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# Adversarial Dueling Bandits

*Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Machine Learning*, PMLR 139:9235-9244, 2021.

#### Abstract

We introduce the problem of regret minimization in Adversarial Dueling Bandits. As in classic Dueling Bandits, the learner has to repeatedly choose a pair of items and observe only a relative binary ‘win-loss’ feedback for this pair, but here this feedback is generated from an arbitrary preference matrix, possibly chosen adversarially. Our main result is an algorithm whose $T$-round regret compared to the \emph{Borda-winner} from a set of $K$ items is $\tilde{O}(K^{1/3}T^{2/3})$, as well as a matching $\Omega(K^{1/3}T^{2/3})$ lower bound. We also prove a similar high probability regret bound. We further consider a simpler \emph{fixed-gap} adversarial setup, which bridges between two extreme preference feedback models for dueling bandits: stationary preferences and an arbitrary sequence of preferences. For the fixed-gap adversarial setup we give an $\smash{ \tilde{O}((K/\Delta^2)\log{T}) }$ regret algorithm, where $\Delta$ is the gap in Borda scores between the best item and all other items, and show a lower bound of $\Omega(K/\Delta^2)$ indicating that our dependence on the main problem parameters $K$ and $\Delta$ is tight (up to logarithmic factors). Finally, we corroborate the theoretical results with empirical evaluations.