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# Towards Empirical Process Theory for Vector-Valued Functions: Metric Entropy of Smooth Function Classes

*Proceedings of The 34th International Conference on Algorithmic Learning Theory*, PMLR 201:1216-1260, 2023.

#### Abstract

This paper provides some first steps in developing empirical process theory for functions taking values in a vector space. Our main results provide bounds on the entropy of classes of smooth functions taking values in a Hilbert space, by leveraging theory from differential calculus of vector-valued functions and fractal dimension theory of metric spaces. We demonstrate how these entropy bounds can be used to show the uniform law of large numbers and asymptotic equicontinuity of the function classes, and also apply it to statistical learning theory in which the output space is a Hilbert space. We conclude with a discussion on the extension of Rademacher complexities to vector-valued function classes.