Curse of Dimensionality on Randomized Smoothing for Certifiable Robustness

Aounon Kumar, Alexander Levine, Tom Goldstein, Soheil Feizi
Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning, PMLR 119:5458-5467, 2020.

Abstract

Randomized smoothing, using just a simple isotropic Gaussian distribution, has been shown to produce good robustness guarantees against $\ell_2$-norm bounded adversaries. In this work, we show that extending the smoothing technique to defend against other attack models can be challenging, especially in the high-dimensional regime. In particular, for a vast class of i.i.d. smoothing distributions, we prove that the largest $\ell_p$-radius that can be certified decreases as $O(1/d^{\frac{1}{2} - \frac{1}{p}})$ with dimension $d$ for $p > 2$. Notably, for $p \geq 2$, this dependence on $d$ is no better than that of the $\ell_p$-radius that can be certified using isotropic Gaussian smoothing, essentially putting a matching lower bound on the robustness radius. When restricted to \emph{generalized} Gaussian smoothing, these two bounds can be shown to be within a constant factor of each other in an asymptotic sense, establishing that Gaussian smoothing provides the best possible results, up to a constant factor, when $p \geq 2$. We present experimental results on CIFAR to validate our theory. For other smoothing distributions, such as, a uniform distribution within an $\ell_1$ or an $\ell_\infty$-norm ball, we show upper bounds of the form $O(1 / d)$ and $O(1 / d^{1 - \frac{1}{p}})$ respectively, which have an even worse dependence on $d$.

Cite this Paper


BibTeX
@InProceedings{pmlr-v119-kumar20b, title = {Curse of Dimensionality on Randomized Smoothing for Certifiable Robustness}, author = {Kumar, Aounon and Levine, Alexander and Goldstein, Tom and Feizi, Soheil}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning}, pages = {5458--5467}, year = {2020}, editor = {III, Hal Daumé and Singh, Aarti}, volume = {119}, series = {Proceedings of Machine Learning Research}, month = {13--18 Jul}, publisher = {PMLR}, pdf = {http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kumar20b/kumar20b.pdf}, url = {http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kumar20b.html}, abstract = {Randomized smoothing, using just a simple isotropic Gaussian distribution, has been shown to produce good robustness guarantees against $\ell_2$-norm bounded adversaries. In this work, we show that extending the smoothing technique to defend against other attack models can be challenging, especially in the high-dimensional regime. In particular, for a vast class of i.i.d. smoothing distributions, we prove that the largest $\ell_p$-radius that can be certified decreases as $O(1/d^{\frac{1}{2} - \frac{1}{p}})$ with dimension $d$ for $p > 2$. Notably, for $p \geq 2$, this dependence on $d$ is no better than that of the $\ell_p$-radius that can be certified using isotropic Gaussian smoothing, essentially putting a matching lower bound on the robustness radius. When restricted to \emph{generalized} Gaussian smoothing, these two bounds can be shown to be within a constant factor of each other in an asymptotic sense, establishing that Gaussian smoothing provides the best possible results, up to a constant factor, when $p \geq 2$. We present experimental results on CIFAR to validate our theory. For other smoothing distributions, such as, a uniform distribution within an $\ell_1$ or an $\ell_\infty$-norm ball, we show upper bounds of the form $O(1 / d)$ and $O(1 / d^{1 - \frac{1}{p}})$ respectively, which have an even worse dependence on $d$.} }
Endnote
%0 Conference Paper %T Curse of Dimensionality on Randomized Smoothing for Certifiable Robustness %A Aounon Kumar %A Alexander Levine %A Tom Goldstein %A Soheil Feizi %B Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning %C Proceedings of Machine Learning Research %D 2020 %E Hal Daumé III %E Aarti Singh %F pmlr-v119-kumar20b %I PMLR %P 5458--5467 %U http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kumar20b.html %V 119 %X Randomized smoothing, using just a simple isotropic Gaussian distribution, has been shown to produce good robustness guarantees against $\ell_2$-norm bounded adversaries. In this work, we show that extending the smoothing technique to defend against other attack models can be challenging, especially in the high-dimensional regime. In particular, for a vast class of i.i.d. smoothing distributions, we prove that the largest $\ell_p$-radius that can be certified decreases as $O(1/d^{\frac{1}{2} - \frac{1}{p}})$ with dimension $d$ for $p > 2$. Notably, for $p \geq 2$, this dependence on $d$ is no better than that of the $\ell_p$-radius that can be certified using isotropic Gaussian smoothing, essentially putting a matching lower bound on the robustness radius. When restricted to \emph{generalized} Gaussian smoothing, these two bounds can be shown to be within a constant factor of each other in an asymptotic sense, establishing that Gaussian smoothing provides the best possible results, up to a constant factor, when $p \geq 2$. We present experimental results on CIFAR to validate our theory. For other smoothing distributions, such as, a uniform distribution within an $\ell_1$ or an $\ell_\infty$-norm ball, we show upper bounds of the form $O(1 / d)$ and $O(1 / d^{1 - \frac{1}{p}})$ respectively, which have an even worse dependence on $d$.
APA
Kumar, A., Levine, A., Goldstein, T. & Feizi, S.. (2020). Curse of Dimensionality on Randomized Smoothing for Certifiable Robustness. Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning, in Proceedings of Machine Learning Research 119:5458-5467 Available from http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/kumar20b.html.

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