Learning and Evaluating Contextual Embedding of Source Code

Aditya Kanade, Petros Maniatis, Gogul Balakrishnan, Kensen Shi
Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning, PMLR 119:5110-5121, 2020.

Abstract

Recent research has achieved impressive results on understanding and improving source code by building up on machine-learning techniques developed for natural languages. A significant advancement in natural-language understanding has come with the development of pre-trained contextual embeddings, such as BERT, which can be fine-tuned for downstream tasks with less labeled data and training budget, while achieving better accuracies. However, there is no attempt yet to obtain a high-quality contextual embedding of source code, and to evaluate it on multiple program-understanding tasks simultaneously; that is the gap that this paper aims to mitigate. Specifically, first, we curate a massive, deduplicated corpus of 7.4M Python files from GitHub, which we use to pre-train CuBERT, an open-sourced code-understanding BERT model; and, second, we create an open-sourced benchmark that comprises five classification tasks and one program-repair task, akin to code-understanding tasks proposed in the literature before. We fine-tune CuBERT on our benchmark tasks, and compare the resulting models to different variants of Word2Vec token embeddings, BiLSTM and Transformer models, as well as published state-of-the-art models, showing that CuBERT outperforms them all, even with shorter training, and with fewer labeled examples. Future work on source-code embedding can benefit from reusing our benchmark, and from comparing against CuBERT models as a strong baseline.

Cite this Paper


BibTeX
@InProceedings{pmlr-v119-kanade20a, title = {Learning and Evaluating Contextual Embedding of Source Code}, author = {Kanade, Aditya and Maniatis, Petros and Balakrishnan, Gogul and Shi, Kensen}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning}, pages = {5110--5121}, year = {2020}, editor = {III, Hal Daumé and Singh, Aarti}, volume = {119}, series = {Proceedings of Machine Learning Research}, month = {13--18 Jul}, publisher = {PMLR}, pdf = {http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kanade20a/kanade20a.pdf}, url = {http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kanade20a.html}, abstract = {Recent research has achieved impressive results on understanding and improving source code by building up on machine-learning techniques developed for natural languages. A significant advancement in natural-language understanding has come with the development of pre-trained contextual embeddings, such as BERT, which can be fine-tuned for downstream tasks with less labeled data and training budget, while achieving better accuracies. However, there is no attempt yet to obtain a high-quality contextual embedding of source code, and to evaluate it on multiple program-understanding tasks simultaneously; that is the gap that this paper aims to mitigate. Specifically, first, we curate a massive, deduplicated corpus of 7.4M Python files from GitHub, which we use to pre-train CuBERT, an open-sourced code-understanding BERT model; and, second, we create an open-sourced benchmark that comprises five classification tasks and one program-repair task, akin to code-understanding tasks proposed in the literature before. We fine-tune CuBERT on our benchmark tasks, and compare the resulting models to different variants of Word2Vec token embeddings, BiLSTM and Transformer models, as well as published state-of-the-art models, showing that CuBERT outperforms them all, even with shorter training, and with fewer labeled examples. Future work on source-code embedding can benefit from reusing our benchmark, and from comparing against CuBERT models as a strong baseline.} }
Endnote
%0 Conference Paper %T Learning and Evaluating Contextual Embedding of Source Code %A Aditya Kanade %A Petros Maniatis %A Gogul Balakrishnan %A Kensen Shi %B Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning %C Proceedings of Machine Learning Research %D 2020 %E Hal Daumé III %E Aarti Singh %F pmlr-v119-kanade20a %I PMLR %P 5110--5121 %U http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kanade20a.html %V 119 %X Recent research has achieved impressive results on understanding and improving source code by building up on machine-learning techniques developed for natural languages. A significant advancement in natural-language understanding has come with the development of pre-trained contextual embeddings, such as BERT, which can be fine-tuned for downstream tasks with less labeled data and training budget, while achieving better accuracies. However, there is no attempt yet to obtain a high-quality contextual embedding of source code, and to evaluate it on multiple program-understanding tasks simultaneously; that is the gap that this paper aims to mitigate. Specifically, first, we curate a massive, deduplicated corpus of 7.4M Python files from GitHub, which we use to pre-train CuBERT, an open-sourced code-understanding BERT model; and, second, we create an open-sourced benchmark that comprises five classification tasks and one program-repair task, akin to code-understanding tasks proposed in the literature before. We fine-tune CuBERT on our benchmark tasks, and compare the resulting models to different variants of Word2Vec token embeddings, BiLSTM and Transformer models, as well as published state-of-the-art models, showing that CuBERT outperforms them all, even with shorter training, and with fewer labeled examples. Future work on source-code embedding can benefit from reusing our benchmark, and from comparing against CuBERT models as a strong baseline.
APA
Kanade, A., Maniatis, P., Balakrishnan, G. & Shi, K.. (2020). Learning and Evaluating Contextual Embedding of Source Code. Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning, in Proceedings of Machine Learning Research 119:5110-5121 Available from http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kanade20a.html.

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