CerDEQ: Certifiable Deep Equilibrium Model
Proceedings of the 39th International Conference on Machine Learning, PMLR 162:12998-13013, 2022.
Recently, certifiable robust training methods via bound propagation have been proposed for training neural networks with certifiable robustness guarantees. However, no neural architectures with regular convolution and linear layers perform better in the certifiable training than the plain CNNs, since the output bounds for the deep explicit models increase quickly as their depth increases. And such a phenomenon significantly hinders certifiable training. Meanwhile, the Deep Equilibrium Model (DEQ) is more representative and robust due to their equivalent infinite depth and controllable global Lipschitz. But no work has been proposed to explore whether DEQ can show advantages in certified training. In this work, we aim to tackle the problem of DEQ’s certified training. To obtain the output bound based on the bound propagation scheme in the implicit model, we first involve the adjoint DEQ for bound approximation. Furthermore, we also use the weight orthogonalization method and other tricks specified for DEQ to stabilize the certifiable training. With our approach, we can obtain the certifiable DEQ called CerDEQ. Our CerDEQ can achieve state-of-the-art performance compared with models using regular convolution and linear layers on $\ell_\infty$ tasks with $\epsilon=8/255$: $64.72%$ certified error for CIFAR-$10$ and $94.45%$ certified error for Tiny ImageNet.