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# Toward Better Generalization Bounds with Locally Elastic Stability

*Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Machine Learning*, PMLR 139:2590-2600, 2021.

#### Abstract

Algorithmic stability is a key characteristic to ensure the generalization ability of a learning algorithm. Among different notions of stability, \emph{uniform stability} is arguably the most popular one, which yields exponential generalization bounds. However, uniform stability only considers the worst-case loss change (or so-called sensitivity) by removing a single data point, which is distribution-independent and therefore undesirable. There are many cases that the worst-case sensitivity of the loss is much larger than the average sensitivity taken over the single data point that is removed, especially in some advanced models such as random feature models or neural networks. Many previous works try to mitigate the distribution independent issue by proposing weaker notions of stability, however, they either only yield polynomial bounds or the bounds derived do not vanish as sample size goes to infinity. Given that, we propose \emph{locally elastic stability} as a weaker and distribution-dependent stability notion, which still yields exponential generalization bounds. We further demonstrate that locally elastic stability implies tighter generalization bounds than those derived based on uniform stability in many situations by revisiting the examples of bounded support vector machines, regularized least square regressions, and stochastic gradient descent.