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# Global Optimization Networks

*Proceedings of the 39th International Conference on Machine Learning*, PMLR 162:26927-26957, 2022.

#### Abstract

We consider the problem of estimating a good maximizer of a black-box function given noisy examples. We propose to fit a new type of function called a global optimization network (GON), defined as any composition of an invertible function and a unimodal function, whose unique global maximizer can be inferred in $\mathcal{O}(D)$ time, and used as the estimate. As an example way to construct GON functions, and interesting in its own right, we give new results for specifying multi-dimensional unimodal functions using lattice models with linear inequality constraints. We extend to

*conditional*GONs that find a global maximizer conditioned on specified inputs of other dimensions. Experiments show the GON maximizers are statistically significantly better predictions than those produced by convex fits, GPR, or DNNs, and form more reasonable predictions for real-world problems.