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# Solving Continuous POMDPs: Value Iteration with Incremental Learning of an Efficient Space Representation

*Proceedings of the 30th International Conference on Machine Learning*, PMLR 28(3):370-378, 2013.

#### Abstract

Discrete POMDPs of medium complexity can be approximately solved in reasonable time. However, most applications have a continuous and thus uncountably infinite state space. We propose the novel concept of learning a discrete representation of the continuous state space to solve the integrals in continuous POMDPs efficiently and generalize sparse calculations over the continuous space. The representation is iteratively refined as part of a novel Value Iteration step and does not depend on prior knowledge. Consistency for the learned generalization is asserted by a self-correction algorithm. The presented concept is implemented for continuous state and observation spaces based on Monte Carlo approximation to allow for arbitrary POMDP models. In an experimental comparison it yields higher values in significantly shorter time than state of the art algorithms and solves higher-dimensional problems.