Developing Personalized Models of Blood Pressure Estimation from Wearable Sensors Data Using Minimally-trained Domain Adversarial Neural Networks
Proceedings of the 5th Machine Learning for Healthcare Conference, PMLR 126:97-120, 2020.
Blood pressure monitoring is an essential component of hypertension management and in the prediction of associated comorbidities. Blood pressure is a dynamic vital sign with frequent changes throughout a given day. Capturing blood pressure remotely and frequently (also known as ambulatory blood pressure monitoring) has traditionally been achieved by measuring blood pressure at discrete intervals using an inflatable cuff. However, there is growing interest in developing a cuffless ambulatory blood pressure monitoring system to measure blood pressure continuously. One such approach is by utilizing bioimpedance sensors to build regression models. A practical problem with this approach is that the amount of data required to confidently train such a regression model can be prohibitive. In this paper, we propose the application of the domain-adversarial training neural network (DANN) method on our multitask learning (MTL) blood pressure estimation model, allowing for knowledge transfer between subjects. Our proposed model obtains average root mean square error (RMSE) of $4.80 \pm 0.74$ mmHg for diastolic blood pressure and $7.34 \pm 1.88$ mmHg for systolic blood pressure when using three minutes of training data, $4:64 \pm 0.60$ mmHg and $7.10 \pm 1.79$ respectively when using four minutes of training data, and $4.48 \pm 0.57$ mmHg and $6.79 \pm 1:70$ respectively when using five minutes of training data. DANN improves training with minimal data in comparison to both directly training and to training with a pretrained model from another subject, decreasing RMSE by 0.19 to 0.26 mmHg (diastolic) and by 0.46 to 0.67 mmHg (systolic) in comparison to the best baseline models. We observe that four minutes of training data is the minimum requirement for our framework to exceed ISO standards within this cohort of patients.