CLUB: A Contrastive Log-ratio Upper Bound of Mutual Information

Pengyu Cheng, Weituo Hao, Shuyang Dai, Jiachang Liu, Zhe Gan, Lawrence Carin
Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning, PMLR 119:1779-1788, 2020.

Abstract

Mutual information (MI) minimization has gained considerable interests in various machine learning tasks. However, estimating and minimizing MI in high-dimensional spaces remains a challenging problem, especially when only samples, rather than distribution forms, are accessible. Previous works mainly focus on MI lower bound approximation, which is not applicable to MI minimization problems. In this paper, we propose a novel Contrastive Log-ratio Upper Bound (CLUB) of mutual information. We provide a theoretical analysis of the properties of CLUB and its variational approximation. Based on this upper bound, we introduce a MI minimization training scheme and further accelerate it with a negative sampling strategy. Simulation studies on Gaussian distributions show the reliable estimation ability of CLUB. Real-world MI minimization experiments, including domain adaptation and information bottleneck, demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The code is at https://github.com/Linear95/CLUB.

Cite this Paper


BibTeX
@InProceedings{pmlr-v119-cheng20b, title = {{CLUB}: A Contrastive Log-ratio Upper Bound of Mutual Information}, author = {Cheng, Pengyu and Hao, Weituo and Dai, Shuyang and Liu, Jiachang and Gan, Zhe and Carin, Lawrence}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning}, pages = {1779--1788}, year = {2020}, editor = {Hal Daumé III and Aarti Singh}, volume = {119}, series = {Proceedings of Machine Learning Research}, month = {13--18 Jul}, publisher = {PMLR}, pdf = {http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/cheng20b/cheng20b.pdf}, url = { http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/cheng20b.html }, abstract = {Mutual information (MI) minimization has gained considerable interests in various machine learning tasks. However, estimating and minimizing MI in high-dimensional spaces remains a challenging problem, especially when only samples, rather than distribution forms, are accessible. Previous works mainly focus on MI lower bound approximation, which is not applicable to MI minimization problems. In this paper, we propose a novel Contrastive Log-ratio Upper Bound (CLUB) of mutual information. We provide a theoretical analysis of the properties of CLUB and its variational approximation. Based on this upper bound, we introduce a MI minimization training scheme and further accelerate it with a negative sampling strategy. Simulation studies on Gaussian distributions show the reliable estimation ability of CLUB. Real-world MI minimization experiments, including domain adaptation and information bottleneck, demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The code is at https://github.com/Linear95/CLUB.} }
Endnote
%0 Conference Paper %T CLUB: A Contrastive Log-ratio Upper Bound of Mutual Information %A Pengyu Cheng %A Weituo Hao %A Shuyang Dai %A Jiachang Liu %A Zhe Gan %A Lawrence Carin %B Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning %C Proceedings of Machine Learning Research %D 2020 %E Hal Daumé III %E Aarti Singh %F pmlr-v119-cheng20b %I PMLR %P 1779--1788 %U http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/cheng20b.html %V 119 %X Mutual information (MI) minimization has gained considerable interests in various machine learning tasks. However, estimating and minimizing MI in high-dimensional spaces remains a challenging problem, especially when only samples, rather than distribution forms, are accessible. Previous works mainly focus on MI lower bound approximation, which is not applicable to MI minimization problems. In this paper, we propose a novel Contrastive Log-ratio Upper Bound (CLUB) of mutual information. We provide a theoretical analysis of the properties of CLUB and its variational approximation. Based on this upper bound, we introduce a MI minimization training scheme and further accelerate it with a negative sampling strategy. Simulation studies on Gaussian distributions show the reliable estimation ability of CLUB. Real-world MI minimization experiments, including domain adaptation and information bottleneck, demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The code is at https://github.com/Linear95/CLUB.
APA
Cheng, P., Hao, W., Dai, S., Liu, J., Gan, Z. & Carin, L.. (2020). CLUB: A Contrastive Log-ratio Upper Bound of Mutual Information. Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning, in Proceedings of Machine Learning Research 119:1779-1788 Available from http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/cheng20b.html .

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