Deep Sparse Rectifier Neural Networks
; Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics, JMLR Workshop and Conference Proceedings 15:315-323, 2011.
While logistic sigmoid neurons are more biologically plausible than hyperbolic tangent neurons, the latter work better for training multi-layer neural networks. This paper shows that rectifying neurons are an even better model of biological neurons and yield equal or better performance than hyperbolic tangent networks in spite of the hard non-linearity and non-differentiability at zero, creating sparse representations with true zeros which seem remarkably suitable for naturally sparse data. Even though they can take advantage of semi-supervised setups with extra-unlabeled data, deep rectifier networks can reach their best performance without requiring any unsupervised pre-training on purely supervised tasks with large labeled datasets. Hence, these results can be seen as a new milestone in the attempts at understanding the difficulty in training deep but purely supervised neural networks, and closing the performance gap between neural networks learnt with and without unsupervised pre-training. [pdf]