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# Confronting Domain Shift in Trained Neural Networks

*NeurIPS 2020 Workshop on Pre-registration in Machine Learning*, PMLR 148:176-192, 2021.

#### Abstract

Neural networks (NNs) are known as universal function approximators and can interpolate nonlinear functions between observed data points. However, when the target domain for deployment shifts from the training domain and NNs must extrapolate, the results are notoriously poor. Prior work has shown that NN uncertainty estimates can be used to correct binary predictions in shifted domains without retraining the model. We hypothesize that this approach can be extended to correct real-valued time series predictions. As an exemplar, we consider two mechanical systems with nonlinear dynamics. The first system consists of a spring-mass system where the stiffness changes abruptly, and the second is a real experimental system with a frictional joint that is an open challenge for structural dynamicists to model efficiently. Our experiments will test whether 1) NN uncertainty estimates can identify when the input domain has shifted from the training domain and 2) whether the information used to calculate uncertainty estimates can be used to correct the NN’s time series predictions. While the method as proposed did not significantly improve predictions, our results did show potential for modifications that could improve models’ predictions and play a role in structural health monitoring systems that directly impact public safety.