Differentiable and Transportable Structure Learning
Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Machine Learning, PMLR 202:2206-2233, 2023.
Directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) encode a lot of information about a particular distribution in their structure. However, compute required to infer these structures is typically super-exponential in the number of variables, as inference requires a sweep of a combinatorially large space of potential structures. That is, until recent advances made it possible to search this space using a differentiable metric, drastically reducing search time. While this technique— named NOTEARS —is widely considered a seminal work in DAG-discovery, it concedes an important property in favour of differentiability: transportability. To be transportable, the structures discovered on one dataset must apply to another dataset from the same domain. We introduce D-Struct which recovers transportability in the discovered structures through a novel architecture and loss function while remaining fully differentiable. Because D-Struct remains differentiable, our method can be easily adopted in existing differentiable architectures, as was previously done with NOTEARS. In our experiments, we empirically validate D-Struct with respect to edge accuracy and structural Hamming distance in a variety of settings.