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# Conformal prediction interval for dynamic time-series

*Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Machine Learning*, PMLR 139:11559-11569, 2021.

#### Abstract

We develop a method to construct distribution-free prediction intervals for dynamic time-series, called \Verb|EnbPI| that wraps around any bootstrap ensemble estimator to construct sequential prediction intervals. \Verb|EnbPI| is closely related to the conformal prediction (CP) framework but does not require data exchangeability. Theoretically, these intervals attain finite-sample, \textit{approximately valid} marginal coverage for broad classes of regression functions and time-series with strongly mixing stochastic errors. Computationally, \Verb|EnbPI| avoids overfitting and requires neither data-splitting nor training multiple ensemble estimators; it efficiently aggregates bootstrap estimators that have been trained. In general, \Verb|EnbPI| is easy to implement, scalable to producing arbitrarily many prediction intervals sequentially, and well-suited to a wide range of regression functions. We perform extensive real-data analyses to demonstrate its effectiveness.