Gradient Boosted Decision Trees for High Dimensional Sparse Output

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Si Si, Huan Zhang, S. Sathiya Keerthi, Dhruv Mahajan, Inderjit S. Dhillon, Cho-Jui Hsieh ;
Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Machine Learning, PMLR 70:3182-3190, 2017.

Abstract

In this paper, we study the gradient boosted decision trees (GBDT) when the output space is high dimensional and sparse. For example, in multilabel classification, the output space is a $L$-dimensional 0/1 vector, where $L$ is number of labels that can grow to millions and beyond in many modern applications. We show that vanilla GBDT can easily run out of memory or encounter near-forever running time in this regime, and propose a new GBDT variant, GBDT-SPARSE, to resolve this problem by employing $L_0$ regularization. We then discuss in detail how to utilize this sparsity to conduct GBDT training, including splitting the nodes, computing the sparse residual, and predicting in sublinear time. Finally, we apply our algorithm to extreme multilabel classification problems, and show that the proposed GBDT-SPARSE achieves an order of magnitude improvements in model size and prediction time over existing methods, while yielding similar performance.

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