On the Multiple Descent of Minimum-Norm Interpolants and Restricted Lower Isometry of Kernels

Tengyuan Liang, Alexander Rakhlin, Xiyu Zhai
; Proceedings of Thirty Third Conference on Learning Theory, PMLR 125:2683-2711, 2020.

Abstract

We study the risk of minimum-norm interpolants of data in Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces. Our upper bounds on the risk are of a multiple-descent shape for the various scalings of $d = n^{\alpha}$, $\alpha\in(0,1)$, for the input dimension $d$ and sample size $n$. Empirical evidence supports our finding that minimum-norm interpolants in RKHS can exhibit this unusual non-monotonicity in sample size; furthermore, locations of the peaks in our experiments match our theoretical predictions. Since gradient flow on appropriately initialized wide neural networks converges to a minimum-norm interpolant with respect to a certain kernel, our analysis also yields novel estimation and generalization guarantees for these over-parametrized models. At the heart of our analysis is a study of spectral properties of the random kernel matrix restricted to a filtration of eigen-spaces of the population covariance operator, and may be of independent interest.

Cite this Paper


BibTeX
@InProceedings{pmlr-v125-liang20a, title = {On the Multiple Descent of Minimum-Norm Interpolants and Restricted Lower Isometry of Kernels}, author = {Liang, Tengyuan and Rakhlin, Alexander and Zhai, Xiyu}, pages = {2683--2711}, year = {2020}, editor = {Jacob Abernethy and Shivani Agarwal}, volume = {125}, series = {Proceedings of Machine Learning Research}, address = {}, month = {09--12 Jul}, publisher = {PMLR}, pdf = {http://proceedings.mlr.press/v125/liang20a/liang20a.pdf}, url = {http://proceedings.mlr.press/v125/liang20a.html}, abstract = { We study the risk of minimum-norm interpolants of data in Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces. Our upper bounds on the risk are of a multiple-descent shape for the various scalings of $d = n^{\alpha}$, $\alpha\in(0,1)$, for the input dimension $d$ and sample size $n$. Empirical evidence supports our finding that minimum-norm interpolants in RKHS can exhibit this unusual non-monotonicity in sample size; furthermore, locations of the peaks in our experiments match our theoretical predictions. Since gradient flow on appropriately initialized wide neural networks converges to a minimum-norm interpolant with respect to a certain kernel, our analysis also yields novel estimation and generalization guarantees for these over-parametrized models. At the heart of our analysis is a study of spectral properties of the random kernel matrix restricted to a filtration of eigen-spaces of the population covariance operator, and may be of independent interest. } }
Endnote
%0 Conference Paper %T On the Multiple Descent of Minimum-Norm Interpolants and Restricted Lower Isometry of Kernels %A Tengyuan Liang %A Alexander Rakhlin %A Xiyu Zhai %B Proceedings of Thirty Third Conference on Learning Theory %C Proceedings of Machine Learning Research %D 2020 %E Jacob Abernethy %E Shivani Agarwal %F pmlr-v125-liang20a %I PMLR %J Proceedings of Machine Learning Research %P 2683--2711 %U http://proceedings.mlr.press %V 125 %W PMLR %X We study the risk of minimum-norm interpolants of data in Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces. Our upper bounds on the risk are of a multiple-descent shape for the various scalings of $d = n^{\alpha}$, $\alpha\in(0,1)$, for the input dimension $d$ and sample size $n$. Empirical evidence supports our finding that minimum-norm interpolants in RKHS can exhibit this unusual non-monotonicity in sample size; furthermore, locations of the peaks in our experiments match our theoretical predictions. Since gradient flow on appropriately initialized wide neural networks converges to a minimum-norm interpolant with respect to a certain kernel, our analysis also yields novel estimation and generalization guarantees for these over-parametrized models. At the heart of our analysis is a study of spectral properties of the random kernel matrix restricted to a filtration of eigen-spaces of the population covariance operator, and may be of independent interest.
APA
Liang, T., Rakhlin, A. & Zhai, X.. (2020). On the Multiple Descent of Minimum-Norm Interpolants and Restricted Lower Isometry of Kernels. Proceedings of Thirty Third Conference on Learning Theory, in PMLR 125:2683-2711

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