# Deep Kernel Learning

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Andrew Gordon Wilson,
Zhiting Hu,
Ruslan Salakhutdinov,
Eric P. Xing
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Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics, PMLR 51:370-378, 2016.

#### Abstract

We introduce scalable deep kernels, which combine the structural properties of deep learning architectures with the non-parametric flexibility of kernel methods. Specifically, we transform the inputs of a spectral mixture base kernel with a deep architecture, using local kernel interpolation, inducing points, and structure exploiting (Kronecker and Toeplitz) algebra for a scalable kernel representation. These closed-form kernels can be used as drop-in replacements for standard kernels, with benefits in expressive power and scalability. We jointly learn the properties of these kernels through the marginal likelihood of a Gaussian process. Inference and learning cost O(n) for n training points, and predictions cost O(1) per test point. On a large and diverse collection of applications, including a dataset with 2 million examples, we show improved performance over scalable Gaussian processes with flexible kernel learning models, and stand-alone deep architectures.

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