Importance Sampling Tree for Large-scale Empirical Expectation

Olivier Canevet, Cijo Jose, Francois Fleuret
Proceedings of The 33rd International Conference on Machine Learning, PMLR 48:1454-1462, 2016.

Abstract

We propose a tree-based procedure inspired by the Monte-Carlo Tree Search that dynamically modulates an importance-based sampling to prioritize computation, while getting unbiased estimates of weighted sums. We apply this generic method to learning on very large training sets, and to the evaluation of large-scale SVMs. The core idea is to reformulate the estimation of a score - whether a loss or a prediction estimate - as an empirical expectation, and to use such a tree whose leaves carry the samples to focus efforts over the problematic "heavy weight" ones. We illustrate the potential of this approach on three problems: to improve Adaboost and a multi-layer perceptron on 2D synthetic tasks with several million points, to train a large-scale convolution network on several millions deformations of the CIFAR data-set, and to compute the response of a SVM with several hundreds of thousands of support vectors. In each case, we show how it either cuts down computation by more than one order of magnitude and/or allows to get better loss estimates.

Cite this Paper


BibTeX
@InProceedings{pmlr-v48-canevet16, title = {Importance Sampling Tree for Large-scale Empirical Expectation}, author = {Canevet, Olivier and Jose, Cijo and Fleuret, Francois}, booktitle = {Proceedings of The 33rd International Conference on Machine Learning}, pages = {1454--1462}, year = {2016}, editor = {Balcan, Maria Florina and Weinberger, Kilian Q.}, volume = {48}, series = {Proceedings of Machine Learning Research}, address = {New York, New York, USA}, month = {20--22 Jun}, publisher = {PMLR}, pdf = {http://proceedings.mlr.press/v48/canevet16.pdf}, url = { http://proceedings.mlr.press/v48/canevet16.html }, abstract = {We propose a tree-based procedure inspired by the Monte-Carlo Tree Search that dynamically modulates an importance-based sampling to prioritize computation, while getting unbiased estimates of weighted sums. We apply this generic method to learning on very large training sets, and to the evaluation of large-scale SVMs. The core idea is to reformulate the estimation of a score - whether a loss or a prediction estimate - as an empirical expectation, and to use such a tree whose leaves carry the samples to focus efforts over the problematic "heavy weight" ones. We illustrate the potential of this approach on three problems: to improve Adaboost and a multi-layer perceptron on 2D synthetic tasks with several million points, to train a large-scale convolution network on several millions deformations of the CIFAR data-set, and to compute the response of a SVM with several hundreds of thousands of support vectors. In each case, we show how it either cuts down computation by more than one order of magnitude and/or allows to get better loss estimates.} }
Endnote
%0 Conference Paper %T Importance Sampling Tree for Large-scale Empirical Expectation %A Olivier Canevet %A Cijo Jose %A Francois Fleuret %B Proceedings of The 33rd International Conference on Machine Learning %C Proceedings of Machine Learning Research %D 2016 %E Maria Florina Balcan %E Kilian Q. Weinberger %F pmlr-v48-canevet16 %I PMLR %P 1454--1462 %U http://proceedings.mlr.press/v48/canevet16.html %V 48 %X We propose a tree-based procedure inspired by the Monte-Carlo Tree Search that dynamically modulates an importance-based sampling to prioritize computation, while getting unbiased estimates of weighted sums. We apply this generic method to learning on very large training sets, and to the evaluation of large-scale SVMs. The core idea is to reformulate the estimation of a score - whether a loss or a prediction estimate - as an empirical expectation, and to use such a tree whose leaves carry the samples to focus efforts over the problematic "heavy weight" ones. We illustrate the potential of this approach on three problems: to improve Adaboost and a multi-layer perceptron on 2D synthetic tasks with several million points, to train a large-scale convolution network on several millions deformations of the CIFAR data-set, and to compute the response of a SVM with several hundreds of thousands of support vectors. In each case, we show how it either cuts down computation by more than one order of magnitude and/or allows to get better loss estimates.
RIS
TY - CPAPER TI - Importance Sampling Tree for Large-scale Empirical Expectation AU - Olivier Canevet AU - Cijo Jose AU - Francois Fleuret BT - Proceedings of The 33rd International Conference on Machine Learning DA - 2016/06/11 ED - Maria Florina Balcan ED - Kilian Q. Weinberger ID - pmlr-v48-canevet16 PB - PMLR DP - Proceedings of Machine Learning Research VL - 48 SP - 1454 EP - 1462 L1 - http://proceedings.mlr.press/v48/canevet16.pdf UR - http://proceedings.mlr.press/v48/canevet16.html AB - We propose a tree-based procedure inspired by the Monte-Carlo Tree Search that dynamically modulates an importance-based sampling to prioritize computation, while getting unbiased estimates of weighted sums. We apply this generic method to learning on very large training sets, and to the evaluation of large-scale SVMs. The core idea is to reformulate the estimation of a score - whether a loss or a prediction estimate - as an empirical expectation, and to use such a tree whose leaves carry the samples to focus efforts over the problematic "heavy weight" ones. We illustrate the potential of this approach on three problems: to improve Adaboost and a multi-layer perceptron on 2D synthetic tasks with several million points, to train a large-scale convolution network on several millions deformations of the CIFAR data-set, and to compute the response of a SVM with several hundreds of thousands of support vectors. In each case, we show how it either cuts down computation by more than one order of magnitude and/or allows to get better loss estimates. ER -
APA
Canevet, O., Jose, C. & Fleuret, F.. (2016). Importance Sampling Tree for Large-scale Empirical Expectation. Proceedings of The 33rd International Conference on Machine Learning, in Proceedings of Machine Learning Research 48:1454-1462 Available from http://proceedings.mlr.press/v48/canevet16.html .

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