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# Not all Strongly Rayleigh Distributions Have Small Probabilistic Generating Circuits

*Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Machine Learning*, PMLR 202:2592-2602, 2023.

#### Abstract

Probabilistic modeling is a central task in machine learning. Probabilistic models should be tractable, i.e., allowing tractable probabilistic inference, but also efficient, i.e., being able to represent a large set of probability distributions. Zhang et al. (ICML 2021) recently proposed a new model, probabilistic generating circuits. They raised the question whether every strongly Rayleigh distribution can be efficiently represented by such circuits. We prove that this question has a negative answer, there are strongly Rayleigh distributions that cannot be represented by polynomial-sized probabilistic generating circuits, assuming a widely accepted complexity theoretic conjecture.