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# Open Problem: The Sample Complexity of Multi-Distribution Learning for VC Classes

*Proceedings of Thirty Sixth Conference on Learning Theory*, PMLR 195:5943-5949, 2023.

#### Abstract

Multi-distribution learning is a natural generalization of PAC learning to settings with multiple data distributions. There remains a significant gap between the known upper and lower bounds for PAC-learnable classes. In particular, though we understand the sample complexity of learning a VC dimension $d$ class on $k$ distributions to be $O(\epsilon^{-2} \ln(k) (d + k) + \min \{\epsilon^{-1} d k, \epsilon^{-4} \ln(k) d\})$, the best lower bound is $\Omega(\epsilon^{-2}(d + k \ln(k)))$. We discuss recent progress on this problem and some hurdles that are fundamental to the use of game dynamics in statistical learning.