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# Semi-Supervised Learning via Compact Latent Space Clustering

*Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Machine Learning*, PMLR 80:2459-2468, 2018.

#### Abstract

We present a novel cost function for semi-supervised learning of neural networks that encourages compact clustering of the latent space to facilitate separation. The key idea is to dynamically create a graph over embeddings of labeled and unlabeled samples of a training batch to capture underlying structure in feature space, and use label propagation to estimate its high and low density regions. We then devise a cost function based on Markov chains on the graph that regularizes the latent space to form a single compact cluster per class, while avoiding to disturb existing clusters during optimization. We evaluate our approach on three benchmarks and compare to state-of-the art with promising results. Our approach combines the benefits of graph-based regularization with efficient, inductive inference, does not require modifications to a network architecture, and can thus be easily applied to existing networks to enable an effective use of unlabeled data.