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# Asymptotic optimality for active learning processes

*Proceedings of the Thirty-Eighth Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence*, PMLR 180:2342-2352, 2022.

#### Abstract

Active Learning (AL) aims to optimize basic learned model(s) iteratively by selecting and annotating unlabeled data samples that are deemed to best maximise the model performance with minimal required data. However, the learned model is easy to overfit due to the biased distribution (sampling bias and dataset shift) formed by non-uniform sampling used in AL. Considering AL as an iterative sequential optimization process, we first provide a perspective on AL in terms of statistical properties, i.e., asymptotic unbiasedness, consistency and asymptotic efficiency, with respect to basic estimators when the sample size (size of labeled set) becomes large, and in the limit as sample size tends to infinity. We then discuss how biases affect AL. Finally, we proposed a flexible AL framework that aims to mitigate the impact of bias in AL by minimizing generalization error and importance-weighted training loss simultaneously.