Randomized Smoothing of All Shapes and Sizes

Greg Yang, Tony Duan, J. Edward Hu, Hadi Salman, Ilya Razenshteyn, Jerry Li
Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning, PMLR 119:10693-10705, 2020.

Abstract

Randomized smoothing is the current state-of-the-art defense with provable robustness against $\ell_2$ adversarial attacks. Many works have devised new randomized smoothing schemes for other metrics, such as $\ell_1$ or $\ell_\infty$; however, substantial effort was needed to derive such new guarantees. This begs the question: can we find a general theory for randomized smoothing? We propose a novel framework for devising and analyzing randomized smoothing schemes, and validate its effectiveness in practice. Our theoretical contributions are: (1) we show that for an appropriate notion of "optimal", the optimal smoothing distributions for any "nice" norms have level sets given by the norm’s *Wulff Crystal*; (2) we propose two novel and complementary methods for deriving provably robust radii for any smoothing distribution; and, (3) we show fundamental limits to current randomized smoothing techniques via the theory of *Banach space cotypes*. By combining (1) and (2), we significantly improve the state-of-the-art certified accuracy in $\ell_1$ on standard datasets. Meanwhile, we show using (3) that with only label statistics under random input perturbations, randomized smoothing cannot achieve nontrivial certified accuracy against perturbations of $\ell_p$-norm $\Omega(\min(1, d^{\frac{1}{p} - \frac{1}{2}}))$, when the input dimension $d$ is large. We provide code in github.com/tonyduan/rs4a.

Cite this Paper


BibTeX
@InProceedings{pmlr-v119-yang20c, title = {Randomized Smoothing of All Shapes and Sizes}, author = {Yang, Greg and Duan, Tony and Hu, J. Edward and Salman, Hadi and Razenshteyn, Ilya and Li, Jerry}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning}, pages = {10693--10705}, year = {2020}, editor = {III, Hal Daumé and Singh, Aarti}, volume = {119}, series = {Proceedings of Machine Learning Research}, month = {13--18 Jul}, publisher = {PMLR}, pdf = {http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yang20c/yang20c.pdf}, url = {http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yang20c.html}, abstract = {Randomized smoothing is the current state-of-the-art defense with provable robustness against $\ell_2$ adversarial attacks. Many works have devised new randomized smoothing schemes for other metrics, such as $\ell_1$ or $\ell_\infty$; however, substantial effort was needed to derive such new guarantees. This begs the question: can we find a general theory for randomized smoothing? We propose a novel framework for devising and analyzing randomized smoothing schemes, and validate its effectiveness in practice. Our theoretical contributions are: (1) we show that for an appropriate notion of "optimal", the optimal smoothing distributions for any "nice" norms have level sets given by the norm’s *Wulff Crystal*; (2) we propose two novel and complementary methods for deriving provably robust radii for any smoothing distribution; and, (3) we show fundamental limits to current randomized smoothing techniques via the theory of *Banach space cotypes*. By combining (1) and (2), we significantly improve the state-of-the-art certified accuracy in $\ell_1$ on standard datasets. Meanwhile, we show using (3) that with only label statistics under random input perturbations, randomized smoothing cannot achieve nontrivial certified accuracy against perturbations of $\ell_p$-norm $\Omega(\min(1, d^{\frac{1}{p} - \frac{1}{2}}))$, when the input dimension $d$ is large. We provide code in github.com/tonyduan/rs4a.} }
Endnote
%0 Conference Paper %T Randomized Smoothing of All Shapes and Sizes %A Greg Yang %A Tony Duan %A J. Edward Hu %A Hadi Salman %A Ilya Razenshteyn %A Jerry Li %B Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning %C Proceedings of Machine Learning Research %D 2020 %E Hal Daumé III %E Aarti Singh %F pmlr-v119-yang20c %I PMLR %P 10693--10705 %U http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yang20c.html %V 119 %X Randomized smoothing is the current state-of-the-art defense with provable robustness against $\ell_2$ adversarial attacks. Many works have devised new randomized smoothing schemes for other metrics, such as $\ell_1$ or $\ell_\infty$; however, substantial effort was needed to derive such new guarantees. This begs the question: can we find a general theory for randomized smoothing? We propose a novel framework for devising and analyzing randomized smoothing schemes, and validate its effectiveness in practice. Our theoretical contributions are: (1) we show that for an appropriate notion of "optimal", the optimal smoothing distributions for any "nice" norms have level sets given by the norm’s *Wulff Crystal*; (2) we propose two novel and complementary methods for deriving provably robust radii for any smoothing distribution; and, (3) we show fundamental limits to current randomized smoothing techniques via the theory of *Banach space cotypes*. By combining (1) and (2), we significantly improve the state-of-the-art certified accuracy in $\ell_1$ on standard datasets. Meanwhile, we show using (3) that with only label statistics under random input perturbations, randomized smoothing cannot achieve nontrivial certified accuracy against perturbations of $\ell_p$-norm $\Omega(\min(1, d^{\frac{1}{p} - \frac{1}{2}}))$, when the input dimension $d$ is large. We provide code in github.com/tonyduan/rs4a.
APA
Yang, G., Duan, T., Hu, J.E., Salman, H., Razenshteyn, I. & Li, J.. (2020). Randomized Smoothing of All Shapes and Sizes. Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning, in Proceedings of Machine Learning Research 119:10693-10705 Available from http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/yang20c.html.

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