Large-scale Distributed Dependent Nonparametric Trees
Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Machine Learning, PMLR 37:1651-1659, 2015.
Practical applications of Bayesian nonparametric (BNP) models have been limited, due to their high computational complexity and poor scaling on large data. In this paper, we consider dependent nonparametric trees (DNTs), a powerful infinite model that captures time-evolving hierarchies, and develop a large-scale distributed training system. Our major contributions include: (1) an effective memoized variational inference for DNTs, with a novel birth-merge strategy for exploring the unbounded tree space; (2) a model-parallel scheme for concurrent tree growing/pruning and efficient model alignment, through conflict-free model partitioning and lightweight synchronization; (3) a data-parallel scheme for variational parameter updates that allows distributed processing of massive data. Using 64 cores in 36 hours, our system learns a 10K-node DNT topic model on 8M documents that captures both high-frequency and long-tail topics. Our data and model scales are orders-of-magnitude larger than recent results on the hierarchical Dirichlet process, and the near-linear scalability indicates great potential for even bigger problem sizes.