Interpretable Sparse High-Order Boltzmann Machines
Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics, PMLR 33:614-622, 2014.
Fully-observable high-order Boltzmann Machines are capable of identifying explicit high-order feature interactions theoretically. However, they have never been used in practice due to their prohibitively high computational cost for inference and learning. In this paper, we propose an efficient approach for learning a fully observable high-order Boltzmann Machine based on sparse learning and contrastive divergence, resulting in an interpretable Sparse High-order Boltzmann Machine, denoted as SHBM. Experimental results on synthetic datasets and a real dataset demonstrate that SHBM can produce higher pseudo-log-likelihood and better reconstructions on test data than the state-of-the-art methods. In addition, we apply SHBM to a challenging bioinformatics problem of discovering complex Transcription Factor interactions. Compared to conventional Boltzmann Machine and directed Bayesian Network, SHBM can identify much more biologically meaningful interactions that are supported by recent biological studies. To the best of our knowledge, SHBM is the first working Boltzmann Machine with explicit high-order feature interactions applied to real-world problems.