A Branch and Bound Framework for Stronger Adversarial Attacks of ReLU Networks
Proceedings of the 39th International Conference on Machine Learning, PMLR 162:26591-26604, 2022.
Strong adversarial attacks are important for evaluating the true robustness of deep neural networks. Most existing attacks search in the input space, e.g., using gradient descent, and may miss adversarial examples due to non-convexity. In this work, we systematically search adversarial examples in the activation space of ReLU networks to tackle hard instances where none of the existing adversarial attacks succeed. Unfortunately, searching the activation space typically relies on generic mixed integer programming (MIP) solvers and is limited to small networks and easy problem instances. To improve scalability and practicability, we use branch and bound (BaB) with specialized GPU-based bound propagation methods, and propose a top-down beam-search approach to quickly identify the subspace that may contain adversarial examples. Moreover, we build an adversarial candidates pool using cheap attacks to further assist the search in activation space via diving techniques and a bottom-up large neighborhood search. Our adversarial attack framework, BaB-Attack, opens up a new opportunity for designing novel adversarial attacks not limited to searching the input space, and enables us to borrow techniques from integer programming theory and neural network verification. In experiments, we can successfully generate adversarial examples when existing attacks on input space fail. Compared to off-the-shelf MIP solver based attacks that requires significant computations, we outperform in both success rates and efficiency.