Semi-Supervised Apprenticeship Learning
; Proceedings of the Tenth European Workshop on Reinforcement Learning, PMLR 24:131-142, 2013.
In apprenticeship learning we aim to learn a good policy by observing the behavior of an expert or a set of experts. In particular, we consider the case where the expert acts so as to maximize an unknown reward function defined as a linear combination of a set of state features. In this paper, we consider the setting where we observe many sample trajectories (i.e., sequences of states) but only one or a few of them are labeled as experts' trajectories. We investigate the conditions under which the remaining unlabeled trajectories can help in learning a policy with a good performance. In particular, we define an extension to the max-margin inverse reinforcement learning proposed by Abbeel and Ng  where, at each iteration, the max-margin optimization step is replaced by a semi-supervised optimiza- tion problem which favors classifiers separating clusters of trajectories. Finally, we report empirical results on two grid-world domains showing that the semi-supervised algorithm is able to output a better policy in fewer iterations than the related algorithm that does not take the unlabeled trajectories into account.