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# Disentangling mixtures of unknown causal interventions

*Proceedings of the Thirty-Seventh Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence*, PMLR 161:2093-2102, 2021.

#### Abstract

In many real-world scenarios, such as gene knockout experiments, targeted interventions are often accompanied by unknown interventions at off-target sites. Moreover, different units can get randomly exposed to different unknown interventions, thereby creating a mixture of interventions. Identifying different components of this mixture can be very valuable in some applications. Motivated by such situations, in this work, we study the problem of identifying all components present in a mixture of interventions on a given causal Bayesian Network. We construct examples to show that, in general, the components are not identifiable from the mixture distribution. Next, assuming that the given network satisfies a positivity condition, we show that, if the set of mixture components satisfy a mild exclusion assumption, then they can be uniquely identified. Our proof gives an efficient algorithm to recover these targets from the exponentially large search space of possible targets. In the more realistic scenario, where distributions are given via finitely many samples, we conduct a simulation study to analyze the performance of an algorithm derived from our identifiability proof.