[edit]

# Neuro-symbolic entropy regularization

*Proceedings of the Thirty-Eighth Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence*, PMLR 180:43-53, 2022.

#### Abstract

In structured output prediction, the goal is to jointly predict several output variables that together encode a structured object – a path in a graph, an entity-relation triple, or an ordering of objects. Such a large output space makes learning hard and requires vast amounts of labeled data. Different approaches leverage alternate sources of supervision. One approach – entropy regularization – posits that decision boundaries should lie in low-probability regions. It extracts supervision from unlabeled examples, but remains agnostic to the structure of the output space. Conversely, neuro-symbolic approaches exploit the knowledge that not every prediction corresponds to a valid structure in the output space. Yet, they do not further restrict the learned output distribution.This paper introduces a framework that unifies both approaches. We propose a loss, neuro-symbolic entropy regularization, that encourages the model to confidently predict a valid object. It is obtained by restricting entropy regularization to the distribution over only the valid structures. This loss can be computed efficiently when the output constraint is expressed as a tractable logic circuit. Moreover, it seamlessly integrates with other neuro-symbolic losses that eliminate invalid predictions. We demonstrate the efficacy of our approach on a series of semi-supervised and fully-supervised structured-prediction experiments, where it leads to models whose predictions are more accurate as well as more likely to be valid.