First-Order Adversarial Vulnerability of Neural Networks and Input Dimension


Carl-Johann Simon-Gabriel, Yann Ollivier, Leon Bottou, Bernhard Schölkopf, David Lopez-Paz ;
Proceedings of the 36th International Conference on Machine Learning, PMLR 97:5809-5817, 2019.


Over the past few years, neural networks were proven vulnerable to adversarial images: targeted but imperceptible image perturbations lead to drastically different predictions. We show that adversarial vulnerability increases with the gradients of the training objective when viewed as a function of the inputs. Surprisingly, vulnerability does not depend on network topology: for many standard network architectures, we prove that at initialization, the L1-norm of these gradients grows as the square root of the input dimension, leaving the networks increasingly vulnerable with growing image size. We empirically show that this dimension-dependence persists after either usual or robust training, but gets attenuated with higher regularization.

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