Regret Minimization in Behaviorally-Constrained Zero-Sum Games


Gabriele Farina, Christian Kroer, Tuomas Sandholm ;
Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Machine Learning, PMLR 70:1107-1116, 2017.


No-regret learning has emerged as a powerful tool for solving extensive-form games. This was facilitated by the counterfactual-regret minimization (CFR) framework, which relies on the instantiation of regret minimizers for simplexes at each information set of the game. We use an instantiation of the CFR framework to develop algorithms for solving behaviorally-constrained (and, as a special case, perturbed in the Selten sense) extensive-form games, which allows us to compute approximate Nash equilibrium refinements. Nash equilibrium refinements are motivated by a major deficiency in Nash equilibrium: it provides virtually no guarantees on how it will play in parts of the game tree that are reached with zero probability. Refinements can mend this issue, but have not been adopted in practice, mostly due to a lack of scalable algorithms. We show that, compared to standard algorithms, our method finds solutions that have substantially better refinement properties, while enjoying a convergence rate that is comparable to that of state-of-the-art algorithms for Nash equilibrium computation both in theory and practice.

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