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# Double Sampling Randomized Smoothing

*Proceedings of the 39th International Conference on Machine Learning*, PMLR 162:13163-13208, 2022.

#### Abstract

Neural networks (NNs) are known to be vulnerable against adversarial perturbations, and thus there is a line of work aiming to provide robustness certification for NNs, such as randomized smoothing, which samples smoothing noises from a certain distribution to certify the robustness for a smoothed classifier. However, as previous work shows, the certified robust radius in randomized smoothing suffers from scaling to large datasets ("curse of dimensionality"). To overcome this hurdle, we propose a Double Sampling Randomized Smoothing (DSRS) framework, which exploits the sampled probability from an additional smoothing distribution to tighten the robustness certification of the previous smoothed classifier. Theoretically, under mild assumptions, we prove that DSRS can certify $\Theta(\sqrt d)$ robust radius under $\ell_2$ norm where $d$ is the input dimension, which implies that DSRS may be able to break the curse of dimensionality of randomized smoothing. We instantiate DSRS for a generalized family of Gaussian smoothing and propose an efficient and sound computing method based on customized dual optimization considering sampling error. Extensive experiments on MNIST, CIFAR-10, and ImageNet verify our theory and show that DSRS certifies larger robust radii than existing baselines consistently under different settings. Code is available at https://github.com/llylly/DSRS.