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# Gradient Layer: Enhancing the Convergence of Adversarial Training for Generative Models

*Proceedings of the Twenty-First International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics*, PMLR 84:1008-1016, 2018.

#### Abstract

We propose a new technique that boosts the convergence of training generative adversarial networks. Generally, the rate of training deep models reduces severely after multiple iterations. A key reason for this phenomenon is that a deep network is expressed using a highly non-convex finite-dimensional model, and thus the parameter gets stuck in a local optimum. Because of this, methods often suffer not only from degeneration of the convergence speed but also from limitations in the representational power of the trained network. To overcome this issue, we propose an additional layer called the gradient layer to seek a descent direction in an infinite-dimensional space. Because the layer is constructed in the infinite-dimensional space, we are not restricted by the specific model structure of finite-dimensional models. As a result, we can get out of the local optima in finite-dimensional models and move towards the global optimal function more directly. In this paper, this phenomenon is explained from the functional gradient method perspective of the gradient layer. Interestingly, the optimization procedure using the gradient layer naturally constructs the deep structure of the network. Moreover, we demonstrate that this procedure can be regarded as a discretization method of the gradient flow that naturally reduces the objective function. Finally, the method is tested using several numerical experiments, which show its fast convergence.