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# Convergence of Invariant Graph Networks

*Proceedings of the 39th International Conference on Machine Learning*, PMLR 162:2457-2484, 2022.

#### Abstract

Although theoretical properties such as expressive power and over-smoothing of graph neural networks (GNN) have been extensively studied recently, its convergence property is a relatively new direction. In this paper, we investigate the convergence of one powerful GNN, Invariant Graph Network (IGN) over graphs sampled from graphons. We first prove the stability of linear layers for general $k$-IGN (of order $k$) based on a novel interpretation of linear equivariant layers. Building upon this result, we prove the convergence of $k$-IGN under the model of \citet{ruiz2020graphon}, where we access the edge weight but the convergence error is measured for graphon inputs. Under the more natural (and more challenging) setting of \citet{keriven2020convergence} where one can only access 0-1 adjacency matrix sampled according to edge probability, we first show a negative result that the convergence of any IGN is not possible. We then obtain the convergence of a subset of IGNs, denoted as IGN-small, after the edge probability estimation. We show that IGN-small still contains function class rich enough that can approximate spectral GNNs arbitrarily well. Lastly, we perform experiments on various graphon models to verify our statements.