Quantization based Fast Inner Product Search

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Ruiqi Guo, Sanjiv Kumar, Krzysztof Choromanski, David Simcha ;
Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics, PMLR 51:482-490, 2016.

Abstract

We propose a quantization based approach for fast approximate Maximum Inner Product Search (MIPS). Each database vector is quantized in multiple subspaces via a set of codebooks, learned directly by minimizing the inner product quantization error. Then, the inner product of a query to a database vector is approximated as the sum of inner products with the subspace quantizers. Different from recently proposed LSH approaches to MIPS, the database vectors and queries do not need to be augmented in a higher dimensional feature space. We also provide a theoretical analysis of the proposed approach, consisting of the concentration results under mild assumptions. Furthermore, if a small set of held-out queries is given at the training time, we propose a modified codebook learning procedure which further improves the accuracy. Experimental results on a variety of datasets including those arising from deep neural networks show that the proposed approach significantly outperforms the existing state-of-the-art.

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