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# Power-Law Escape Rate of SGD

*Proceedings of the 39th International Conference on Machine Learning*, PMLR 162:15959-15975, 2022.

#### Abstract

Stochastic gradient descent (SGD) undergoes complicated multiplicative noise for the mean-square loss. We use this property of SGD noise to derive a stochastic differential equation (SDE) with simpler additive noise by performing a random time change. Using this formalism, we show that the log loss barrier $\Delta\log L=\log[L(\theta^s)/L(\theta^*)]$ between a local minimum $\theta^*$ and a saddle $\theta^s$ determines the escape rate of SGD from the local minimum, contrary to the previous results borrowing from physics that the linear loss barrier $\Delta L=L(\theta^s)-L(\theta^*)$ decides the escape rate. Our escape-rate formula strongly depends on the typical magnitude $h^*$ and the number $n$ of the outlier eigenvalues of the Hessian. This result explains an empirical fact that SGD prefers flat minima with low effective dimensions, giving an insight into implicit biases of SGD.