12-Lead ECG Reconstruction via Koopman Operators
Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Machine Learning, PMLR 139:3745-3754, 2021.
32% of all global deaths in the world are caused by cardiovascular diseases. Early detection, especially for patients with ischemia or cardiac arrhythmia, is crucial. To reduce the time between symptoms onset and treatment, wearable ECG sensors were developed to allow for the recording of the full 12-lead ECG signal at home. However, if even a single lead is not correctly positioned on the body that lead becomes corrupted, making automatic diagnosis on the basis of the full signal impossible. In this work, we present a methodology to reconstruct missing or noisy leads using the theory of Koopman Operators. Given a dataset consisting of full 12-lead ECGs, we learn a dynamical system describing the evolution of the 12 individual signals together in time. The Koopman theory indicates that there exists a high-dimensional embedding space in which the operator which propagates from one time instant to the next is linear. We therefore learn both the mapping to this embedding space, as well as the corresponding linear operator. Armed with this representation, we are able to impute missing leads by solving a least squares system in the embedding space, which can be achieved efficiently due to the sparse structure of the system. We perform an empirical evaluation using 12-lead ECG signals from thousands of patients, and show that we are able to reconstruct the signals in such way that enables accurate clinical diagnosis.