Emerging Convolutions for Generative Normalizing Flows

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Emiel Hoogeboom, Rianne Van Den Berg, Max Welling ;
Proceedings of the 36th International Conference on Machine Learning, PMLR 97:2771-2780, 2019.

Abstract

Generative flows are attractive because they admit exact likelihood optimization and efficient image synthesis. Recently, Kingma & Dhariwal (2018) demonstrated with Glow that generative flows are capable of generating high quality images. We generalize the 1 {\texttimes} 1 convolutions proposed in Glow to invertible d {\texttimes} d convolutions, which are more flexible since they operate on both channel and spatial axes. We propose two methods to produce invertible convolutions, that have receptive fields identical to standard convolutions: Emerging convolutions are obtained by chaining specific autoregressive convolutions, and periodic convolutions are decoupled in the frequency domain. Our experiments show that the flexibility of d {\texttimes} d convolutions significantly improves the performance of generative flow models on galaxy images, CIFAR10 and ImageNet.

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