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# Expressive 1-Lipschitz Neural Networks for Robust Multiple Graph Learning against Adversarial Attacks

*Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Machine Learning*, PMLR 139:12719-12735, 2021.

#### Abstract

Recent findings have shown multiple graph learning models, such as graph classification and graph matching, are highly vulnerable to adversarial attacks, i.e. small input perturbations in graph structures and node attributes can cause the model failures. Existing defense techniques often defend specific attacks on particular multiple graph learning tasks. This paper proposes an attack-agnostic graph-adaptive 1-Lipschitz neural network, ERNN, for improving the robustness of deep multiple graph learning while achieving remarkable expressive power. A K_l-Lipschitz Weibull activation function is designed to enforce the gradient norm as K_l at layer l. The nearest matrix orthogonalization and polar decomposition techniques are utilized to constraint the weight norm as 1/K_l and make the norm-constrained weight close to the original weight. The theoretical analysis is conducted to derive lower and upper bounds of feasible K_l under the 1-Lipschitz constraint. The combination of norm-constrained weight and activation function leads to the 1-Lipschitz neural network for expressive and robust multiple graph learning.