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# DeepMDP: Learning Continuous Latent Space Models for Representation Learning

*Proceedings of the 36th International Conference on Machine Learning*, PMLR 97:2170-2179, 2019.

#### Abstract

Many reinforcement learning (RL) tasks provide the agent with high-dimensional observations that can be simplified into low-dimensional continuous states. To formalize this process, we introduce the concept of a \texit{DeepMDP}, a parameterized latent space model that is trained via the minimization of two tractable latent space losses: prediction of rewards and prediction of the distribution over next latent states. We show that the optimization of these objectives guarantees (1) the quality of the embedding function as a representation of the state space and (2) the quality of the DeepMDP as a model of the environment. Our theoretical findings are substantiated by the experimental result that a trained DeepMDP recovers the latent structure underlying high-dimensional observations on a synthetic environment. Finally, we show that learning a DeepMDP as an auxiliary task in the Atari 2600 domain leads to large performance improvements over model-free RL.