Low-Complexity Deep Convolutional Neural Networks on Fully Homomorphic Encryption Using Multiplexed Parallel Convolutions
Proceedings of the 39th International Conference on Machine Learning, PMLR 162:12403-12422, 2022.
Recently, the standard ResNet-20 network was successfully implemented on the fully homomorphic encryption scheme, residue number system variant Cheon-Kim-Kim-Song (RNS-CKKS) scheme using bootstrapping, but the implementation lacks practicality due to high latency and low security level. To improve the performance, we first minimize total bootstrapping runtime using multiplexed parallel convolution that collects sparse output data for multiple channels compactly. We also propose the imaginary-removing bootstrapping to prevent the deep neural networks from catastrophic divergence during approximate ReLU operations. In addition, we optimize level consumptions and use lighter and tighter parameters. Simulation results show that we have 4.67x lower inference latency and 134x less amortized runtime (runtime per image) for ResNet-20 compared to the state-of-the-art previous work, and we achieve standard 128-bit security. Furthermore, we successfully implement ResNet-110 with high accuracy on the RNS-CKKS scheme for the first time.