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# Fully-Connected Network on Noncompact Symmetric Space and Ridgelet Transform based on Helgason-Fourier Analysis

*Proceedings of the 39th International Conference on Machine Learning*, PMLR 162:20405-20422, 2022.

#### Abstract

Neural network on Riemannian symmetric space such as hyperbolic space and the manifold of symmetric positive definite (SPD) matrices is an emerging subject of research in geometric deep learning. Based on the well-established framework of the Helgason-Fourier transform on the noncompact symmetric space, we present a fully-connected network and its associated ridgelet transform on the noncompact symmetric space, covering the hyperbolic neural network (HNN) and the SPDNet as special cases. The ridgelet transform is an analysis operator of a depth-2 continuous network spanned by neurons, namely, it maps an arbitrary given function to the weights of a network. Thanks to the coordinate-free reformulation, the role of nonlinear activation functions is revealed to be a wavelet function. Moreover, the reconstruction formula is applied to present a constructive proof of the universality of finite networks on symmetric spaces.