chen20e.pdf}, url = { http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/chen20e.html }, abstract = {Cross-domain alignment between two sets of entities (e.g., objects in an image, words in a sentence) is fundamental to both computer vision and natural language processing. Existing methods mainly focus on designing advanced attention mechanisms to simulate soft alignment, where no training signals are provided to explicitly encourage alignment. Plus, the learned attention matrices are often dense and difficult to interpret. We propose Graph Optimal Transport (GOT), a principled framework that builds upon recent advances in Optimal Transport (OT). In GOT, cross-domain alignment is formulated as a graph matching problem, by representing entities as a dynamically-constructed graph. Two types of OT distances are considered: (i) Wasserstein distance (WD) for node (entity) matching; and (ii) Gromov-Wasserstein distance (GWD) for edge (structure) matching. Both WD and GWD can be incorporated into existing neural network models, effectively acting as a drop-in regularizer. The inferred transport plan also yields sparse and self-normalized alignment, enhancing the interpretability of the learned model. Experiments show consistent outperformance of GOT over baselines across a wide range of tasks, including image-text retrieval, visual question answering, image captioning, machine translation, and text summarization.} }
Endnote
%0 Conference Paper %T Graph Optimal Transport for Cross-Domain Alignment %A Liqun Chen %A Zhe Gan %A Yu Cheng %A Linjie Li %A Lawrence Carin %A Jingjing Liu %B Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning %C Proceedings of Machine Learning Research %D 2020 %E Hal Daumé III %E Aarti Singh %F pmlr-v119-chen20e %I PMLR %P 1542--1553 %U http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/chen20e.html %V 119 %X Cross-domain alignment between two sets of entities (e.g., objects in an image, words in a sentence) is fundamental to both computer vision and natural language processing. Existing methods mainly focus on designing advanced attention mechanisms to simulate soft alignment, where no training signals are provided to explicitly encourage alignment. Plus, the learned attention matrices are often dense and difficult to interpret. We propose Graph Optimal Transport (GOT), a principled framework that builds upon recent advances in Optimal Transport (OT). In GOT, cross-domain alignment is formulated as a graph matching problem, by representing entities as a dynamically-constructed graph. Two types of OT distances are considered: (i) Wasserstein distance (WD) for node (entity) matching; and (ii) Gromov-Wasserstein distance (GWD) for edge (structure) matching. Both WD and GWD can be incorporated into existing neural network models, effectively acting as a drop-in regularizer. The inferred transport plan also yields sparse and self-normalized alignment, enhancing the interpretability of the learned model. Experiments show consistent outperformance of GOT over baselines across a wide range of tasks, including image-text retrieval, visual question answering, image captioning, machine translation, and text summarization.
APA
Chen, L., Gan, Z., Cheng, Y., Li, L., Carin, L. & Liu, J.. (2020). Graph Optimal Transport for Cross-Domain Alignment. Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning, in Proceedings of Machine Learning Research 119:1542-1553 Available from http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/chen20e.html .

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