Personalized Subgraph Federated Learning
Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Machine Learning, PMLR 202:1396-1415, 2023.
Subgraphs of a larger global graph may be distributed across multiple devices, and only locally accessible due to privacy restrictions, although there may be links between subgraphs. Recently proposed subgraph Federated Learning (FL) methods deal with those missing links across local subgraphs while distributively training Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) on them. However, they have overlooked the inevitable heterogeneity between subgraphs comprising different communities of a global graph, consequently collapsing the incompatible knowledge from local GNN models. To this end, we introduce a new subgraph FL problem, personalized subgraph FL, which focuses on the joint improvement of the interrelated local GNNs rather than learning a single global model, and propose a novel framework, FEDerated Personalized sUBgraph learning (FED-PUB), to tackle it. Since the server cannot access the subgraph in each client, FED-PUB utilizes functional embeddings of the local GNNs using random graphs as inputs to compute similarities between them, and use the similarities to perform weighted averaging for server-side aggregation. Further, it learns a personalized sparse mask at each client to select and update only the subgraph-relevant subset of the aggregated parameters. We validate our FED-PUB for its subgraph FL performance on six datasets, considering both non-overlapping and overlapping subgraphs, on which it significantly outperforms relevant baselines. Our code is available at https://github.com/JinheonBaek/FED-PUB.