Cumulative Restricted Boltzmann Machines for Ordinal Matrix Data Analysis
Proceedings of the Asian Conference on Machine Learning, PMLR 25:411-426, 2012.
Ordinal data is omnipresent in almost all multiuser-generated feedback - questionnaires, preferences etc. This paper investigates modelling of ordinal data with Gaussian restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs). In particular, we present the model architecture, learning and inference procedures for both vector-variate and matrix-variate ordinal data. We show that our model is able to capture latent opinion profile of citizens around the world, and is competitive against state-of-art collaborative filtering techniques on large-scale public datasets. The model thus has the potential to extend application of RBMs to diverse domains such as recommendation systems, product reviews and expert assessments.