Deep Sparse Rectifier Neural Networks

Xavier Glorot, Antoine Bordes, Yoshua Bengio
Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics, PMLR 15:315-323, 2011.

Abstract

While logistic sigmoid neurons are more biologically plausible than hyperbolic tangent neurons, the latter work better for training multi-layer neural networks. This paper shows that rectifying neurons are an even better model of biological neurons and yield equal or better performance than hyperbolic tangent networks in spite of the hard non-linearity and non-differentiability at zero, creating sparse representations with true zeros which seem remarkably suitable for naturally sparse data. Even though they can take advantage of semi-supervised setups with extra-unlabeled data, deep rectifier networks can reach their best performance without requiring any unsupervised pre-training on purely supervised tasks with large labeled datasets. Hence, these results can be seen as a new milestone in the attempts at understanding the difficulty in training deep but purely supervised neural networks, and closing the performance gap between neural networks learnt with and without unsupervised pre-training. [pdf]

Cite this Paper


BibTeX
@InProceedings{pmlr-v15-glorot11a, title = {Deep Sparse Rectifier Neural Networks}, author = {Glorot, Xavier and Bordes, Antoine and Bengio, Yoshua}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics}, pages = {315--323}, year = {2011}, editor = {Gordon, Geoffrey and Dunson, David and Dudík, Miroslav}, volume = {15}, series = {Proceedings of Machine Learning Research}, address = {Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA}, month = {11--13 Apr}, publisher = {PMLR}, pdf = {http://proceedings.mlr.press/v15/glorot11a/glorot11a.pdf}, url = {https://proceedings.mlr.press/v15/glorot11a.html}, abstract = {While logistic sigmoid neurons are more biologically plausible than hyperbolic tangent neurons, the latter work better for training multi-layer neural networks. This paper shows that rectifying neurons are an even better model of biological neurons and yield equal or better performance than hyperbolic tangent networks in spite of the hard non-linearity and non-differentiability at zero, creating sparse representations with true zeros which seem remarkably suitable for naturally sparse data. Even though they can take advantage of semi-supervised setups with extra-unlabeled data, deep rectifier networks can reach their best performance without requiring any unsupervised pre-training on purely supervised tasks with large labeled datasets. Hence, these results can be seen as a new milestone in the attempts at understanding the difficulty in training deep but purely supervised neural networks, and closing the performance gap between neural networks learnt with and without unsupervised pre-training. [pdf]} }
Endnote
%0 Conference Paper %T Deep Sparse Rectifier Neural Networks %A Xavier Glorot %A Antoine Bordes %A Yoshua Bengio %B Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics %C Proceedings of Machine Learning Research %D 2011 %E Geoffrey Gordon %E David Dunson %E Miroslav Dudík %F pmlr-v15-glorot11a %I PMLR %P 315--323 %U https://proceedings.mlr.press/v15/glorot11a.html %V 15 %X While logistic sigmoid neurons are more biologically plausible than hyperbolic tangent neurons, the latter work better for training multi-layer neural networks. This paper shows that rectifying neurons are an even better model of biological neurons and yield equal or better performance than hyperbolic tangent networks in spite of the hard non-linearity and non-differentiability at zero, creating sparse representations with true zeros which seem remarkably suitable for naturally sparse data. Even though they can take advantage of semi-supervised setups with extra-unlabeled data, deep rectifier networks can reach their best performance without requiring any unsupervised pre-training on purely supervised tasks with large labeled datasets. Hence, these results can be seen as a new milestone in the attempts at understanding the difficulty in training deep but purely supervised neural networks, and closing the performance gap between neural networks learnt with and without unsupervised pre-training. [pdf]
RIS
TY - CPAPER TI - Deep Sparse Rectifier Neural Networks AU - Xavier Glorot AU - Antoine Bordes AU - Yoshua Bengio BT - Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics DA - 2011/06/14 ED - Geoffrey Gordon ED - David Dunson ED - Miroslav Dudík ID - pmlr-v15-glorot11a PB - PMLR DP - Proceedings of Machine Learning Research VL - 15 SP - 315 EP - 323 L1 - http://proceedings.mlr.press/v15/glorot11a/glorot11a.pdf UR - https://proceedings.mlr.press/v15/glorot11a.html AB - While logistic sigmoid neurons are more biologically plausible than hyperbolic tangent neurons, the latter work better for training multi-layer neural networks. This paper shows that rectifying neurons are an even better model of biological neurons and yield equal or better performance than hyperbolic tangent networks in spite of the hard non-linearity and non-differentiability at zero, creating sparse representations with true zeros which seem remarkably suitable for naturally sparse data. Even though they can take advantage of semi-supervised setups with extra-unlabeled data, deep rectifier networks can reach their best performance without requiring any unsupervised pre-training on purely supervised tasks with large labeled datasets. Hence, these results can be seen as a new milestone in the attempts at understanding the difficulty in training deep but purely supervised neural networks, and closing the performance gap between neural networks learnt with and without unsupervised pre-training. [pdf] ER -
APA
Glorot, X., Bordes, A. & Bengio, Y.. (2011). Deep Sparse Rectifier Neural Networks. Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics, in Proceedings of Machine Learning Research 15:315-323 Available from https://proceedings.mlr.press/v15/glorot11a.html.

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