Proximal Causal Learning with Kernels: Two-Stage Estimation and Moment Restriction

Afsaneh Mastouri, Yuchen Zhu, Limor Gultchin, Anna Korba, Ricardo Silva, Matt Kusner, Arthur Gretton, Krikamol Muandet
Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Machine Learning, PMLR 139:7512-7523, 2021.

Abstract

We address the problem of causal effect estima-tion in the presence of unobserved confounding,but where proxies for the latent confounder(s) areobserved. We propose two kernel-based meth-ods for nonlinear causal effect estimation in thissetting: (a) a two-stage regression approach, and(b) a maximum moment restriction approach. Wefocus on the proximal causal learning setting, butour methods can be used to solve a wider classof inverse problems characterised by a Fredholmintegral equation. In particular, we provide a uni-fying view of two-stage and moment restrictionapproaches for solving this problem in a nonlin-ear setting. We provide consistency guaranteesfor each algorithm, and demonstrate that these ap-proaches achieve competitive results on syntheticdata and data simulating a real-world task. In par-ticular, our approach outperforms earlier methodsthat are not suited to leveraging proxy variables.

Cite this Paper


BibTeX
@InProceedings{pmlr-v139-mastouri21a, title = {Proximal Causal Learning with Kernels: Two-Stage Estimation and Moment Restriction}, author = {Mastouri, Afsaneh and Zhu, Yuchen and Gultchin, Limor and Korba, Anna and Silva, Ricardo and Kusner, Matt and Gretton, Arthur and Muandet, Krikamol}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Machine Learning}, pages = {7512--7523}, year = {2021}, editor = {Meila, Marina and Zhang, Tong}, volume = {139}, series = {Proceedings of Machine Learning Research}, month = {18--24 Jul}, publisher = {PMLR}, pdf = {http://proceedings.mlr.press/v139/mastouri21a/mastouri21a.pdf}, url = {http://proceedings.mlr.press/v139/mastouri21a.html}, abstract = {We address the problem of causal effect estima-tion in the presence of unobserved confounding,but where proxies for the latent confounder(s) areobserved. We propose two kernel-based meth-ods for nonlinear causal effect estimation in thissetting: (a) a two-stage regression approach, and(b) a maximum moment restriction approach. Wefocus on the proximal causal learning setting, butour methods can be used to solve a wider classof inverse problems characterised by a Fredholmintegral equation. In particular, we provide a uni-fying view of two-stage and moment restrictionapproaches for solving this problem in a nonlin-ear setting. We provide consistency guaranteesfor each algorithm, and demonstrate that these ap-proaches achieve competitive results on syntheticdata and data simulating a real-world task. In par-ticular, our approach outperforms earlier methodsthat are not suited to leveraging proxy variables.} }
Endnote
%0 Conference Paper %T Proximal Causal Learning with Kernels: Two-Stage Estimation and Moment Restriction %A Afsaneh Mastouri %A Yuchen Zhu %A Limor Gultchin %A Anna Korba %A Ricardo Silva %A Matt Kusner %A Arthur Gretton %A Krikamol Muandet %B Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Machine Learning %C Proceedings of Machine Learning Research %D 2021 %E Marina Meila %E Tong Zhang %F pmlr-v139-mastouri21a %I PMLR %P 7512--7523 %U http://proceedings.mlr.press/v139/mastouri21a.html %V 139 %X We address the problem of causal effect estima-tion in the presence of unobserved confounding,but where proxies for the latent confounder(s) areobserved. We propose two kernel-based meth-ods for nonlinear causal effect estimation in thissetting: (a) a two-stage regression approach, and(b) a maximum moment restriction approach. Wefocus on the proximal causal learning setting, butour methods can be used to solve a wider classof inverse problems characterised by a Fredholmintegral equation. In particular, we provide a uni-fying view of two-stage and moment restrictionapproaches for solving this problem in a nonlin-ear setting. We provide consistency guaranteesfor each algorithm, and demonstrate that these ap-proaches achieve competitive results on syntheticdata and data simulating a real-world task. In par-ticular, our approach outperforms earlier methodsthat are not suited to leveraging proxy variables.
APA
Mastouri, A., Zhu, Y., Gultchin, L., Korba, A., Silva, R., Kusner, M., Gretton, A. & Muandet, K.. (2021). Proximal Causal Learning with Kernels: Two-Stage Estimation and Moment Restriction. Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Machine Learning, in Proceedings of Machine Learning Research 139:7512-7523 Available from http://proceedings.mlr.press/v139/mastouri21a.html.

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