Up or Down? Adaptive Rounding for Post-Training Quantization

Markus Nagel, Rana Ali Amjad, Mart Van Baalen, Christos Louizos, Tijmen Blankevoort
Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning, PMLR 119:7197-7206, 2020.

Abstract

When quantizing neural networks, assigning each floating-point weight to its nearest fixed-point value is the predominant approach. We find that, perhaps surprisingly, this is not the best we can do. In this paper, we propose AdaRound, a better weight-rounding mechanism for post-training quantization that adapts to the data and the task loss. AdaRound is fast, does not require fine-tuning of the network, and only uses a small amount of unlabelled data. We start by theoretically analyzing the rounding problem for a pre-trained neural network. By approximating the task loss with a Taylor series expansion, the rounding task is posed as a quadratic unconstrained binary optimization problem. We simplify this to a layer-wise local loss and propose to optimize this loss with a soft relaxation. AdaRound not only outperforms rounding-to-nearest by a significant margin but also establishes a new state-of-the-art for post-training quantization on several networks and tasks. Without fine-tuning, we can quantize the weights of Resnet18 and Resnet50 to 4 bits while staying within an accuracy loss of 1%.

Cite this Paper


BibTeX
@InProceedings{pmlr-v119-nagel20a, title = {Up or Down? {A}daptive Rounding for Post-Training Quantization}, author = {Nagel, Markus and Amjad, Rana Ali and Van Baalen, Mart and Louizos, Christos and Blankevoort, Tijmen}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning}, pages = {7197--7206}, year = {2020}, editor = {III, Hal Daumé and Singh, Aarti}, volume = {119}, series = {Proceedings of Machine Learning Research}, month = {13--18 Jul}, publisher = {PMLR}, pdf = {http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/nagel20a/nagel20a.pdf}, url = {http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/nagel20a.html}, abstract = {When quantizing neural networks, assigning each floating-point weight to its nearest fixed-point value is the predominant approach. We find that, perhaps surprisingly, this is not the best we can do. In this paper, we propose AdaRound, a better weight-rounding mechanism for post-training quantization that adapts to the data and the task loss. AdaRound is fast, does not require fine-tuning of the network, and only uses a small amount of unlabelled data. We start by theoretically analyzing the rounding problem for a pre-trained neural network. By approximating the task loss with a Taylor series expansion, the rounding task is posed as a quadratic unconstrained binary optimization problem. We simplify this to a layer-wise local loss and propose to optimize this loss with a soft relaxation. AdaRound not only outperforms rounding-to-nearest by a significant margin but also establishes a new state-of-the-art for post-training quantization on several networks and tasks. Without fine-tuning, we can quantize the weights of Resnet18 and Resnet50 to 4 bits while staying within an accuracy loss of 1%.} }
Endnote
%0 Conference Paper %T Up or Down? Adaptive Rounding for Post-Training Quantization %A Markus Nagel %A Rana Ali Amjad %A Mart Van Baalen %A Christos Louizos %A Tijmen Blankevoort %B Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning %C Proceedings of Machine Learning Research %D 2020 %E Hal Daumé III %E Aarti Singh %F pmlr-v119-nagel20a %I PMLR %P 7197--7206 %U http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/nagel20a.html %V 119 %X When quantizing neural networks, assigning each floating-point weight to its nearest fixed-point value is the predominant approach. We find that, perhaps surprisingly, this is not the best we can do. In this paper, we propose AdaRound, a better weight-rounding mechanism for post-training quantization that adapts to the data and the task loss. AdaRound is fast, does not require fine-tuning of the network, and only uses a small amount of unlabelled data. We start by theoretically analyzing the rounding problem for a pre-trained neural network. By approximating the task loss with a Taylor series expansion, the rounding task is posed as a quadratic unconstrained binary optimization problem. We simplify this to a layer-wise local loss and propose to optimize this loss with a soft relaxation. AdaRound not only outperforms rounding-to-nearest by a significant margin but also establishes a new state-of-the-art for post-training quantization on several networks and tasks. Without fine-tuning, we can quantize the weights of Resnet18 and Resnet50 to 4 bits while staying within an accuracy loss of 1%.
APA
Nagel, M., Amjad, R.A., Van Baalen, M., Louizos, C. & Blankevoort, T.. (2020). Up or Down? Adaptive Rounding for Post-Training Quantization. Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning, in Proceedings of Machine Learning Research 119:7197-7206 Available from http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/nagel20a.html.

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